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From photograph I y G. C. Cox, 1896. 


I John Fletcher Hurst 

A Biography 




This noble ensample to his shepe he yaf 

That first he wrought and afterward he taught. 

— Chaucer. 


r\ » 


New York: EATON & MAINS 

Cincinnati : JENNINGS & GRAHAM 





R 1906 L 

Copyright, 1905, by 

jLYPJ-^ 5 ^ 1 ^ 



(Co £fti? Cttctbcr 


Daughter of Samuel Seabury and Harriet Flower Allen 

Born February 17,1 8T5" 

at Oak Hill, Greene County 

New York 

A woman of sound sense, of genuine piety, of broad intelligence and 
quick sympathy ; whose widowhood of 6fty years was passed in devoted 
affection for her eight children, their children, and their children's children, 
in serene trust in God, and in works of usefulness for a wide circle of friends; 
and whose peaceful evening came on August Z7, 1903, at Eaton Rapids, 
Michigan, where her precious dust awaits the resurrection of the just. 


ONE bright morning, not far from New Year's Day, 1901. 
while Bishop Hurst and the writer were engaged on 
the usual batch of mail and miscellaneous chit-chat on 
the work of the day, a restful pause in a long stretch of dicta- 
tion gave opportunity for a short stroll from his high desk 
around the sunlit study on the third floor of 1207 Connecticut 
Avenue. Picking up one of a lot of letters, put aside as those 
which could wait, he read it rapidly through. As he came to 
a passage similar to many others received, and referring to the 
story of his life as some time to be written, he turned half way 
around and, with a quizzical look out of the corners of his 
lustrous eyes and with a smile that softened the severity of 
the task imposed and relieved the somber suggestion of the 
possible close of his active career, but which sealed the commis- 
sion for this biography, said, " I expect I must look to you 
for that." 

Reluctance to think the time near when it would be proper 
to engage in a service so unwelcome gradually gave place to 
the conviction that the preparatory gathering and sifting of 
materials should be begun. This was already in progress when 
in September, 1901, his sickness in London gave unmistakable 
evidence of the approaching end. When to the personal re- 
quest of the Bishop was added, in the spring of 1902, that of 
his children of full age, the work was carried on with more 
vigor and in such time as could be found in the intervals of 
other necessary labors. 

After the decease of the Bishop the collection and classifica- 

vi A Word with the Reader 

tion of material went on more rapidly. The first or rough 
draft of the work, which contained the facts which the author 
considered worthy a place in a permanent record, was completed 
August 22, 1904; the second, a reduction of the first, on Sep- 
tember 17; and the third, a revision while passing through the 
press, on August 4. 1905. 

Many courtesies from Miss Helen Hurst, Mr. John La 
Monte Hurst, Dr. Carl Bailey Hurst, and Lieutenant Paul 
Hurst have facilitated the work, especially by the loan of sev- 
eral hundred letters written by their father and mother. The 
kind and helpful responses to requests for particular incidents, 
personalia, and estimates from scores of persons whose names 
in some instances, because of duplicated material, do not ap- 
pear in the book, are here most gratefully acknowledged. 
Without these helps the task would have been deprived of 
much of its sweetest pleasure. 

"Bishop Hurst's works will live; but besides these," says 
Dr. Charles S. Harrower, of New York, " we need fitting 
words and events set in their order and bearing, to make a life 
practical as well as admirable. One can scarcely recall such 
industry and carefulness, such affection and perseverance, such 
loyalty and deserved honors, without wishing very much to 
see it all set where honest and high-minded young men can 
see it and make a note of its lights and its clean ambitions." 

' Brother, draw a true picture, a Rembrandtesque portrait 
of Bishop Hurst," was the exhortation of Dr. G. E. Hiller, 
of Louisville, " so that all the lines of shade and light that 
belong to him will be there." A message from Dr. Samuel 
Macauley Jackson, " Make it autobiographic," reinforced and 
confirmed, midway in the labor, a purpose formed at the 
outset. The one canon whose observance has been sought 
throughout has been: Facts in proper setting tell their own 

A Word with the Reader vii 

The personal acquaintance between the subject and the 
author began in the summer of 1874, when the genial president 
of Drew showed the buildings and grounds to a young man 
who had visited Madison in order to help himself to decide 
where he should take his theological course, and dropped a few 
words of counsel into his ear and of encouragement into his 
heart. Through a three years' course we were brought not 
only into the contact of the classroom, but into special relations 
through some assistance, first in correspondence, and later in 
sundry minor literary tasks. These latter were continued after 
graduation, during fourteen years of pastorates in western 
New York, and the former were renewed when in 1885 Provi- 
dence brought the Bishop to Buffalo. With the increase of 
labors incident to the launching of the American University 
came the call of the chancellor to the writer, in 1 891, to render 
such aid as would leave him a free hand to work for the new 
and vast enterprise. From October, 1891, up to the moment 
of his last breath these relations grew in frequency of contact, 
in freedom of interc&urse, in mutual understanding, in large- 
ness of confidence, in intensity of affection. Fidelity to his 
expressed wish, admiration for his great gifts and high char- 
acter, and love for his noble and affectionate spirit, have 
wrestled with and overcome a sense of inadequacy to set in 
proper array and worthy proportions the many aspects of a 
personality so varied in its activities, so rich in its influence, 
so inwrought with the interests of the church, the country, 
and the race of the present age, and so full of promise of good 
to unborn millions. 

Washington, D. C, August 17, 1905. 




The Line: Parentage and Ancestry. — Samuel Hurst. — Eliza- 
beth Hurst. — Elijah Hurst. — Ann Catherine Colston I 


The Place : The Eastern Shore and " Old Dorset." — Cam- 
bridge 8 

The Boy : Schools, Sports, and Work 12 

The Youth : At Cambridge Academy 19 


Conversion 25 

The Young Man: The Collegian. — At Dickinson. — The Union 

Philosophical Society 27 


A Sophomore's Diary 31 


Close of His Sophomore Year 35 

The Collegian in Print. — A Moral Victory 37 

An Interim at Home 41 

A Junior at Carlisle 43 

A Senior's Journal 45 

Memory Cameos by Fellow Students 48 

x Contents 


The Teacher: At Greensboro, Maryland, and in the Catskills. 

— " The Mystic Nine." — A " White Horse " Incident 52 


The Lover: Catherine E. La Monte. — A Look toward Ger- 
many. — Studying German at Carlisle 59 

The Engagement Prolonged 64 

The Student-Traveler: A Landlubber's Log. — In Brunswick. 69 

On Foot in the Harz Mountains 74 

At Old Halle 77 

From Halle to Rome 83 

From Rome to Glasgow and Homeward 89 


The Itinerant: Two "Months of Busy Waiting. — Preaching 

" Cnder the Elder." — Headquarters at Mechanicsburg. ... 94 

The Pastor : At Irvington 103 

At Passaic 1 1~ 


At Elizabethport, Fulton Street 128 

At Elizabeth. Water Street 133 

At West Xew Brighton. Trinity Church 143 

The Teacher-Elect: The Call to Germany 14S 


The Author: His First Book (History of Rationalism) 152 

Contents xi 


The Brother Beloved: The Hearts of His Brethren 158 


The Teacher-Traveler: At Bremen and at Large 161 

At Frankfort-on-the-Main 170 

Trips in Europe and the East. — Escape from a Bomb in 
Rome 174 

The Father Bereft : The Discipline of Sorrow 183 


The Translator : The German Exegete. — The Swiss His- 
torian. — The Dutch Defender 188 

The Professor : At Drew 193 

The President : At Drew 198 

A Crisis, A Stand, A Victory 203 


The President-Professor : Vacation Glimpses 212 


The Delegate : His Address at Basel 220 

The Author (continued) : Writing at Drew. — Life and 
Literature in the Fatherland. — Outlines of Bible and 
Church History. — Launching of the Biblical and Theologi- 
cal Library with George R. Crooks 223 

The Delegate (continued) : Two General Conferences. — 

Elected Bishop 230 

The Bishop: At Des Moines. — 1880-1881. — Fifteen Confer- 
ences in Five Central States 235 

xii Contexts 


1882. Eleven Conferences. — East and West. — The Accident 
Insurance Man -'41 


[883-84. — Thirteen Conferences in Ten States, South, Cen- 
tral, and East. — Impress on Iowa 246 


1884-85. — Abroad. — Twelve Conferences in Eight Countries 
of Europe and Asia 251 

\ Bold Stretch of Faith and Authority 263 


1885-87. — At Buffalo. — Blanche's Death. — Fifteen Confer- 
ences in Eight States, East, Central, and South 268 

Official Tour of Mexico 274 

1887-88. — Ten Conferences in Seven States, West, East, and 
South. — Leaving Buffalo 279 

The Author (continued): Books of Two Quadrenniums 285 

The Bishop (continued) : 1888-90. — At Washington. — General 
Conference in New York. — Fourteen Conferences in Eight 
States, Northwest, East, Central, and South 290 

The Husband in Grief: Death of Catherine E. Hurst 296 

The Bishop (continued): 1890-91. — Two Trips Across the 
Atlantic. — Three Conferences in Maryland and New York. 
— The Second Ecumenical Conference 303 

[891-92. — At Washington. — Nine Conferences in Five States, 
South, East, and West. — General Conference at Omaha. . . 308 

Contents xiii 

Founder of the American University: Hunting for a Site. 
— Paying for the Site. — Indorsements by Friends of Edu- 
cation 3 12 

The Author (continued) : Culminating Literary Work. — At 

Washington. — Fourteen Years of Productiveness 322 


The Bishop (continued) : 1892-96. — At Washington. — Twenty- 
five Conferences in Fourteen States, West, Central, East, 
and South. — Funeral of Secretary Gresham 336 

1896-98. — At Washington. — Twenty-three Conferences in 
Sixteen States, Central, East, South, and West. — Many 
Addresses. — A Zoological Episode 34° 


1898-1901. — At Washington. — President McKinley's Friend- 
ship. — Nineteen Conferences in Eleven States, West, 
North, South, and East. — His Second Marriage 347 

The Bishop-Traveler: Eighth Trip to Europe. — Third Ecu- 
menical Conference. — The Break 355 

Aside Views and Touches: The Book-Lover and Antiquarian. 358 


The Hurst Collection. — Its Creation. — Its Contents. — Its 
Dispersal 3^5 

The Pedestrian 375 

The Guest 377 

The Preacher and Platform Speaker 381 

The Writer for the Press 3 8 4 

xiv Contents 


The Maker of Verse 389 

The Teacher and the Friend of Youth 393 

In Council, in the Chair, and in the Field 396 


The Scholar and the Christian Gentleman 399 


"Sunset and Evening Star:" Waning Health. — Final Sick- 
ness. — Sympathy of Colleagues. — The End 402 


The Obsequies: Addresses by Bishops Fowler and McCabe. — 

Memorial Services 408 

Tributes: Collective 417 


From the Press 420 


Personal Appreciations 425 

Bibliography 432 

Index 435 


Bishop Hurst (from Photo by G. C. Cox), 1S96 Frontispiece 


Birthplace of John Fletcher Hurst, Salem, Maryland 

(Clipping) 1 

" Piney Neck " or " Bonnie Brook " (Photo) 12 

" Weir Neck " (Photo) 41 

East College, Dickinson 45 

John F. and Catherine E. Hurst (Cut), 1S59 117 

Class of 1858, Newark Conference, 1862 (Photo) 158 

Bishop Hurst and General Clinton B. Fisk, 1870 174 

President Hurst, Drew (Photo) 198 

Facsimile— Four Lines 268 

Bishop Hurst (Cut), 1891 308 

Bishop Hurst (Photo), 1 896 322 

Facsimile — Our Immortals at Fourscore 389 

" Cedarcroft " (Photo) 402 



The Line 

Parentage and Ancestry. — Samuel Hurst. — Elizabeth Hurst. — Elijah Hurst. 

— Ann Catherine Colston 

WOHN FLETCHER HURST, the second child and only 
I son of Elijah and Ann Catherine (Colston) Hurst, was 
born August 17, 1834, in the two-story house still stand- 
ing near Salem, Dorchester County, Maryland, and died May 
4, 1903, at "Cedarcroft," the villa of Mr. Aldis B. Browne, in 
Bethesda, Montgomery County, of the same state. 

His paternal grandfather was Samuel Hurst, who was born 
in County Surrey, England, in 1764. and came to Maryland 
when he was about sixteen years old. His name appears as 
one of the fourteen "militia men" drafted from Dorchester 
County, listed in a letter of Henry Hooper, of date June 28. 
1781, to the governor, "to serve in the Continental Army until 
the 10th day of December next." He served in the second 
(Captain James Gray's) company, Third Maryland Regi- 
ment, as a private, from June to December, 1781 ; also in the 
Maryland Line, First Regiment, as a member of the sixth 
company until his honorable discharge at Fredericktown, No- 
vember 29, 1783. This military service was rendered when he 
was in his seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth years. He 

John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

was <ni the fighting line in the vicinity of Charleston, South 
Carolina, in several unimportant engagements, took part in the 

pre and battle of Yorktown. and witnessed the surrender of 
Lord Cornwallis. In 1787 there was awarded to him as a sol- 
dier a piece of land, No. 1.053 of 4,165 lots of fifty acres each, 
on reserved ground lying west of Fort Cumberland, then in 
Washington (now Garrett) County, Maryland, about one 
and a half miles from Deer Park. This property, lying near 
the summit of the Alleghanies, he seems never to have valued 
highly enough either to occupy, sell, or pay the taxes thereon, 
and the title thereto, as it appears, subsequently passed to 
other hands. 

A local tradition of trustworthy character is to the effect 
that, when Samuel Hurst came home on one of his furloughs 
as a Revolutionary soldier, his wardrobe was very much de- 
pleted. His friends and neighbors clubbed together and bought 
him a new suit of clothes, hat, shoes, and other adjuncts of 
outward respectability. So riddled by the fortunes of war was 
his old coat, and so begrimed with dust were his shirt and 
trousers, that, seeing the delegation approach with the gifts, 
he sought refuge in the water, and, having slowly receded 
until only his head appeared above the surface of Cavithey 
Willis's Creek, he shouted his gratitude and requested that the 
donation be placed on the banks to await a more favorable 
1 ipportunity for minute inspection. He died at the age of 
fifty-eight, October 26. 1822. He was a Methodist several 
years before his death. The dust of this honored soldier sleeps 
in the old cemetery at Cambridge. He owned a farm near 
Salem, and about thirteen years before his death he bought 
a tract of land on the west side of the stream named above, 
known later as Hurst's Creek, about four miles east of Cam- 
bridge, the county seat. This farm was called "Weir Neck," 
and by inheritance became the property of his eldest son, 

Samuel and Elijah Hurst 3 

Stephen Hurst, the father of John Edward Hurst, the wealthy 
and public-spirited merchant of Baltimore, whose death, early 
in 1904, occurred but a few weeks prior to the fire which orig- 
inated in his wholesale store on Hopkins Place and grew into 
the greatest conflagration recorded in the annals of the Monu- 
mental City. 

Samuel Hurst was married first in 1786 to Lavinia Little- 
ton, and the second time to Elizabeth Yardley in 1803. Of 
the first marriage were born Elizabeth, 1787, who married 
Thomas Wingate and died 1845; Stephen, born 1793, who 
died 1846; Christiana, born 1795, married Lewis Finney, 
died 1880; and Elijah. 1797, who died 1849. The fruit of 
the second union was five children, Samuel, Jr., 1804 (died 
1840) ; John, 1807 (died 1880) ; James, 1810 (died 1823) ; 
Henrietta Maria, 181 3 (married William H. Swiggett, died 
1847); and Emily, 1816 (died in childhood). 

Elijah Hurst, the second son of Samuel and Lavinia Hurst, 
soon after the death of his father came into possession of 
the Salem farm in 1824, and lived there until 1838. He was 
married first to Ann Catherine Colston in 183 1. Of this union 
were born three children, Sarah Lavinia, March 2 7,, 1833 
(died March 18, 1886) ; John Fletcher, August 17, 1834; and 
Ann E.. August 3, 1838 (died August 18, 1839). His sec- 
ond marriage was with Emily L. Travers, 1845, whose three 
children died in infancy. Elijah Hurst was an energetic and 
thrifty young farmer, of good habits, who identified himself 
with the Methodist Episcopal Church about 1828. Like his 
neighbors and probably by inheritance, he was a slaveholder, 
though the number of his slaves was never large. An inter- 
esting incident of his early Christian life is given by the Rev. 
Dr. John S. Porter in his semicentennial sermon before the 
Newark Conference in 1880, at its session in Paterson, New 
Jersey : 

4 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

In [830 I was sent to Dorchester Circuit, with Asa Smith as 
preacher in charge, who was as a father to me, and we had a pros- 
perous year. Dorchester Circuit was adjoining that I had just left, 
and some of the people here had heard me preach before I came 
among them, and had given me encouragement. Among those was a 
young man of genial spirit and social habits, who visited at one of 
our best homes, where the man of the house was a steward and class 
leader, but was accustomed to take as a beverage something stronger 
than cold water, and also gave it to his friends. This was known to 
my young friend, who was interested in the temperance movement, 
and, fearing for his neighbor and wishing to reform him, left a 
tract on the subject at his house. This tract was discovered one 
day, soon after I had left the premises, and it was thought the young 
preacher had left it. It was accordingly laid aside till he should 
return. When I came on my next round the good man produced the 
tract on temperance, and requested me to read it in the presence of 
the family during the evening hour. This was done, and the Lord 
made that little tract a special blessing. The dangerous practice was 
discontinued, and after I left the circuit that beloved brother wrote 
me one of the most grateful letters I ever received, expressing his 
obligations to me for having cured him of that evil practice. The 
last time I saw that excellent man was in 1840, in the city of Balti- 
more, when he fell on my neck and wept, repeating his sense of 
obligation. I knew not at first who had left the tract there, knowing 
only that I had not, and when informed of it by my young friend 
who had made the deposit it was not thought best to correct the 
existing impression. That young friend was Elijah Hurst, father 
of our esteemed Dr. Hurst. 

On the Salem Chapel Class book for 1831, "James Thomp- 
son, Leader," appear the names of Elijah and Ann Catherine 
Hurst, numbered 21 and 22 respectively, while numbers 30 
and 31 just below give us the names of the later distinguished 
citizen and governor, Thomas H. Hicks, and Ann Hicks, 
his wife. 

In 1838 Elijah purchased a farm of about two hundred and 
fifty acres on the east side of Hurst's Creek, almost directly 
opposite to the old homestead. "Weir Neck." To this farm 
was given the name "Piney Xeck" — a few years later changed 

Elijah and Ann Catherine Hurst 5 

to the euphonious "Bonnie Brook" — the boyhood home of John 
Fletcher. Thither he brought his family from Salem and 
thereafter worshiped in Cambridge. He served as local magis- 
trate for several years. 

Elijah Hurst was a liberal giver and of a humorous turn. 
His sense of humor was exhibited at the time Zion Methodist 
Episcopal Church at Cambridge was built. When the time 
came for furnishing the church Elijah was present at the meet- 
ing. After subscribing twenty-five dollars each for his chil- 
dren, Sallie and John, he hesitated about his own contribution. 
At this moment the preacher's eye caught sight of Farmer 
Thompson, who shouted so everyone could hear, "I'll give 
ten dollars more than Lije Hurst." "Make my subscription 
then two hundred dollars," exclaimed Elijah. Farmer Thomp- 
son was thunderstruck and handed over his two hundred and 
ten dollars with very reluctant grace. 

Not long before his death Elijah Hurst purchased "Weir 
Xeck" and left this farm to John Fletcher. He died August 4, 
1849, after a long and severe illness. He said on nearing his 
final hour, "Tell my friends I see my way clear to glory." 

Ann Catherine Colston, the mother of John Fletcher Hurst 
and the only child of Samuel and Rebecca (Catrup) Colston. 
of Talbot County, was born December 3, 1808. Samuel Col- 
ston was the son of Henry and Anne (Hopkins) Colston: 
Henry Colston was the son of James (2) and Alice (Orem) 
Colston; and James Colston (2) was the eldest son of James 
(1) and Elizabeth (Bayley) Colston, and lived at Ferry Neck, 
opposite Oxford. Talbot County; James Colston (1) lived in 
Saint Michael's Parish and purchased "Clay's Hope," two 
hundred acres on the north side of Choptank River, November 
15, 1664, and died in 1729. Henry Colston, second of that 
name, was born May 26, 1748, and died in 1824. He was 
the maternal great-grandfather of Bishop Hurst, and, like 

6 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

Samuel Hurst, served in the Maryland Line of the Continental 
Army during the Revolution. He was in February, 1776, first 
sergeant in the Heart of Oak company enlisted from Talbot 
( )i 'Uiity, and was recommended at that time by the county con- 
vention to the council for promotion to ensign, vice Pern- 
Benson, already promoted. 

Ann Catherine Colston was twenty-three years of age when 
she was married to Elijah Hurst and came to the Salem farm 
to live. She had been an exemplary member of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church since she was eighteen, having been received 
into the church by Rev. Levi Scott, later Bishop, during his 
first year as preacher on Talbot Circuit in 1826-27. The 
Salem home and later that at "Piney Neck,'" during the ten 
years of her married life, were always open for the entertain- 
ment of the itinerant preachers in their journeys, and particu- 
larly during the camp meetings at Ennalls Springs. She was a 
woman of refined intelligence and fervent piety. Her name in 
the community was a synonym for charity and good will. Of 
the early close of her life, in her thirty-fourth year, a beautiful 
account was written by John Hurst, half-brother of her hus- 
band. He says : 

She labored under several attacks of asthma, which caused her a 
great deal of uneasiness and suffering. . . . She asked her physi- 
cian, on his first visit, what was his opinion of her case, and said, 
'"Do not fear to alarm me, I am not afraid to die." Her husband 
approached her bed, and asked her if she saw her way clear for 
heaven. "Yes," she replied, "and I shall soon be gone." "Is this 
death?" she exclaimed. "I feel as one just awakened from a dream, 

' Not a cloud doth arise to darken my skies, 
Or hide for a moment my Lord from my eyes.' " 

Some time after, being supported by her pillows, she called her 
husband and her two children to her bedside, and, taking each by 
the hand, she said, "I shall meet vou in heaven. With me all is 

His Mother's Death 7 

well." After speaking of her class leader and some of her absent 
friends, to whom she wished to be remembered, her countenance 
assumed a heavenly paleness, and she closed her eyes in death. 

The day of her death, May 3, 1841, was ever a sacred one in 
the calendar of John Fletcher, then in his seventh year. The 
memory of his sainted mother, especially of her final good-bye, 
was ever a vivid one that impressed his heart and life. Its 
annual recurrence was always remembered and very frequently 
marked by some special note, even down to his later years. 

Dr. Edward M. Hardcastle, of Easton, Maryland, wrote to 
Bishop Hurst in 1899: 

I have a very vivid recollection of your mother. As a boy I spent 
much of my time at my Uncle Morris O. Colston's. She made a pet 
of me as a little fellow, and I loved her very much. She had such a 
gentle and lovely disposition. When at your house several years 
ago your daughter let me in, and I was struck with her striking 
resemblance to your mother. 

John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

The Place 

The Eastern Shore and "Old Dorset." — Cambridge 

The peninsula lying between the Chesapeake and the 
Atlantic is a very remarkable, if not an absolutely unique, 
formation in its configuration and physical aspects. Its 
northeastern quarter furnishes the habitat of the state of Dela- 
ware ; its southern part, like a narrowing nose, stretches out 
into Accomac and Northampton Counties of Virginia, ending 
sharply at Cape Charles ; and the northwestern and central 
portions form the famous region known as the Eastern Shore 
of Maryland, comprising nine rich counties. These begin with 
Cecil on the north ; Kent comes next : then Queen Anne, each 
reaching from the Chesapeake to Delaware; then Talbot, with 
Caroline stretching eastwardlv to the west line of Delaware: 
then Dorchester, occupying what might be called the subpenin- 
sula between the Choptank and Xanticoke Rivers, and Wico- 
mico on its east boundary, the most nearly inland of the nine; 
and lastly Somerset, bounded on the east by Worcester, which 
is washed on its eastern edge by the restless Atlantic. The 
northern part is diversified by some elevations above the low 
levels which mark the central and southern counties. 

The Eastern Shore lies, like an arm thrust up by the ocean, be- 
tween the Atlantic and the Chesapeake Bay; around it break the 
surge and thunder of the sea; and ocean's breezes sweep perpetually 
over it. It is a sandbar, but is something more; it is a garden and 
an orchard. Nature seemed unkind when she strewed this sand 
upon clay without stones; but she repented, clothed it all in verdure, 
made it yield almost every fruit, vegetable, and berry in profusion 
and of finest quality, filled even the swamps with cypress, cedar, and 

The Eastern Shore 9 

pine, stored the streams with fishes, filled the waters along the coasts 
with shellfish, crustaceans, and valuable finny creatures, sent flocks 
of birds into the fields and woods, and flights of wild fowl upon all 
the waters. 

The proportion of arable land is very high ; the soil is richly 
fertile and makes quick response to the hand of toil. The 
Chesapeake with its endless estuaries deeply indents the coast, 
while the adjacent waters are studded with islands of every 
shape. Very many of the farms have a water front making 
the use of canoes and small boats as common as that of the 
cart for transportation of products to market. 

Its climate is salubrious, free from the extreme cold of the 
northern latitudes and also of the inland regions of the same 
latitude, while it is also shielded in great measure from the 
parching heat of the summer by the breezes from ocean and 
bay. rendering the days quite tolerable, the nights cool, and 
the periods of high temperature very short. Maize grows here 
to perfection, and barley, oats, and rye are staple grains. 
Some wheat is found in the higher portions, but fruits and 
vegetables of every kind abound and are of prime quality. In 
the northern counties apples, apricots, cherries, peaches, pears, 
plums, and quinces are plentiful. Cantaloupes, watermelons, 
currants, blackberries, raspberries, strawberries, whortleberries, 
and cranberries find congenial home. 

The waters of the Chesapeake and its numberless inlets fur- 
nish a great variety of fish, such as the Spanish mackerel, bay 
trout, shad, bluefish, white perch, herring, rockfish, pike, 
pickerel, flounders, and others less prized, while the crabbing 
industry and sport go on almost unceasingly, these shell-bound 
creatures multiplying with astonishing rapidity and seeming 
to throw themselves into the hands of all who offer them 
animal bait of any kind. 

The oyster, too, here has its established haunts and finds its 

[o Joirx Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

rarest qualities, as well as its greatest size. Thousands of men 
■rain their livelihood afloat for seven months out of the twelve 
m oyster catching, not less than ten million bushels of the 
luscious bivalves being taken from their beds by scooping 
dredges and smaller tongs every year. Marvelous tales are 
told of the diminutive rarities named the '"Cherrystones" and 
the magnitude of the prices brought in foreign markets. Along 
the shore and in the marshy regions turtles and the famous 
and n<>\\- rare terrapin reward the hunter for table delicacies 
with an occasional diamond-back or other gustatory prizes. 
Wild fowl, including duck even to canvasbacks and redheads, 
woodcock, partridge, wild pigeons, and snipe are among the 
feathered inhabitants. Squirrels and rabbits are the chief 
specimens of four-footed game. 

Dorchester County received its name in honor of a personal 
friend of the Calverts, Earl Dorset. The Abaco Indians con- 
tinued to live peaceably in this region, large portions of which 
were purchased from them about 1669, by the authority of the 
colonial government under Lord Baltimore. Gradually the 
land was thus acquired from the natives without serious dis- 
turbance of public peace and safety, and a few Indians survived 
among the population even down to 1870. Dorchester's soil 
is in the north a sandy loam, while its other portions are mostly 
of clay. White and gray clay underlies all of its six hundred 
and ten square miles. Its central position on the Eastern Shore 
gives it a share in nearly or quite all the industries and products 
of the region. 

Cambridge, the county seat, is a charming town, of which 
Bayard Taylor's discriminating pen wrote, "It would be diffi- 
cult to find a more delightful little place than Cambridge." 
Founded in 1684. it gradually drew into its population from 
the diverse streams of immigration a large number of people 
of refinement and intelligence, whose homes and lives reflected 

Cambridge. Maryland i i 

much of the culture and conscience of the Old World. These 
elements in active operation created an atmosphere at once 
stimulating to the mind, promotive of calm dignity of manner, 
and productive of positive religious convictions. The fruits 
are seen in the growth and prosperity of both schools and 
churches, keeping pace with the expansion of the village into 
the town and of the town into the city. Not until 1868 was 
Cambridge connected with the railroad system of the country, 
the road to Seaford being built in that year. 

Of the Eastern Shore Bishop Hurst has himself written in 
his Introduction to Todd's Methodism of the Peninsula : 

Slavery planted itself here with a strong hand. Fred Douglass 
came from the Lloyd farm, whose broad acres were plowed by five 
hundred slaves. One of my earliest recollections, when living in 
Cambridge, was the Georgia-man, or slave trader, who sat in a 
splint-bottomed chair in the veranda of Bradshaw's hotel, and 
sunned himself, and waited for propositions from slave owners. 
We boys feared him as a hobgoblin. I saw him every morning, in 
the opening of the year, for it was at this time that he made his 
annual northward journey for business purposes. But the war of 
1861-65 put an end to all that. . . . The Methodist Episcopal 
Church has nowhere had a more difficult task to perform than here, 
and nowhere has it won more signal triumphs. Bishop Asbury was 
regarded as a Tory during the Revolutionary War, and was sheltered 
from danger by Judge White, of Delaware, who entertained him in 
his own house until the danger was over. The Methodists were 
considered a dangerous class of innovators, judged from any point 
of view. The old bricks can still be seen in Cambridge of which had 
been constructed the jail in which Freeborn Garrettson was once 
imprisoned for some irregular ministerial exercises. 

i2 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

The Boy 

Schools, Sports, and Work 

The marriage of Elijah Hurst and Ann Catherine Colston 
in March, 1831, had been blest two years later in the birth of 
their eldest child, Sarah Lavinia, who on October 31, 1854, 
became the wife of Dr. John F. Kurtz, and died in 1886, 
having survived her husband two years, and leaving six of 
her eleven children to mourn the loss of a most faithful and 
devoted mother. During the fourth summer of their wedded 
life, on the seventeenth of August, 1834, was born their only 
son, to whom their devout, if not prophetic, admiration of the 
talents and spirituality of the saintly man of Madeley led them 
to give the name of John Fletcher. It is currently reported to 
this day among those who were living near at the time that 
immediately after his birth he was carried by the nurse to the 
garret of the old farmhouse, and, when asked why she did it, 
she said, "I want him to become a high-minded man." 

The quiet days of his infancy and early boyhood to the age 
of four years were spent under the protecting roof and shady 
maples of the Salem home. The tender and loving ministra- 
tions of his mother, stronger in faith and mental powers than 
in body — for she suffered repeatedly from asthma — and the 
upright and vigorous example of his father, both parents lead- 
ing a positive Christian life, combined to give to his childhood 
a beautiful setting and development. The simple and hearty 
ways and open hospitality of that rural Maryland home were 
to be reflected in the simplicity, courage, and open-mindedness 
of the son who then brought joy and later great honor to both 

At School 13 

father and mother and elder sister. The removal to "Piney 
Xeck" in 1838, and the establishment of the family there on 
the east side of Hurst's Creek nearly opposite the old family 
homestead of " Weir Neck," were followed by the birth of a 
second daughter, August 3, 1838, who bore the name of her 
mother, but whose baby life went out a year afterward — bring- 
ing the first household grief to the father and mother, to the 
sister, little Sallie, six and a half years, and to John Fletcher, 
now five. 

For three brief years, broken by this sorrow and the ap- 
proaches of disease, his mother presided with grace and gentle- 
ness over the new home, and then passed to her eternal rest 
and crown. She left to her only boy the rich legacy of a 
mother's prayers. He carried with him to the end of life much 
of her disposition, temperament, manner, and resemblance in 
features. It is no wonder his pen formed a beautiful tribute 
to her when in mature life he wrote: "If there is anything 
immortal in this world it is a mother's prayer. Her face, by 
a spiritual photography, is graven in the soul." 

John Fletcher, who had learned at home to read and write, 
began to go to the common school in the little schoolhouse 
about a mile from his father's house, but adjoining a part of 
the ''Piney Xeck" farm. His first teacher in the frame school- 
house was William Mace ; others who followed were Richard 
Keene, Zechariah Linthicum, James Radcliff, and Dr. George 
Harmon — the last-named boarding with John's father. Soon 
after his mother's decease his father secured a Christian 
woman, named Mary Higgins, to care for his house and chil- 
dren. She gave her time and labor to these interests faithfully 
and intelligently for about four years. In 1845 Elijah Hurst 
was married to Miss Emily L. Travers, of Taylor's Island, a 
woman of Christian character, who took deep and kind interest 
in both Sallie and lohn, now in their thirteenth and twelfth 

14 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

years. Of her and the lad Judge L. T. Travers, of Taylor's 
Island, a relative, wrote in 1894: 

She was one of the most pious young ladies I ever knew, and was 
my Sunday school teacher. . . . When I first knew Bishop Hurst he 
was a very modest boy. about ten years old, attired in a plain brown 
linen suit, following closely by the side of his father at the church 
on Taylor's Island at the time when his father was paying attention 
to Miss Travers. I was but a youth then, myself, and it did not 
enter my tbought tbat he was to be a great man in the church and a 
bishop. Perhaps I did not think as I might of what may be the man- 
hood and history of a plain boy in rural life on a farm. 

Dr. Francis P. Phelps, of Cambridge, whose father owned 
the adjoining farm, used to go crabbing, duck-shooting, and 
fishing with him. On one occasion, when after ducks, John 
nearly met with a fatal accident. Both had ''blinds" on Hurst's 
Creek. The ducks being slow in their appearance. John climbed 
a tree to read a favorite history. He became so absorbed that 
he did not see the ducks coming until he was startled by a loud 
rep' >rt. Frank, not seeing John, had fired at the ducks straight 
into the tree. John tumbled down and Frank thought he had 
killed him. "Well." said John after his fright was over, "I 
finished the book :" "and I the ducks.'' concluded Frank. Some 
shoals near his father's farm, once famous as an Indian retreat, 
was a favorite place for John to pore over books on early 
American history. He frequently said that he was either going 
to teach or preach, and sometimes he would preach and pray in 
boy fashion at improvised meetings in an old storage building 
at "Weir Neck," where all the children of the neighborhood 
gathered for indoor games. Mr. James E. Sammons, of Wash- 
ington, D. C. who was a schoolmate, says that when the corner 
stone of Zion Methodist Episcopal Church in Cambridge was 
laid, in 1844, John deposited a coin and his name in the stone 
and told his mates tkat some day he would preach in that 

Eas'n Sho " Sports i 


On a certain crabbing excursion of six boys, including John 
and his two cousins. "Sammy" and White Hurst, about noon 
they were painfully conscious of the demand of the "inner boy" 
and decided "to work" old Farmer Billups for their dinner. 
This was their scheme : John with voice almost a whisper 
began, "These boys want some dinner." Sammy next took up 
the refrain a little louder, "These boys want some dinner." 
Then came White's turn, still in a crescendo, "These boys want 
some dinner." After six repetitions of this formula, each time 
with increasing emphasis, John's turn came again. He com- 
menced very seriously, but broke out in a hearty laugh before 
he had finished ; for every boy was watching Farmer Billups, 
who then woke up to the humor of the situation and treated 
the boys to a hearty dinner. 

The strong trend to study, reading, and to general excellence 
in the whole round of childhood duties was steadily manifest 
during his next six vears' attendance at the district school. His 
active sports and other mingling with boys of his own age are 
set forth with much zest and particularity in a description writ- 
ten by himself, and probably never before in print : 

Our Sports and What Boys Did ox the Easterx Shore 

In no respect was the life on the Eastern Shore more primitive or 
apart from the usual than in the sports which formed so large a 
share of the time and joy of "Eas'n Sho" boys. We must have 
followed in the wake of the sports of the Western Shore boys ; for as 
the weeks rolled around there were kites and tops and marbles and 
mumblepeg on our side of the bay as well as on the western. But 
there was no large place like Baltimore to give us toys. Our largest 
town in old Dorset was Cambridge, and in the forties few were the 
shops where playthings of any kind could be found. Then, as to a 
farmer's boy, he could not buy even those whose bright colors most 
fascinated. But playthings he had, and without the buying ! He 
made them himself. He was prince of the jackknife. Take bows 
and arrows. Far back in the forties the typical "Eas'n Sho" boy 
could go through a forest of miles of varied timber and tell every 

1 6 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

kind of wood or plant he saw. He knew just the age of hickory that 
furnished him the best bow, and what wood was best for his arrows. 
White oak would do for his bow, but not so well as a bit of hickory 
without a knot. The arrow needed something to fortify it for reach- 
ing a far-away mark. One of two things had to be done : point it 
with tin — though brass was better — or so cut the wood at the end 
that lead could be poured around it, thus making a firm and effective 
head. The most of us had arrows of various devices and soon 
learned which we could trust most fully. 

I doubt whether in Cambridge as far back as the forties there had 
ever been seen a kite which had come from the factory. We made 
all our own kites, and knew all the art. Newspapers were tougher 
then than now, and could well resist the wind. The wooden frame 
had to be thin and delicate, yet strong. We knew the best shape and 
size of the solid structure, and whenever it was ready, with a good 
tail and with the tow string which we knew how to twist from the 
flax, we soon had it soaring among its fellows far above forest and 

Even tops were sometimes made by the boys themselves. I re- 
member well a boy who made his own top and twisted his own string, 
but he long lacked the courage to spin it in the ring where the more 
sumptuous tops from the shop were humming with energy. The 
fashion was to plug another top. The top which could plug and 
split another while spinning came to high honor and was often sub- 
ject to barter or sale. One day the timid boy, with the top which 
his own deft fingers had made, gained courage enough to spin his 
top in the big ring and by a good stroke plugged one of the stylish 
tops from the shop. Immediately the fortunate boy was approached 
by another who traded with him his top from the factory for the 
more homely one which the jackknife had made. 

At the schoolhouse on the roadside, in Dorchester County, which I 
first attended, there was no more thought of a ball from a store than 
of the Trojan horse. India rubber was just coming into use, and 
the first shoes of that material down on the Eastern Shore were 
without any crude stuff. A worn-out rubber was cut into one or 
more long strings and, by stretching well in the winding, these were 
wound into a ball. To bring it into full size woolen yarn was 
wound upon the india rubber. 

I made my own lead pencils by melting shot and running the metal 
into a little groove in the ground of the length I wanted the pencil. 
My first top I made of a piece of solid pine, while the plug or 
spindle I made by a laborious use of a file on a wrought iron nail. 

Birds and Books 17 

All my kites I made with my own hand. I made all my bird traps, 
and knew how to so set them as to entrap the unwary. But I must 
here confess I never caught a thoroughly good mocking bird in one 
of them — but, if any mocking bird at all, only the poor French 
variety. These traps we would suspend in a tree and disguise them 
skillfully. There was another class of birds which spent their time 
on the ground. The cage to catch them was made of slats, like a 
trap, all covered with leaves to appear to be a part of the ground. 
Lucky the partridge not beguiled with one of the brown traps which 
the "Eas'n Sho" boy knew so well how to devise. For squirrels we 
despised the modern way of shooting. Indeed, happy the boy who 
had an old-time flint gun, for all over the Eastern Shore they still 
existed. But happier still was he who had a double-barreled gun. I 
had one of the latter which was the admired of all the boys who on 
Saturdays roamed over the fields of "Piney Neck." This I used 
long before I was able to hold it off at arm's length. But no matter 
for that, Black Tom was my unfailing company. When aiming at 
catbirds, or snipe, or, I am sorry to say, even robins, I would rest 
the gun on Tom's shoulder and fire both barrels at once. But Tom 
had his turn and fired with equal danger and haphazard disposition. 
The wonder is that somebody's ears were not deafened for life or 
his head blown off. The game, such as it was. was common to us 
both, and Tom knew just what kind of a withe to make to bear it 

Fishing nets the farmers' boys were always skillful in knitting, 
and we all knew that the heart of cedar or a bit of hickory furnished 
the best material for making the needle — not a straight one but a 
kind of flat rod which required a deft use of the knife. The in- 
ventive faculty of the typical boy was so far developed that he could 
plait his own straw hat, knit his own woolen gloves, ride a horse 
without a saddle and with only a halter for a bridle, cover his own 
ball, made of yarn, with leather as neatly sewn as any now to be 
found in the window of a toy store. 

At the end of the above penciled lines are some notes in- 
tended for future elaboration, and each reader is invited to 
make free use of his own imagination in developing such as 
"Pike's Arithmetic," "Jones's Arithmetic," "Very hard books," 
as bearing on the mathematical evolution of the lad; "Plu- 
tarch's Lives," as a vestibule to the biographic, historical, and 

i8 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

classic studies of later decades ; "otter, muskrats, rabbits, squir- 
rels, ducks," as the game on which the future hunter for ancient 
treasures practiced with trap and gun ; "ink, suspenders, shoes 
from skins — made by boys." as the foregleams of the writer, 
the supporter of men and institutions, and the teacher of those 
whose feet should be clothed with the sandals of the gospel. 
In a final notation lurks the possibility of a school-day comedy, 
with certain elements approaching the tragic, for we read mis- 
chief in every dash of the trio of words, "Lizards — stove — 
recess," and can almost hear the cry of the punished — whether 
guilty or innocent — in which our John Fletcher figures as prob- 
ably only a sympathetic on-looker. 

The Youth 19 

The Youth 

At Cambridge Academy 

It was a long step in the progress of the boy when, about the 
beginning of his eleventh year, he entered the Cambridge 
Academy, a private institution which had won a good public 
standing for secondary education and the preparation of young 
men for college. Three of his teachers here during the five or 
six years of his attendance were Gardner Bailey, James W. 
Conner, and William Campbell. His studies at first were the 
common English branches, through the usual gradations of 
grammar, with composition, and of mathematics from arith- 
metic to algebra and geometry, with Latin and Greek during 
the last two or three years. 

His daily trips from "Piney Neck" to Cambridge in the 
morning, and return in the afternoon, during the terms of 
school, were made sometimes on foot and sometimes on horse- 
back. These equestrian journeys were made, when he could 
have his choice, astride "Major," a favorite sorrel pony. At 
first this ride was a bareback performance, no saddle to fit the 
pony being at hand. At length John's longing for a saddle led 
him to appeal to his father for one. His father took kindly to 
the request, but required as a shrewd and happy condition that 
John should commit to memory a certain hymn, then and now 
in frequent use. The lad was eager to acquire a saddle "for a 
song." but met his father's good bargain with a counter propo- 
sition that the saddle be given him immediately and the hymn 
learned afterward. To this his father gave consent, saying, 
"I will trust you to keep your word." The saddle was bought, 

20 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

the promise was kept, and the hymn thoroughly imbedded in 
the tenacious memory of the young student. The selection 
made by his father was John Cennick's "Children of the heav- 
enly King," and peculiarly appropriate for the schoolboy 
mounted for his four-mile ride was the second line, " As ye 
journey, sweetly sing." Through storm and sunshine the itin- 
erant youth lived the spirit of that hymn down to life's latest 
hour as one who from his heart of hearts believed and knew 


"Jesus Christ, our Father's Son, 
Bids us undismayed go on." 

Many a day, however, did John make the daily round on foot, 
trudging cheerfully with his books and luncheon the entire dis- 
tance, except when good fortune overtook him in the chance to 
ride a part of the way. While a boy, and until he was sixteen, 
he suffered at times from severe attacks of asthma or phthisic, 
as it was then called. The struggle for breath sometimes seized 
him so violently while on the road between home and academy 
that he was obliged to throw himself upon the ground for a time 
until he could regain sufficient breath and strength to go on ; 
but he always went on. 

He was while in boyhood possessed of an even temper, not 
easy to take offense, and ready to make up in case of minor 
differences of feeling whenever they occurred. He had one 
physical encounter with a boy named Vaughn, who played the 
part of a bully so often and so meanly that a spirited collision 
one day surprised the bully into a sudden meekness and a 
quiet that was never again broken so far as John was con- 
cerned. His tormentor sought new victims from that day. 

His complexion was fair and ruddy ; his hair very light ; his 
form well rounded and of good proportions, a trifle under 
average size. His posture was upright, save a slight inclina- 
tion of his head forward and a droop of shoulders, due to his 

At the Watering Trough 21 

asthma and its distressing shortness of breath. This forward 
bend of his neck, suggestive of Alexander von Humboldt's 
poise of head, clung to him all through his life, confirmed or 
perhaps a trifle increased by his studious habits and heavy 
literary labors, but was by no means altogether the "scholar's 
stoop," for his usual posture in study and writing in mature 
life was standing at a high desk hour after hour and day after 
day, as he plodded through a hundred tasks. 

When John was in his early teens the question arose in his 
father's mind, and in his own as well, whether he should 
become and remain a farmer, or go on with his work at school 
and enter some path that should properly follow an advanced 
education. Being the only son, he was naturally expected to 
follow his father as proprietor of the farm. The conflict 
between the natural bent of the boy toward learning and the 
paternal desire to keep him near came to a crisis one bright 
summer day when John was about fourteen. His father sent 
him to water the horses, several in the herd ; and the water was 
at some distance from the barn. John had a book in his hand. 
He rode one horse and the others followed. At the watering 
place he found it convenient to slip from the horse's back to 
the trough, as many a boy does, when the height of the trough 
makes the descent easy. The boy found an easy place to sit, 
opened his book for a draught from its depths, became ab- 
sorbed, forgot all about the horses, and, when they had disap- 
peared from view, slowly returned to the house, too keenly 
conscious of the situation for his own comfort, and wondering 
what his disappointed father would say to him. His father 
spoke the word which opened the way for the son's whole 
career: "John, there is no use of you staying around here. 
You will never make a farmer. Pack your trunk and go to 
school." The delighted youth obeyed his father, and began 
boarding at Cambridge in the family of Captain Shadrach 

22 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

Mitchell. This arrangement gave him more time for the 
severer studies which marked the last two years at the 
Academy, and were in the direct line of preparation for college. 
At this time he came under the instruction of William 
Campbell, who had come into the institution at the beginning 
of 1848. This cultured Irishman was a splendid instructor, 
and subjected the young student, "in common with his school- 
mates," as a written report sent to his father for January, 1848, 
declares, "to a searching examination." This report goes on 
to say also : 

Having himself been convinced of his deficiency in most branches, 
he deserves my warmest commendation for having resolutely com- 
menced the work of improvement. Much could not be done in one 
month, but he has manifested the desire to profit by instruction, and 
has been laying the sure foundation for solid improvement. His 
capabilities are such as, if aided by persevering attention, will secure 
the most satisfactory results. In his Latin studies there has been 
already much improvement. In other exercises he has maintained a 
fair position, with the exception of geometry, in which I cannot say 
that he has given me satisfaction. His conduct has been uniformly 

This record of four weeks under the stimulus of a new and 
master teacher is an index of the growing love of the young 
student for language and letters, a fair enjoyment in other 
departments of knowledge, with an indifferent and perhaps 
waning interest in the science of surfaces, angles, and magni- 

His good offices as a peacemaker found opportunity one day 
when Frank Phelps and some other boys of the school toiled 
successfully at the task of leading, pulling, and lifting a goodly 
sized calf into one of the rooms of the second story of the old 
Academy. John did not actually join in the sport, but stood 
outside. When he saw the master coming he was convulsed 
with laughter at the interesting juncture. From John the 

His Uncle John 23 

teacher learned what was going on, but the rising tide of 
wrathful feeling in the breast of the stern disciplinarian was 
stemmed by the infectious merriment of the witness, and was 
itself turned into a laughing fit which soon spread among all 
the teachers and gave the offenders immediate and full for- 
giveness for their mischievous pranks. 

The death of his father, Elijah Hurst, in August, 1849, left 
John, now fully orphaned, to the guardianship of his uncle, 
John Hurst, who responded nobly to the important trust thus 
committed to him by his elder half-brother. John Hurst was 
at that time a successful merchant in Baltimore in partnership 
with General John S. Berry. His interest in his nephew never 
lagged, but was active and helpful at many points in his career, 
and frequently showed itself in friendly advice and opinion 
concerning the young man's methods and plans, usually in ap- 
proval, but sometimes suggesting important changes. 

As early as 1849, his thoughts of going to college assumed 
shape definite enough for him to write this letter from Cam- 
bridge to the president of Dickinson, on the fifth of December: 

Dear Sir: Having seen a catalogue of Dickinson College, I have 
concluded to go, provided I can get a room in the College or else- 
where. Master Bowdle wrote that there were only two or three 
rooms vacant, and I thought that it would be well for me to write to 
you to reserve me one if they are not occupied before you receive 
this letter. It is doubtful whether I shall be there or not before 
Christmas, which caused me to write, thinking that fresh students 
may come and that you would reserve me a room from the time that 
you receive this, as there is no doubt at present about my coming. 
If there cannot be a room left for me I would like to get a place in 
some private family, and you would confer a favor upon me if you 
would bespeak me one. I would be gratified to receive an answer 
to this, that I may know what course to pursue. 

Yours with respect, John F. Hurst. 

The Master Bowdle whose letter is mentioned above was a 
Maryland boy acquaintance already at Carlisle, whose corre- 

24 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

spondence had evidently stimulated young Hurst to this rather 
sudden, and as it proved premature, application for a room ; 
for he remained at Cambridge until the following summer in 
earnest and successful prosecution of his studies. During the 
year 1849 he began, as a side exercise to his literary reading, 
the copying, into a book, of passages which struck his fancy 
as possessing special value. The entries in this book were 
completed in 1850 at Carlisle. The wide range of his reading 
and the high taste of his sixteenth year appear in extracts from 
Horace, Virgil, Cicero, Ovid, Ouintilian, Sallust, and Seneca, 
in Latin ; while the English quotations embrace Milton, Pollok 
(Course of Time, many), Thomson's Seasons, Irving's Tales 
of a Traveler and Bracebridge Hall, Hume, Robespierre, Kirke 
White, Milman, Shakespeare, Ben Jonson, Daniel, Young, 
Pope, Sam Johnson, Howard, Addison, Cowley, Baillie, 
Dryden, Franklin, Moore, Samuel Butler, Byron, Rogers, and 

He received and accepted an invitation to deliver the public 
address in Cambridge on the Fourth of July, 1850, and ac- 
quitted himself with honor before a large audience. His con- 
nection with Cambridge Academy ceased about the same time 
with the departure of his esteemed teacher in July, 1850, when 
Mr. Campbell said in a letter of appreciation and suggestion 
to Mr. John Hurst, the guardian of his promising pupil : 

John has been my pupil since my appointment to the Academy, 
January, 1848, and during all that time he has invariably given me 
satisfaction and cause for pride. His conduct has been uniformly 
excellent, his industry ceaseless, and his improvement rapid and at 
the same time sound. His abilities I consider to be of a high order, 
and, coupled with his untiring perseverance, good judgment, and 
good principles, they afford the fairest promise of a manhood of 
usefulness and honorable distinction. I am satisfied that in any 
business or profession his excellent sense and his principles would 
secure him a highly respectable position ; but it seems to me that his 
talents and habits fit him especially for the study of the law. . . . 

His Conversion 25 

However far I may be separated from him in his future life, I 
cannot cease to feel a lively interest in his welfare, nor can I deny 
myself the hope that his abilities, rightly directed, will, under 
Providence, render him a pride to his friends, a distinguished, a 
useful, and a good man. 


The child of many prayers, and the youth who doubtless 
kept up the childhood habit of secret prayer when mother and 
father had been taken from him and home had thereby been 
robbed of much of its meaning except as a hallowed memory, 
it was an altogether reasonable expectation on the part of his 
friends that he should in keeping with the example and pre- 
cept of his parents, a "pious pair," enter into an open espousal 
of the cause and profession of the faith of Jesus Christ, as his 
personal Saviour and the world's Redeemer. This expectation 
became a reality during his sixteenth year. How earnestly and 
happily he took this step let his love-feast testimony at the 
Northwest Indiana Conference in Brazil in 1889, recorded in 
the Western Christian Advocate, tell : 

I have been trying to serve God now ever since the year 1850. I 
had no parents — they had gone home to heaven — and I was among 
strangers. My mother died before I was seven years old, so that I 
don't remember her face fully — just a mere outline. I think I shall 
know it; I think I shall recognize it when the fight is over, and 
when the happy meetings come, never to separate. My father was a 
Christian man, and he died when I was fourteen. I was going home 
from a little debating society, pretty late at night, and, on the other 
side of the street, as I was going toward my boarding place, I heard 
them singing in the Methodist church. With me was a young school 
companion, who afterward entered the ministry. We went over and 
went into the meeting, and crowded pretty well up to the front. The 
minister saw us, and came down and spoke to me, and asked me if I 

26 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

didn't want to go to heaven. We both went to the altar, time after 
time, meeting after meeting. I was seeking light all the time, trying 
to do something, trying to perform some obligation, trying to under- 
stand him, and when I came to see that I could not understand any- 
thing, could not do anything, he gave me light. One night, going 
home from church, I remember that a change came over me ; a light 
broke out before me : there was a little river in the distance, and it 
seemed to shine like silver; I didn't know what it all was; I thought 
it was some sudden glow of good feeling. I went to my room full 
of joy, and then the Lord revealed to me. "You have a new heart!" 
The Lord had given it to me ; there was no consciousness of sin. I 
felt, like Pilgrim, that the burden had fallen from my shoulders. I 
could now see it, because I had gotten to the foot of the cross, and I 
have been trying to serve the Lord ever since. I have been thankful 
to him that the change was so sudden, so striking; that I have, been 
able to look back upon it as the hour when God, for Christ's sake, 
spoke peace to my soul. 

A mention of the preacher who helped him into the king- 
dom, and of his fellow student and seeker after God, is 
made in a beautiful and grateful tribute which he wrote in 
1894, to the memory of the Rev. James A. Brindle, and 
which was published in the Peninsula Methodist : 

In the year of 1849-50, Rev. Henry Colclazer and Rev. James A. 
Brindle were preachers on Cambridge Circuit, Snow Hill District, 
Philadelphia Conference. During the winter there was a very ex- 
tensive revival in the town of Cambridge. . . . My friend was Douglas 
Dashiell, who afterward became an honored minister in the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church, South. His field of labor was in Texas. 
Brother Brindle was as truly a man of God as anyone whom I 
have ever known. His life was one of rare consecration. Every- 
thing he touched was with a master hand. His calm and patient 
manner, his gentleness and sympathy, and his devout life made a 
profound impression upon me. He was very far from ostentatious, 
courteous in language, but of desperate and quiet energy. 

John Fletcher Hurst bought his first Discipline from his 
pastor James A. Brindle, and his first class leader was James 
Bryan, of Cambridge. 

At Dickinson College 27 

The Young Man 

The Collegian. — At Dickinson. — The Union Philosophical Society 

The composition of a Sophomore friend read during his 
Cambridge life first awakened John F. Hurst's desire to go to 
college. In his address at the funeral of Bishop Jesse T. Peck, 
in 1883, Bishop Hurst made a profound impression by his 
tribute to this friend of his youth, and thus refers to the influ- 
ence of that educator in turning him toward Dickinson : 

My mind goes back from this hour many years, over the chasm of 
a generation, thirty-three years. Away down in the south of Mary- 
land, on the eastern shore of the Chesapeake, when attending a 
camp meeting I was told that the president of Dickinson College was 
to preach on a certain day. Such a sermon was seldom heard in 
that peninsula. Some one had said "college" to me a few times 
before this, and I had thought of seeking a college education, but 
this seemed well-nigh impossible. I remember that a kind minister 
brought me to the preacher of the afternoon. I told him something 
about going to college. Said he, "Don't trouble yourself. Go home 
and wait until the opening of the term and then you take the stage 
across by York and come there and I will meet you and we will live 
happily together." And for two years I was a student there under 
him. When Dr. Collins succeeded him I remained two years; but 
no tender heart ever beat more keenly in sympathy with the student 
than his. The friend of schools from the Atlantic to the Pacific ! 
So I think of him as a man who took a boy by the hand, and ever 
since the memories of the man have been precious. 

The kind preacher who introduced the shrinking youth to the 
college president was none other than the Rev. Dr. Robert H. 
Pattison, father of the ex-governor of Pennsylvania, the late 
Hon. Robert E. Pattison. 

Among the thirty-six names enrolled as Freshmen at Dickin- 

2S John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

son College in September, 1850, was that of John Fletcher 
Hurst. The catalogue for 1849-50 indicates the standard of 
the young student's preparation: 

Candidates for Freshman class must be well acquainted with 
Arithmetic; Davies's First Lessons in Algebra; Geography; Outlines 
of Ancient and Modern History; the English, Latin, and Greek Gram- 
mars (McClintock and Crooks's First Books in Latin and Greek) ; 
Caesar's Commentaries (two books) ; Virgil's ^ineid (five books) ; 
Xenophon's Anabasis (two books) ; Roman Antiquities and My- 
thology; Greek Reader and the Historical Books of the New 

He was assigned to 48 West College with William J. Bowdle, 
of Church Creek, Maryland, as .roommate. The change of 
scene from the blending of water and land about the inlets and 
necks of the Eastern Shore to the region of the Blue Ridge was 
a signal one for the youth of sixteen, and seems to have greatly 
benefited his health in a nearly total relief from the asthma. 
Upon his entrance into the new and strange scenes of college 
life he received and ever afterward treasured this letter from 
his pastor at Cambridge, sent with his certificate of church 
membership, and dated September 17: 

Dear Brother John: I trust you are pleased with your new 
location and situation. You cannot expect to find everything as you 
may wish or desire. You may well suffer some privations in order 
to secure that one thing so much desired, a good education, and so 
necessary to make you useful in either church or state. Doubtless 
you will be exposed to temptations notwithstanding the religious 
example you have set before you in the officers in the Institute; 
therefore it will be absolutely important for you to both watch and 
pray that you enter not into temptation. Remember the Eye of God 
is upon you and his Ear is open to your prayer; his Arm is able to 
Mipport you. and nothing shall harm you whilst you are a follower 
of that which is good. Remember your classmates pray for you and 
Jesus prays for you, and the Holy Spirit makes intercession for you 
with groanings which cannot be uttered. Choose those for your 
companions who, like yourself, are striving to save their souls. If 

Union Philosophical Society 29 

you cannot find such, you had better hold yourself aloof from them 
all; only treat them with kindness and show to all around you have 
been with Jesus. But I trust you will find some who will take you 
by the hand and assist you upon your heavenly journey. I am sure 
we shall miss you very much in our class room, for you deserve 
much credit for your strict attendance. I hope you will not slacken 
the reins of duty, though you may be a stranger in a strange place. 
And again, my dear young brother, let nothing draw or drive you 
from your secret devotions. However much we may think of learn- 
ing, we should not give up our closet devotion to obtain it. Converse 
with your Father in heaven. Pour out your heart to him, and. 
although your father and mother have gone to glory before you, the 
Lord will take you up. And another duty I wish to enforce is that 
of reading, yea, searching the Scriptures regularly, frequently, 
prayerfully, and I have not the shadow of a doubt upon my mind the 
Lord will make a useful man of you, both in the church and in the 
world. Join the church as soon as convenient, and be faithful to 
attend all her ordinances. May God bless you more and more and 
save you with the power of an endless life. So prays your brother 
in Christ, James A. Brindle. 

I wish you to write me soon. Open your heart to one who feels 
the deepest interest in your spiritual and eternal welfare. 

J. A. B. 

Two large societies, with literary and social features, em- 
braced nearly the whole body of students, and were rivals in se- 
curing members and in the public debates and exhibitions which 
marked every school year. In October young Hurst was voted 
in as a member of the Union Philosophical Society, and threw 
his energy into its interests as distinguished from those of the 
" Belles-Lettres." The records of the Society show that he was 
a faithful member of the organization and prominent in its 
work. In his first year he was elected assistant librarian, later 
became librarian, and still later was elected censor. In the two 
succeeding years he filled the office of secretary and treasurer. 
Especially does his name stand prominent on the records as an 
essay writer and debater. He was evidently a great reader, for 
the librarian's books from 1850 to 1853 snow many books 

3<d John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

charged to his name. He took part in a very animated debate 
in which the whole society participated, on the question, "Re- 
solved, That the interests of the United States would be con- 
served by the abolition of slavery." He was on the affirmative, 
and his side won, though there were many Southerners in the 
society, Dickinson drawing many from the South. 

Among the literary addresses which he made in chapel was 
one on "The Influence of Music," delivered May 6, 1854. 
"The Beauties of National Art" was given at the sixty-fifth 
anniversary of the Union Philosophical, July 11, 1854, two 
days before his graduation. From the former, on which is 
indorsed "plenty of ladies present," we select a few sentences 
on a theme which, so well treated in his college days and so 
assiduously cultivated in his first pastorate, seems to have lost 
its attraction for him in his maturer life : 

From the time when the morning stars first sang together, it has 
been powerful enough to unite the tastes of man to ennobling ob- 
jects, no less than to calm the convulsions of him who writhes 
beneath the throes of malignant passions. Even though it adds new 
pleasures to the achievements of the past, and fresh hopes for the 
future, it does not lose sight of its mission when the hand of ad- 
versity casts a blight upon the spirits. The harp which had often 
cheered the heart of the Hebrew King did not hang mute upon his 
palace walls when his rebellious son had fallen a victim to his un- 
feeling nature. . . . Like the fabled tent of the Arabians, music 
can so expand and contract its folds as to adapt itself to any climate 
or to any order of society. The experience of ages has proved that 
Mars is no less a skillful musician than Apollo. If some "Auld 
Lang Syne" can place us amid the cherished scenes of youth, and 
retrace the most pleasing memories of early days, martial music 
leads every heart a willing captive to its charms. When France 
needed an incentive to resist the corrupt rule of her Bourbon king, 
the Marseillaise converted an army of royalists into the warmest 
supporters of republicanism. . . . But music was never made to 
subserve the unholy purposes of misanthropy or melancholy. On 
the contrary, if all the romantic attachments in ancient or in modern 
times were traced from their origin to their consummation, there 

A Sophomore 31 

would be found as many instances of love at first sound as of "love 
at first sight." 

His oration on "The Beauties of National Art," after a glow- 
ing appreciation of Oriental and European art of ancient and 
classic times, closes in a strain of prophecy for his own loved 

When national art shall enjoy a more extended rule, its beauties 
will brighten up the dark caverns and gild the rugged mountain 
peaks of the Western continent. Our own Washington will become 
another Rome without its vices ; our own rotunda will become 
another Forum whose paintings and statues shall witness no political 
convulsions, but shall bind the heart of every citizen to the interests 
of his country. Our blue Potomac will become the Tiber of America, 
with no pagan associations, whose banks shall be studded with monu- 
ments erected to the memory of her honored sons. It will then be 
left for future years to found a tower which shall not cause a new 
confusion of tongues, but which shall witness the union of the jarring 
interests of the world, and, while reflecting the glories of the rising 
and the setting sun upon a race of freemen, the nations of the earth 
shall crown its capital with the laurel wreaths of victory and honor. 

A Sophomore's Diary 

The phases of his social, intellectual, moral, and religious life 
while in college are clearly reflected in sundry passages from his 
diary, which bears the heading 


Carlisle, Pa. 

1852 No. 20 East College 

Sunday, April II. — Having formerly kept a "Diary," I concluded 

that it was too much of a "bore," and for that reason gave it up. It 

has become fashionable, however, to keep a diary, and, prejudging 

32 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

that it will be useful as well as entertaining, in after life, to read 
some of my Journal, I have finally concluded to resume the task. 
My desire is to keep an exact account of my religions experience, 
and to state my daily progress and retrogression in religious and 
mental culture. 

Surely a student's life is one of change, sometimes agreeable and 
sometimes otherwise, yet altogether I think there is a vast deal of 
enjoyment, perhaps more than will counterbalance all of the un- 
pleasantness. To-day is rainy, and of all the days calculated to 
generate the "blues" I do think that "rainy Sundays" surpass. Yet 
we console ourselves with the thought that Providence knows better 
than we do, and it is all for the best. I heard Mr. Peck, of the 
Senior Class, preach; his text was concerning the "grain of mustard 
seed," meaning the obscurity of the church and her gradual increase 
down to the present time. I expected a better one than I did hear, 
yet he is young and has time (if he live) for improvement. I did 
not enjoy myself very much in the afternoon and evening. It was 
because I was engaged too much in secular conversation. I heard 
the Rev. Dr. Wickes (our pastor) preach at night; the sermon was a 
continuation of a former one. I went to sleep, as usual, at night. I 
have often tried to rid myself of such an unenviable custom. I was 
afterward told that the sermon was an excellent one. Immediately 
before the Doctor commenced, the choir sang the "Easter Anthem." 
It brought back to my mind the many times my father has sung it to 
me. Indeed, I felt like shedding tears over my departed parent. 
May the time never come when my thoughts will not go back to 
earlier years, when a kind father and an indulgent mother were 
almost the sole objects of my affections. 

12. — Rose at five and commenced my daily studies. Didn't study 
much at night, because I was invited downtown to take some ice 
cream with some of my fellow students; didn't enjoy myself much 
because there was too much joviality. The most of the students 
were members of the church. Two backsliders went to a hotel and 
partook of the unnecessary. This was very unpleasant to the rest 
of the party. 

13. — Rose at four o'clock and felt quite unwell from our night's in- 
dulgence. However, it soon wore off. I was called upon to recite in 
Mathematics (trigonometry), Greek, and Taylor's History. Nearly 
all the class failed. The lesson was very long and difficult to commit 
to memory. I knew the part that I was called upon to recite, but, so 
many failing before me, I felt rather delicate in regard to it, and 
consequently refused to recite. 

A Sophomore 33 

14. — I did not study much to-day. I fear that I am less studious 
than I ought to be. Last year I used to be mentally employed rather 
too much and had not sufficient time to take exercise. This year I 
fear that circumstances are vice versa. 

15. — Our class recited our first recitation in Cicero. I like his style 
very much, and have no doubt that it will be a pleasant study. I 
was called up in it. Made out pretty well. I was also called up in 
Dr. Peck's room in Paley's Evidences. I made out pretty well in 
that also. Went to Dr. Peck's prayer meeting. It was one in his 
own house, and the object of it was entire sanctification. I have 
been seeking that blessing for some time. My mind turned directly 
toward that object on account of reading a little book called Notes 
by the Way, or the Way of Holiness. I have made a solemn assevera- 
tion that I will go on in the pursuit of my object, and will never 
give up the hope of entire sanctification, and efforts to attain it. 
May God help me ! 

16. — Chum (Milbourne) and myself have commenced a habit which 
I think will be very improving, that of having prayers before we 
commence the duties of the day, and immediately after we have 
finished them. I was called up to the Chair to recite on Taylor's 
History. I made out tolerably well. The account of the fall of 
Babylon, a description of Nineveh and Babylon, was very interesting. 

17. — Rose some time before prayers, reviewed my morning recita- 
tion, and took a walk up the railroad with a friend, Fountain of 
Maryland. One of the new students, Chew, was facultised to-night 
by some of the Student Faculty. Quite a muss was raised; no damage 
done, however. 

18. — Rose a little before the second bell. Went to class meeting 
(Professor Tiffany's). I afterward went to a class meeting down- 
town. It partook more of Methodism in my opinion than those at 
college; besides, it bore a strong resemblance to those that I had 
formerly attended, and which had little of formality about them. 
Professor Tiffany delivered a fine sermon ; the text was, "Behold 
what manner of love the Father hath bestowed upon us." In the 
evening I went to the First Presbyterian Church — Rev. Mr. Wing; 
a very pleasant discourse upon the truth that Christ's coming has 
more than compensated for all the evil which Adam brought on the 
human race. It is quarterly meeting at our church, but I preferred 

Mr. Wing rather than Mr. , the presiding elder. Having 

read my complement of chapters, I retired. 

19. — Rose early. The college again out of wood ; this makes several 
times that we have been out; such times and such a college as this 

34 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

that cannot furnish fuel to keep us warm ! Our class got off from 
recitation on account of it. A Green Horn is again being put 
through. It is said that he gave his questioners some sarcastic re- 
torts. I started over to it, but recollected that I had just refused 
going to Love Feast. 

21. — Read a little in Hume. 

22. — Rose a little before prayers. Felt the effects of eating just 
before going to bed. Resolved to do less of it. Read some in Hume's 
England. Went to Dr. Peck's prayer meeting. We had a delightful 
time. Several of us were praying to Almighty God to sanctify us, 
soul, body, and spirit. I find my greatest difficulty in not bringing 
my faith to bear upon the present moment. I have this night set 
out to seek God earnestly, and never tire until I am fully sanctified. 
May God assist me in my endeavors. I know that it is at present 
the greatest object of my life to be the Lord's unreservedly. If 
there be yet a "bosom sin" remaining, may God root it out. I am 
determined to be sanctified, and I do believe God will speedily do it. 

23. — Rose at four o'clock and took a walk out in the country, mainly 
for the purpose of practicing my speech for Saturday. Had an idea 
of writing a "description of the Cumberland Valley" and sending it 
to one of the papers of my native county. Doubtful. 

24. — Finished the fifth volume of Hume's England. 

25. — Read an article in Philadelphia Christian Advocate on the 
proposed building of another Methodist Episcopal church in Carlisle. 
Thought there were a great many objectionable things in it, and that, 
if I could fulfill my intentions, I would reply to it, favoring the 

26. — Wrote two pages of cap paper, to have published in reply to a 
fellow classmate's article in opposition to the erection of a new 

27. — Wrote more of my communication. 

28. — Spherical trigonometry very hard. Called up in it. Didn't 
make out very well. 

30. — Attended Friday evening prayer meeting. Large attendance. 
Violent thunderstorm. Very fearful in them, more so than I ought 
to be. I suppose it originates from a consciousness of not having 
done my duty. 

A Sophomore 35 


dose of His Sophomore Year 

May 3, 1852. — This day eleven years ago my mother died. Surely 
no one knows the good a mother does until he has experienced his 
loss. May I ever live mindful of her good advice. 

5. — Changed my boarding house — found it (Miss Miller's) more 
agreeable than at the college table. Wrote a piece for publication, on 
Cumberland Valley. Took a great deal of exercise in playing ball. 

6. — Attended Dr. Peck's prayer meeting. Very good one indeed. 
Experienced great satisfaction, but did not receive the blessing which 
I so much long after. 

8. — Our class society had a meeting at night. Question was, "Does 
nature do more than art in forming the orator?" Had the negative 
of the question. My side obtained the decision. 

9. — Read some in Pilgrim's Progress. 

10. — Did not rise in time to take my walk. Was not called up in 
any recitation. Played ball to make up for the loss of my walk. 
Walking, however, seems to benefit me more than any other 

14. — Saw, in the paper, the article I had written in reply to a piece 
written by my classmate, Luckenbach. He decided it to be a lame 
effort. Of course he would not like it. Great deal of curiosity as to 
the author of it. Received a letter from my step-mother. She kindly 
invited me to spend my vacation with her at Federalsburg. 

16. — Read Headley's Sacred Scenes and Characters through. Very 
flowery. Apparently very sacrilegious. Thought his comparison of 
Paul and Napoleon was by no means right — to compare sacred and 
profane characters. 

19. — Revised an old composition on Oberlin for publication in the 
Sunday School Advocate. 

20. — I made a determination to rise early and walk an hour before 
prayers ; also to regulate my diet. 

21. — Attended Friday evening prayer meeting and while there (by 
no means a fit place) thought of my present condition, pecuniarily. 
I knew that I was running in debt to my uncle to a certain extent, 
and devised two plans by which I might better my situation. First, 
I thought of going to Baltimore and entering some store in order 
that my income might run up and my health be resuscitated. 
Secondly, of going on my farm and remaining with the tenant for a 

36 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

year, where I would be able to study, and also to oversee how things 
go on, as well as to take sufficient exercise for my health. 

22. — Wrote to my uncle on the topic mentioned above. 

23. — Invited by two friends to spend the evening in reading and 
examining portions of the Bible. Consented and received great en- 
joyment. Felt great encouragement to go on in the pursuit of the 
blessing of entire sanctification. I almost had the witness, but could 
not command enough of present faith. May the Lord assist me in 
my endeavors. 

25. — Read Hon. Daniel Webster's speech in Faneuil Hall. Pleased 
with it. Took a solitary walk after supper. Our class excused 
Professor Johnson from his recitation. 

26. — Heard of the newly elected bishops (Scott, Simpson, Baker, 
and Ames) of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

28. — Commenced reading Junius; also read some in Hume's 

29. — Finished Hume's England. I wonder that he wrote as little 
against religion as he did. He is, however, evidently prejudiced. 

30. — Commenced an article for publication, on "Moral Education." 

31. — Read some in Junius. Commenced Macaulay. 

June 1. — Received the paper containing my piece on "Cumberland 
Valley." Great many mistakes made in it. 

2. — I do not make as good recitations in Cicero as in Horace; the 
latter is far easier than the former; it is in consequence of my not 
taking sufficient pains in getting the recitations out. Received a 
letter from my uncle advising me to take a respite of a year from 
college, just the object of my desire. 

5. — Commenced Russell's History of France. Commenced compo- 
sition on the "Pleasures of Education." 

10. — Sold my furniture, an act contrary to the statutes. Found some 
matter in Hallam's Middle Ages. Very useful for my "Index 
Rerum." Attended Dr. Peck's prayer meeting. Felt almost satisfied 
of my perfect state; but my faith fled almost instantly. O that I 
could be perfect in soul, body, and spirit. I shall, with God's 
assistance, strive on. 

11. — A classmate, Emory, accidentally struck me in the eye while 
playing ball. It hurts very much and keeps me from studying much. 

16. — Called up in Coleridge's Introduction to Greek Classic Poets. 
Lost a library book, Junius. 

18. — Our class agreed to prepare for recitation 14 pages. Professor 
Johnson gave us 26. It was in History and quite hard to remember. 
He heard what we prepared, omitted what we did not prepare, and 

A Sophomore 37 

then gave us a new recitation. He managed quite well indeed. 
Found my piece on " Moral Education " in the Philadelphia Christian 

24. — Attended for the last time Dr. Peck's prayer meeting. 

28. — Recited, or rather attended recitation, for the last time for a 
good while — perhaps forever. Felt peculiar emotions. Went to the 
creek in company with some friends. Fell into a discussion on 
"Predestination" with my friend Hepburn. Neither changed the 
other's opinion. 

29. — Heard of the death of Henry Clay. No human tongue can 
utter half the praise that's due him, nor can the wisest philosopher 
tell the good that he has wrought for his country. May he rest in 
peace ! Surely his name will be ever remembered by every patriot, 
and more particularly by every American. 

July 1. — Arose before four and commenced to study history — quite 
a bore. The long-dreaded examinations commenced also. Made a 
nine in Paley. The Doctor complimented us highly. Made an eight 
in Greek, nine in Manual, nine in Trigonometry, six in Conies. 
Succeeded tolerably on the whole. 

2. — Studied history in the morning. Made a nine in Latin, also in 
long-dreaded history. One thing off hand, another in view. Com- 
mencement. Played football all afternoon. 

3. — Took a walk out to Papertown, about six miles from town; 
ascended the mountain and took dinner there; was accompanied by 
two friends. 

4- — Very good Commencement; was wearied out with literary 
orations, however. 

5. — Weather warm in Baltimore. Walked almost all day. 

II. — Heard Rev. Mr. Coombe preach, a graduate of Dickinson. He 
didn't please the aristocratic Charles Streeters much. 


The Collegian in Print. — A Moral Victory 

During his Sophomore year he occupied room 20 in East 
College with S. T. Milbourne, a Freshman, from Worcester 
County, Maryland. The class numbered twenty-seven this year. 

3<8 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

While a Sophomore he made his first contribution to the press. 
It was a brief article, written January 16, 1852, published in 
the Sunday School Advocate, and breathes the practical, helpful 
spirit of the long series of which it proved to be the leader. As 
a promise and an example of the directness and simplicity of 
this kind of composition the entire article is here given : 

Comfort the Distressed 

Many of my young friends have often met with the above ad- 
monition, but perhaps some of them have never complied with its 
requirements. The modes which may be employed in the fulfillment 
of it are as numerous as are the dispositions of men. I once knew a 
Sunday school scholar who accompanied a gentleman to the humble 
and weather-beaten hut of an old blind man. Besides his blindness 
the old colored man was afflicted with rheumatism. The two visitors 
found him at the door, leaning on his staff. He addressed them, and 
told them he was trying to serve the Lord, and anticipated a home 
among the happy hereafter. During their visit they read several 
chapters in his hearing and had prayers together. In this manner 
they passed the evening, and the two visitors returned home, sensible 
that the smile of God's countenance was resting upon them. I think 
the afflicted man has since died ; if so, I have no doubt that his soul 
now rests in Abraham's bosom. Sunday school scholars might do 
much toward comforting the distressed, and thus be a benefit to 
others as well as to themselves. 

In the following April, over the name "Chamfort," he penned 
an earnest and argumentative plea for "The Proposed New 
Methodist Episcopal Church in Carlisle" for the Philadelphia 
Christian Advocate, in reply to an article by a classmate, W. H. 
Luckenbach, opposing a resolution of the Philadelphia Con- 
ference, which expressed sympathy and recommended help for 
the building and endowing of a second church in Carlisle. The 
professors and students who favored the new movement had 
been charged with aristocracy, and this is the way he comes to 
their defense: 

This College is proverbial for its freedom from any kind of aris- 
tocracy. Though there may be isolated instances of it, yet they are 

Contributor to the Press 39 

by no means "generated" here, but have come from abroad. Even 
then they receive no encouragement, but soon find it far preferable 
to flee to more congenial places, where they may exhale their 
pestilential air. 

On June 8 we find him, under the nom-de-plitme of "XN," 
giving to the same paper a didactic article entitled "Moral 
Education," the burden of which is an argument for the con- 
temporaneous culture or training of both the heart and mind 
of children, and for the early action of the religious impulse in 
its bearing on a symmetrical growth. About the same time, 
and again as "Chamfort," he furnished the Cambridge Demo- 
crat an appreciative article on "The Pleasures of Education." 
His summary of the life of an educated person thus groups the 
career : 

In youth he strove for an education, in middle age he practiced it 
and imparted it more or less to others, and in old age he reaped the 
fruits of it. First he went in search of treasure, next he obtained it 
and bestowed it on the world, and lastly he enjoys the good resulting 
from it. 

During his Junior year, 1852-53, there appeared several 
articles in the Easton (Md.) Whig, from his hand, under the 
name of "Philip Philistone." One of these was a description 
of a foot-journey with two other students, D. H. Walton, of 
Woodstock, Virginia, and Robert H. Conway, of Harrison, 
Maryland, taken at the close of the summer term in 1852, to 
the mountain near Carlisle. It is called "A Leaf from a 
Student's Journal." It contains several fine interweavings 
of history with natural scenery, and the personal thread runs 
pleasantly through the whole sketch. His description of 
their noontide luncheon on the summit is in these words: 

There was little of the artificial attending our repast; the roof 
beneath which we were seated was none less than the broad canopy 
of heaven, our table was the ground, its cover the leaves, and our 
hands filled the office of knives and forks. 

40 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

Of the Cumberland Valley that here burst on their vision 
he says : 

If Thomas Jefferson thought a look at Harper's Ferry was worth a 
voyage across the Atlantic, we think such a sight as this would repay 
one for walking up many peaks of the Blue Ridge. 

Another was entitled "Friendship at College," setting forth 
the danger of too sudden intimacy with imagined friends, and 
the value of a true friendship based on worth and similarity of 
aim and tastes. Next follow three historical and descriptive 
articles under the general title of "Ancient Magnificence: Its 
Rise, Grandeur, and Decay," the first devoted to Alexandria, 
the second to Memphis, and the third to Thebes in Egypt. 
In a brief introductory paragraph he says : 

It is our purpose to treat the religion, society, and politics of them 
(the great cities) ; to show wherein their civil politics were sound 
or defective; to trace back the improvement or deterioration which 
they underwent to the prime cause; to apply their institutions to 
those of our own country, and to prove with all possible clearness 
the hand of God displayed in history. 

John's moral susceptibility was seriously put to the test when 
at the age of eighteen, while on a vacation from college, he re- 
ceived an invitation to attend a party at the home of one of the 
first citizens of Dorchester County. It was a rare distinction 
to be invited to the family which had furnished a senator and a 
governor. John's imagination lighted up as he pictured the 
beauty, fashion, and wealth he would see there. Such a privi- 
lege had never before been his, but the day of the event saw him 
hesitating, and as night came on there was a struggle. "Well, 
John, I envy you your good time to-night," said his cousin. 
"Shake hands, Sammy," was John's reply, "I've been praying 
about this matter. I'm not going to the party. I cannot go to 
a place where they dance and drink wine." 


A Student on the Farm 41 


An Interim at Home 

The greater part of his Junior year he spent at "Weir Neck," 
studying the books of the curriculum and keeping abreast of his 
class, whose roll now included twenty-four. 

"Weir Neck," September 10, 1852. — Have been to five camp meet- 
ings. Met with a number of students from old Dickinson; was 
delighted, of course, with meeting old and true friends. Enjoyed my 
sister's company very much. Visited my stepmother, who had been 
married (to Mr. Goslin) since my departure from the Eastern Shore. 
Was treated kindly and consequently enjoyed myself very much. 
Am sorry to say that my religious experience is not so favorable as 
I would like it to be. Did not take advantage of the means of grace 
afforded at camp meeting as I should have done. At one time my 
soul was made to rejoice with joy unspeakable. Am settled down 
on the old homestead, boarding with the tenant. Commenced Logic 
(Whately). Find it hard though not unpleasant study. 

21. — Studied some of Agricola and Germania of Tacitus. He is 
quite concise. Studied some Analytical Geometry, Moral Science 
also. Am pleased with living in the country; eat so much, however, 
that I will soon become corpulent. In regard to religion, I have en- 
joyed myself very much. Have not yet joined a class, as I have not 
yet received my certificate. Have hunted some and been partially 
successful. Made considerable progress in Hebrew. Am now on the 
inflection of pronouns. Yesterday I finished my "Leaf from a 
Student's Journal." Fixed up a bookcase for myself in the recess 
of the room. Am now prepared for studying. Wrote the "Introduc- 
tory" to my intended articles on the "Rise, Grandeur, and Decay of 
Ancient Magnificence," but am not satisfied with it. Shall perhaps 
write another. 

October 1. — Have paid a visit to my stepmother at Federalsburg. 
Studied Mental Philosophy, Moral Science, and Tacitus. Borrowed 
the Alcestis of Euripides in Greek and have read the Hypothesis. 
Quite difficult at first. Have written another introduction to my 
"Rise, Grandeur, and Decay of Ancient Magnificence." Am better 
pleased with it. Commenced the series with Alexandria. . . . Com- 
menced wearing standing collars. Saw my friend Conway at Fed- 
eralsburg. Went gunning with him. He and myself were requested 
to act as bearers of a young man who had died of consumption. We 

42 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

fulfilled the onerous task. I formed an idea of going to the West, 
after graduating, and entering some literary institution, if prac- 
ticable. Perhaps I'll enter the ministry. May the Lord direct me in 
the proper way. I intend praying particularly for direction in re- 
gard to my future course. I have enjoyed myself in a religious point 
of view very much. Have perhaps made use of too much levity. 
May the Lord guide me between levity on the one hand and 
moroseness on the other ! 

21. — Went to Federalsburg, and there had a severe attack of bilious 
fever. Symptoms of the dropsy appeared which quite alarmed me. 
I prayed that I might be fully resigned to the will of the Lord. 

November 5. — Daniel Webster is dead. The nation mourns her 
pride. Franklin Pierce (the ignotus) is elected President. Finished 
Paley's Evidences and am nearly equal with my class as regards 
studies. Commenced No. 2 of my "Student's Journal." It is on 
college life. The "Mechanics" of Natural Philosophy is very hard. 
I have a fine chance for study. Take considerable exercise. Am 
enjoying the smiles of God's countenance in a marked degree. May 
my life be shaped according to his will ! I am aware that I am not 
sufficiently grateful to him for all his favors, but will try to be more 
so. May he bless me is my humble prayer. 

12. — Have been at home of late and have studied amazingly hard 
sometimes, while at others I have been too lax. Hunted considerably. 
Studied Natural Philosophy very hard, also Analytical Geometry. 
Never liked mathematics much before I studied the "Mechanics." 
Have read some in Macaulay's England; am delighted with his 
style. Commenced Stevens's Travels in Egypt, Arabia Petrasa, and 
Holy Land. His style is very interesting. My religious feelings 
have been buoyant; am possessed of a pleasing hope of a blessed 
immortality beyond the grave. My health has been good. 

December 24. — My friend Conway has gone West. He, however, 
spent a few days with me before he left and we had a fine oppor- 
tunity to recall past experiences and also to relate future hopes. We 
prayed together, and earnestly asked kind Providence to guide us in 
the right path through future life. I felt quite lonely when he left 
me at the wharf. I have since received a six-page letter from him 
since he arrived at Madison, Indiana. It was like balm to my soul. 
The blues dealt a heavy blow to me recently. I never had the 
horrors much worse. In a word, I was homesick. But how can I, 
an orphan, who have no home, be homesick? The following will 
explain it: 

" 'Tis home where'er the heart is." 

Again at Carlisle 43 

Have nearly kept pace with my class. Think something ot proposing 
to Uncle John to consent to my going to Dickinson again in April. 
"Man is a social being" and I am lonely. Have had a swelling of 
the ankles. The doctor considered it a dropsical affection. Have 
nearly recovered from it by taking medicine. 

February 17, 1853. — I expect, if no unforeseen circumstances hap- 
pen, to go to Dickinson in March. I wrote to my uncle to give his 
consent to my returning to Dickinson College in April. 

A Junior at Carlisle 

Dickinson College, Carlisle, Penna., May 3, 1853.— Neglect seems 
to be the leading trait of my character, and procrastination the 
thief of much of my time. After so long a silence, I can scarcely 
muster the face or heart to make an entry in my dear old Journal. 
But my thoughts assume a graver nature when I reflect that on this 
day twelve years ago I lost my mother. What a thought ! I was 
made motherless twelve years ago, and am yet spared to behold the 
beauties of God's creation and enjoy my probationary life here if 
proper means are employed. A mother, what a treasure ! True is 
the phrase, "No one knows the need of a mother until he is deprived 
of her." Although her smiles and tears have never been for me to 
see, yet a hope of seeing her in a better world constitutes a great 
enjoyment. May her guardian spirit watch over me and keep me 
from harm ! Twelve years to come I may be numbered with the 
dead. If such be the case, may I be numbered among those who die 
in the Lord! May a mother unseen administer kind advice to her 
orphan girl and boy ! 

Have published two articles in the Easton Whig on "Ancient 
Magnificence." They were written on the cities Alexandria and 
Memphis. Have sent on another article under the head of Thebes. 
I design to continue them through Carthage, Nineveh, Babylon, 
Thebes in Bceotia, Sparta, Athens, and Rome. Can't tell whether or 
not I shall ever get through with them, for it is rather borons. Have 
succeeded very well in my studies. Laziness, however, has worked 
very hard on me as well as a good appetite. 

I have spent the most of three weeks (during smallpox scare) in a 

44 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

not very useful manner. Among other reading, I have read The 
Scarlet Letter and Blithedale Romance by Hawthorne. 1 Think they 
are rather dry and misanthropic. They left my mind in rather a 
gloomy state. Don't expect to read any more of Hawthorne's novels 
until I am out of better reading, which will take a long time. I have 
also read the first volume of Gibbon's History and a portion of the 
second. Don't know what to think of his two celebrated chapters 
derogatory to the Christian religion. It is strange to say that men 
of genius, and particularly historians, often condescend to insert 
some of their own petty notions which form adjuncts to their private 
animosities. Just so Gibbon appears to have acted. I have read 
Ivanhoe, by Walter Scott. The only thing I regretted, when I fin- 
ished it, was that there was not more of it. It ended abruptly. 
Shaw's English Literature fell in amongst other reading, and thus I 
have spent my three weeks. Maybe they have been well enough 

June 4. — Looked at Tom Paine's Age of Reason, and I think him 
not only not a very good Bible reasoner, but also occasionally profane. 

13. — Have been elected speaker of the U. P. S. to address the 
Senior Unions at their departure. Finished second volume of Gib- 
bon's Rome, and commenced in "Crusades" the Talisman of Scott. 
Read it because Shaw praises it so highly for containing so much 
knowledge in reference to chivalry. 

July 25. — Commencement like Christmas has come and gone. There 
have been lots — yea, Holds — of speechifying. What contributed most 
to my enjoyment was the presence of some of my Baltimore relatives 
and friends. My sister Sallie was along. Surely I was glad to see 
her, but she did not stay long enough to allow me a fair look at her. 
The time came for her to leave and, O, my heart could scarcely con- 
tain itself when the cars took her off perforce. But so it is, and if 
I am ever to be a man, and be indued with manly feelings, it is when 
I become a Senior. . . . My standing was very good, the second 
section. There were four sections besides the honor man. Don't 
you congratulate me, old Journal ? for you are proof positive that I 
have had a vacation of nine months and have studied these text- 
books scarcely any. Indeed, I am feeling perfectly satisfied though 

I did not care much about standing alongside of B . Well, well, 

I reckon I can study the harder next year. Finished Goldsmith this 
morning. Irving is a master hand and master mind, let him under- 
take and complete whatever he will. What a character was Gold- 

1 Late in his life he owned for several years the original manuscript of the Blithedale 


The middle window of the three shown in the third story is room No. 40, occupied 
by John Fletcher Hurst during his senior year. 

A Senior's Journal 45 

smith ! and what a genius withal ! Pity for him that he was attended 
with what many suppose is the invariable characteristic of genius — 
recklessness. He proved an illustration of the rule: 

"Slow rises worth by poverty oppressed." 

A Senior's Journal 

September 3, 1853. — August past, and you, O Journal, neglected! 
Indeed, I should have paid some little tribute to the memory of my 
dear father who died on the fourth of that month and of a little 
sister who also died on the eighteenth. Though nothing has been 
said, yet much has been felt. O may I strive to obey my father's 
precepts ! Surely no one needs wholesome advice more and receives 
less of it. The seventeenth of August forms a very important epoch 
in my history. It was the anniversary of my birthday. I know not 
whether a long or short life is before me, but the chances (if chances 
there be) and my own imprudence indicate the latter. I intend upon 
the coming year of my life to live nearer to my heavenly Master, 
and more alive to my own eternal interests and to my true interests 
in this world than ever before. May Heaven help me ! 

I have written a letter to my uncle requesting some money. How 
could I forget that thought? But the severest stroke yet is, I have 
not received it, and need not inform you, kind Journal, that the 
reception is looked forward to with anxious expectation. Have 
finished the fifth volume of Gibbon's History. O how enchanting a 
writer Gibbon is, and how seductive! From this seduction men or 
united Christianity have most to fear. Have also read Lord's Modern 
History. It is a fine thing — though, to use a borrowed expression, I 
hate General Histories. But all history is so interesting to me that 
any is better than none. I cannot say that I have made much progress 
in the cause of religion. Indeed, I need something of a stirring up. 
Absence from prayer meetings is a great detriment to Christian 

My chum (Paul Lightner, a Junior, from Highland County, Vir- 
ginia) has come on and we are fixed up in number 40, East College, 
for my last year in college. I have given away too much to my own 
appetite of late. Ice cream is on the carpet almost every night, and 

46 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

the way I have dived into the peaches, apples, grapes, and cigars. 

shade of Bacchus, appear. Did I say cigars? Yes, it is true. I 
had laid aside smoking for nearly a month, having come to the just 
conclusion that it was an unnecessary evil and consequently could 
be dispensed with with right good grace. But yesterday I gave way 
to the desire and smoked three cigars and two to-day. I have come 
to the conclusion to quit smoking entirely. 

Have commenced my first senior speech. The subject, I think, 
will be "The Tendencies of Enthusiasm." It will be considered 
mainly in an historical point of view. I have a wide field if I don't 
spoil the thing by too far-fetched allusions. 

October 29. — My chapel speech, after a great deal of severe boring 
and toiling over it and in it, was not unfavorably received, although 

1 was badly frightened. My next subject will be, if nothing to the 
contrary happens, on "Spain." Of course, this is an historical sub- 
ject, but such a theme always suits me best. I have written, but not 
corrected it. What bores these chapel speeches are ! . . . Though I 
had been subject to doubts and mental depressions for a long time, 
yet I must thank my Father that these doubts have been removed and 
those depressions converted into real enjoyment. Have been per- 
plexed lately as to what I shall engage in hereafter, but have come 
to no definite conclusion in that respect. I must rely solely upon 
kind Providence to direct me in the true course most suited to my 
abilities and circumstances. Have had excellent health of late. 

December 5. — Have been exceedingly perplexed of late as to what I 
shall hereafter devote myself to, but have resigned into the hands of 
an All-wise Director and Protector, and have prayed that the ful- 
fillment of his will may be my greatest desire. I have made another 
chapel speech. My subject was "Spain." It was quite a long one, 
and my friends have been perfectly satisfied by my effort. I took 
less trouble with it than with my other one, but, although I was 
sick, I spoke it more at ease and with greater satisfaction to myself. 

On December 2 and 3, 1797 and 1808, my father and mother were 
born, and they have passed away, but are not forgotten. May their 
advice be ever ready to lead me in the right way though their voices 
have been long silent. My religious experience has been generally 
even, and I have not lately had any especial outpouring of God's 
Spirit upon me. I am not zealous enough for the cause of my Re- 
deemer, but will be more attentive to my eternal interests in the 
future. . . . My expenses have surpassed those of any other year 
at college. I have bought so many new clothes. The girls do 
exercise a silent though visible influence in this respect. 

A Senior's Journal 47 

29. — Examinations are over, the last except the "final" that I shall 
ever have to pass in old Mother Dickinson. The success I met with 
far outwent my brightest anticipations. Have commenced reading 
Rollin's History, and am much pleased with it. Read The Deerslayer, 
one of Cooper's novels. It gives a very good idea of Indian life and 
warfare, but could have been compressed in half the space, according 
to my notion. 

March 13, 1854. — I have received an especial honor from Society, 
which I may be at liberty to pen next Commencement. I feel incom- 
petent to the task, but may Heaven assist me with pure motives and 
earnest efforts. ... I do not have enough of heart-religion nor 
exercise enough of God's saving faith. O my God, assist me to live 
up to my purposes and to my desires, and my life will be a Christian's 
life, and my death a Christian's death. My last chapel speech was 
upon William, Prince of Orange, and my friends have judged it to 
be my happiest effort. I have read but little of late. Prescott's 
Conquest of Peru, I think, is about the extent. . . . Have come to 
no definite conclusion as to what my future course in life will be. 
May Heaven lay before me some path in which duty would urge me 
to travel ! 

April 17. — As we had a short vacation in the latter part of March, 
Uncle John wrote me to come down and spend a week with him and 
his family. This I did. I spent the greater portion of my time in 
the city, though I really do not like Baltimore. Uncle John was 
quite clever, and did not censure my extravagance any, although I 
really deserved it. Students are profligate animals. My week in 
Baltimore passed off quite pleasantly, considering it altogether. O 
for the day when I shall have a home ! I really sympathize with 
sister Sallie. She does not like Baltimore, and her Baltimore friends 
all wish her there. She much prefers the Eastern Shore and enjoys 
herself more there. May the day soon come when we shall have a 
home together ! . . . Have sketched off a chapel speech. Theme is 
" Music." Emory says it is as good as any I have spoken. I am 
reading Gaieties and Gravities, by Horace Smith. It is fine to read 
when one is in a bad humor. It makes him feel so good-natured. I 
would like to read it whenever I get in an ill humor. Have written 
Dr. Peck to procure me a situation in some academy after I graduate. 
I have tried to do my duty of late. Felt some promptings toward the 
ministry. Mr. Ridgaway (whom I attended upon in a spell of sick- 
ness in Baltimore) gave me some good advice. I am too light in 
my disposition. O God, assist me to do thy whole will ; may I not 
swerve from my duty ! 

48 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

18. — My rising hour is 7 o'clock (shameful). Commenced the 
Lamplighter this morning; was very much pleased with the tone; 
the sentiment suits one of my temperament ; with God's assistance, 
I'll never get mad any more. Horace Smith has been amusing me 
again to-day. 

May 15. — Have concluded to teach school after I graduate. Peirce, 
of Washington, wrote to me to come and teach school, the "Metro- 
politan Collegiate Institute," at a salary of $250 a year and board. 
Wrote to him I would go for $300 — thought that was better than a 
flat refusal. . . . Have had some serious thoughts with reference 
to the ministry, but not enough to act upon — think it would be better 
to teach a year or two to determine upon it. Spoke my chapel speech 
on "Music." My friends thought it was decidedly my best effort 
this year. 

June 23. — Final examination is over and I am near graduating. 
What a thought ! Can it be that I have been four years a student ? 
Yes, and about to graduate. Well, truly, the biggest fools can grad- 
uate nowadays; though they are sheepish sometimes, I don't think 
the classic sheepskin is a suitable cover for their ignorance. I suc- 
ceeded tolerably well in my final examination with the single excep- 
tion of mathematics. I came near failing, but was well satisfied with 
my other examinations. Have received a letter from Uncle John. 
It was nearer a lecture than a letter upon the subject of my extrava- 
gance. But Seniors do require money, especially when they sport 
among the girls. 

His theme on Commencement Day, July 13, 1854, was 
"Modern Hero Worship." Not quite twenty, he was a grad- 
uate and now faced the future with all its weighty issues. 


Memory Cameos by Fellow Students 

Dr. Robert W. Todd, of the Wilmington Conference, says : 

"Johnnie" was of moderate stature and probably the youngest 
student in the college proper. Being both Eastern Shoremen and 
from adjoining counties, a warm and sympathetic friendship sprang 

Memories by Fellow Students 49 

up between us, which ever continued. No new companionships or 
higher honors that became his seemed to dim his remembrance of 
our halcyon past as happy schoolboys, or to weaken the expression 
of his personal friendship. 

Thomas C. Bailey, an attorney-at-law, of Washington, D. C, 

a classmate at Carlisle, writes : 

In manner he was gentle and quiet, with a certain reserved dignity. 
As a student, he was industrious, and always came to the recitation 
rooms with his lessons well prepared. In disposition he was cheerful, 
but not hilarious, and while he appreciated fun I never knew him to 
be engaged in any proceedings that transgressed the rules of the 

-& v 

Dr. D. J. Holmes, of the Rock River Conference, who was 

a classmate during the Freshman year, says : 

I remember him well. John was a dapper little chap, always 
dressy and dignified. Being the youngest in the class and the shortest, 
his dignity in spite of his youth and brevity did make him look taller 
and more mature. He was in college for work, not for fun, so that 
in all the periodical or unexpected volcanic upheavals I do not recall 
that John F. Hurst troubled himself or took part, or was present or 
absent. The same devotion to study and books and literature he had 
then he carried into the world and down to his grave. He was not a 
class genius, or poet, or orator, or wire-puller, but a steady plodder. 

General James F. Rusling, of Trenton, New Jersey, a warm 

friend as well as loved classmate, gives this sketch : 

I first knew Bishop Hurst at Dickinson College in October, 1852. 
He was then a flaxen-haired boy from Maryland, intending to be a 
lawyer, and indeed read Blackstone in his Senior year; but after 
graduating turned his attention to the ministry. He looked younger 
than he was. He was studious, but not a recluse — always cheerful 
and companionable. Our class at graduation comprised twenty men, 
and he stood well in the First Section (we had four). We all 
thought he could have been our First Honor man, but apparently he 
did not care for that distinction. In Mathematics he was good; in 
the Sciences excellent ; but in the Languages especially strong, and 
always ready to help our "lame ducks" out, without resorting to 

50 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

In addition to onr curriculum, he was always reading and became 
more widely read in history, biography, and general literature than 
any man of our class. I remember his favorite authors were Grote's 
Greece and Hume's England, and he never wearied of descanting on 
the excellencies of both. He was especially fond of composition, 
took Grote, Hume, and Macaulay as his models, and by all odds 
was the best writer of our class in those college days. As a speaker, 
however, he was indifferent, and dreaded the college platform. His 
voice was not good ; of personal magnetism he had not a bit. He 
was industrious, patient, methodical, persevering, and I always 
thought he would " make a spoon or spoil a horn," as Lincoln used 
to say, though we never supposed he would become an "Episcopos" 
in those days. 

His Christian character was clear and distinct, though never ob- 
trusive; but we always knew where to find "Johnnie Hurst," and he 
was always on the right side. He got into no "college scrapes." He 
was a quiet scholar and steadfast Christian gentleman, and no man 
of '54 was more honored and respected. He especially held the es- 
teem and confidence of the Faculty, and good things, if not great, 
were predicted of him by everybody. He was the soul of honor. 
He was the synonym of uprightness and integrity. Everybody envied 
him his quiet dignity and sinless life and character. 

John Peach, M.D., of Mitchellville, Maryland, a classmate, 
says : 

He was of a mild and gentle disposition — a warm friend; at the 
same time he was somewhat choice in his selection of associates. 
There was about him a spirit of perseverance, even in little things. 
He was an excellent companion, and, although he could freely descend 
to the level of college nonsense and hilarity, yet his tone of thought 
was elevating and improving to all who intimately knew him. He 
was not much given to the fair sex, but in the last year of our course 
he, with the rest of us, became very attentive to the ladies. 

Professor Charles F. Himes, of Dickinson, a member of '55, 
furnishes the following - appreciative account : 

He never engaged in anything that he avoided acknowledgment of 
in his maturer years. I simply recall an incident in illustration. At 
a rather small and select meeting of alumni of the college, in Phila- 
delphia, in the full freedom of conversation on college days, when 
each contributed his share to the common stock of incident, the 

Cannon Ball and Football 51 

"Rolling of the cannon ball along West College Hall," as given in 
the old college song, which for many years was an unfailing diversion 
of the students, naturally came up. The bishop recalled the heating 
of the ball on one occasion and the way in which the professor, alert 
to capture it, had dropped it. Professor O. H. Tiffany, whose office, 
as professor of Mathematics, was beneath, was quick to take the 
application and pleasantly denied the fact, characterizing the story a 
piece of college fiction, and retorting that he always knew that Hurst 
took part in those performances. Bishop Hurst, sitting by me, 
quietly remarked that it was a fact, nevertheless, and that he did not 
happen to have anything to do with it at that time. The apparent 
discrepancy in statement is easily explained by the fact that the ball 
was so slightly heated that it had had ample time to cool to the 
innocuous stage before the professor laid hands on it and that the 
effect was imagined. At all events, the joke was in the suggestion 
to the professor, rather than in burned hands. 

Football was in its fullest sense football, and a college game. It 
was a line-up along the broad path leading from Old West, of all 
students who wished to engage in the game, in two well-selected, 
evenly matched parties, and from the kick-off to the passage of the 
ball over either of the fences, constituting the goals, it was kicked, 
never carried, and in the scrimmages many shins were kicked. The 
line-up was different each game, so that while some were recognized 
as most expert players, there were no match games to be recorded 
or even remembered. It was all sport and genuine sport. I re- 
member consequently little about John Fletcher Hurst as a football 
player. He may have kept on the outer rim of the conflict seizing 
his opportunity as it presented itself, or he may have ventured into 
the thick of the melee, but that you may picture him as participating 
in such sport I have no doubt. There were champion kickers. One. 
who kicked the ball over West College, died as the result of the 

52 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

The Teacher 

At Greensboro, Maryland, and in the Catskills. — "The Mystic Nine." — A 

"White Horse" Incident 

The experiences of the young graduate, standing on the 
threshold of his entrance upon life's calling and still hesitant 
as to what path he should pursue, are tersely told by himself 
in an entry at the close of his college Journal, made in Ashland, 
New York, June 5, 1855: 

It cannot be that a year has passed since I last gave my thoughts 
and my experiences to a faithful old Journal ! I have graduated ; 
my exhibition speech was complimented highly. The day before 
Commencement I was compelled, according to engagement, to meet 
a man in Harrisburg with every prospect of being engaged to teach 
for him in Lewistown, Pennsylvania. He disappointed me. After 
Commencement I was at a great loss what to do ; walked the streets 
of Baltimore ready at any moment to step upon the first boat or train 
of cars and leave for — anywhere. I wished, I fancied I wished, to 
study law; applied to one prominent member of Baltimore Bar; he 
couldn't take me, had one young man already. Had it not been for 
this I might have been a student at law now. I shrank from it, and 
am glad I did. 

Mrs. Angelina Goldsborough, of Greensboro, Maryland, an 
own cousin of Bishop Hurst's mother, tells of the beginning of 
his career as a teacher : 

In 1854, John F. Hurst, then at his home near Cambridge (Weir 
Neck), wrote me a letter, asking if I could secure for him a school, 
as he was anxious to put into practice something that he had learned, 
while deciding what profession or calling in life he might hereafter 
choose. My late husband, Dr. G. W. Goldsborough, became inter- 
ested and at once placed his name before the trustees of the public 
school, and he was given the position of teacher. Mr. Hurst was in 

Among the Catskills 53 

Greensboro several months. While he did not board with us, he was 
as one of the family, coming in every day. 

His Journal of same elate as the passage above continues : 

Was appointed teacher in Greensboro Academy, Maryland. 
Stayed there about two months — didn't like it, and through influence 
of Dr. Collins, President of Dickinson College, was appointed Pro- 
fessor of Belles-Lettres at Ashland, at $300 and board. Came in 
November, 1854. Have been here since. Teaching pleasant in some 
respects. Fond of languages and would rather have that department. 
Had a most severe spell of sickness during the winter. It was a cold. 
I feel it yet, and Heaven only knows whether or not I shall always 
feel it until I get where there is no disease. 

The Hedding Literary Institute, at Ashland, Greene County, 
New York, ran a brief though brilliant career of about six 
years, in its mountain home among the Catskills. Of his jour- 
ney thither, of the incidents which marked the opening days 
of his work there, and especially of his first meeting with the 
young lady who won his heart, let his letter of November 16, 
1854, to his sister speak : 

I arrived in New York in time to take the Hudson River cars, and 
arrived at Oak Hill, which is opposite Catskill, about 1 o'clock. The 
next morning, which was Wednesday, I started for Ashland. It 
was about 5 o'clock a. m. when the coach started, and it reached 
here between 3 and 4 p. m. So you see, Miss Sallie — pardon me, for 
it is Mrs. Kurtz — we have had a very tedious time of it while cross- 
ing these Catskills. I arrived at the very best time and consider 
myself fortunate in getting the room which I have obtained. The 
teachers have their own rooms, but still there is a choice among 
them and I would prefer this one to all others. But I am going too 
fast. When I first arrived at the Seminary I introduced myself to 
one of the trustees and by that means soon found the principal and 
was introduced. Instead of meeting a grave and too stern a dis- 
ciplinarian, I was met with a pleasant countenance, a hearty shake 
o' the hand, and a "very glad to see you." Since then I have re- 
ceived every attention that I could desire even if in a father's house. 
Mr. Pearson introduced me at once to the female teachers and his 
very pleasant lady. One of the teachers was quite young and 
charmingly beautiful, and, if I had not already lost my heart, I 

5-| John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

should surely have done so on this occasion. She has a melancholy 
caste of countenance and is of a fine form. I had been wishing that 
she and I would have rooms on the same floor, so that 1 might take 
private lessons in painting or whatever she teaches, until the after- 
noon, when she commenced having her room prepared for her on 
the very corner opposite mine. I am just fixed in that respect. You 
will think all this foolishness and I shall too when I marry up out of 
this troublesome world. Now let me tell you something of the 
scholars. The gentlemen, as they are to be styled, are generally 
large and full-grown, and no one, unacquainted with either party, 
would be able to distinguish the corporals from the privates. Gen- 
erally speaking, they are older in appearance than the students in 
Dickinson College. I have not taught as yet, but everyone is so 
kind that I cannot but be pleased. We have some very pretty girls, 
and I don't doubt for a moment that a plenty of them are of your 
size and age. I think we have already between two and three hun- 
dred students, male and female. The Institute was opened this 
afternoon by Rev. T. W. Pearson, father of the principal. His ad- 
dress was fine. The very large chapel was filled to overflowing with 
an intelligent and interesting audience. 

The rooms for the teachers are furnished by the Institute. I have 
two, one a dormitory, the other my study. I could not be better 
situated. But, Sallie, I am all the while thinking of those I left in 
Baltimore. I am sure I was never half so reluctant to leave my 
nearest and dearest friends. If the fountain of my tears had not 
long ago dried up I would sit right down and cry for you all. 

Besides his daily duties of teaching logic, rhetoric, English 
composition, and whatever else was included under the name 
of Belles-Lettres, which by some stern necessity was stretched 
to cover the class in chemistry, he gave occasional lectures in 
the chapel — a part on Sunday afternoons and some on other 
occasions. "God Will Provide" was the subject of the first one 
he gave, December 3, 1854. Later topics were "Kingdom in 
Heaven Not Like Kingdom on Earth,"' "Never Complain," 
"Reading," "Talking," and "Idolatry," with each of which he 
connected a Scripture passage. He gave also two very inter- 
esting talks on "Greek Mvthology." one on "Mahomet." and 
one on "Great Men vs. True Wisdom." In his second lecture 

Ashland Collegiate Institute 55 

on Greek mythology he introduces a bit of local meteorology, 
as the sweet revenge of a Marylander on the biting breezes of 
Ashland : 

vEolus lived in the modern Island of Stromboli in the Mediterra- 
nean Sea. Since those days Mollis has removed his residence and 
emigrated to the Catskill Mountains. Not being able to find a cave 
in that part of the country large enough for a palace, he concluded to 
let the winds run loose, and the consequence is that the natives are 
incessantly troubled with a storm. 

John Burroughs, the poet and naturalist, then a student at 
Ashland, says : 

I have a remembrance of him as a young, slender, large-eyed, 
scholarly-looking man who taught me logic and grammar. 

There were about two hundred students in the school during 
the winter of 1855-56. Board with furnished room, washing, 
and fuel, cost $1.75 per week, and tuition in Latin, Greek, and 
Hebrew, including common and higher English, was $6 per 
term of eleven weeks. To gentlemen seeking admission the 
suggestion was made in print that for greater quiet they bring 
slippers. The main school building, 200x36 feet on the 
ground, was five stories high above the basement, with a chapel 
in the rear. The two vacations of the year were in April and 
October, of four weeks each. Its name was changed in 1857 
to Ashland Collegiate Institute. While the school was in 
session a fire broke out in the attic, about dinner time, January 
15, 1861. The main building was destroyed. The building 
used for a laundry and bakehouse was not burned, and is still 
standing and used as a dwelling, while the gymnasium and car- 
riage house now serve for a barn. The origin of the fire was a 
mystery. The location was on an elevation on the north side 
of the village. Rev. Henry J. Fox was the last principal of the 

56 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

Mr. Franklin A. Wilcox, of New York, who was a student 
at Ashland, furnishes the following items of interest : 

John F. Hurst, although youngest of the faculty, was, in point of 
ability and thorough preparation for his duties, foremost. There 
was a charm in his personality which drew everyone to him. He 
reminded me somewhat of Sir Walter Scott in his physical appear- 
ance. He was most thorough, and I remember well his rigid cor- 
rections of my Latin exercises. I believe he took an especial interest 
in me, and coached me not a little in his private room, where I was 
glad to go on the least excuse. He was modest, almost diffident. I 
recall very well the apparent difficulty he had in leading the devo- 
tional exercises in the chapel, as was the custom, by rotation. His 
prayer consisted of little more than the Lord's Prayer, and this with 
a little "stage fright." This very characteristic, possibly, was the 
source of his great strength as his abilities matured. 

I was also in his class in logic. I recall very well the text-book, 
Whately's. It was dry as dust; the teacher succeeded, however, in 
interesting his class, although we recited about daylight and before 
breakfast w r as served at the Institute. 

He encouraged the students in the literary societies, and took a 
great interest in this all-important work. A second literary society 
was formed, projected and planned largely by Mr. Hurst, with a 
very select membership, which he named "The Mystic Nine." The 
President, Professor Hurst, was the Pater Novrm, and the Secretary 
was the Gcheimschrcibcr. The membership was limited to nine. 
The Mystic Nine was a success from the commencement. We met 
and debated, wrote, declaimed, and read or acted plays from Shakes- 
peare whenever there was opportunity, in the chapel or elsewhere in 
surrounding localities. Richard III was one of these plays. One 
of the teachers, "Professor" Gilbert (teachers were all called Pro- 
fessors), recited "Clarence's Dream." The effort "brought down the 
house" ; and the Mystics were much elated. The old society was 
greatly in the shade. Professor Hurst was the prompter and "the 
man behind the scenes," and most of the credit for the success was 
due to him. 

At the Exhibition given by the Mystic Nine, March 20, 
1856, he delivered an address on ''Why Americans Love 
Shakespeare," later published as a pamphlet at Catskill, and a 
product of his muse, called "Farewell to Ashland," was sung 

The " White Horse " 57 

at the close of a very popular programme. Its three stanzas 
and chorus contained these lines : 

Ye snow-clad Catskill Mountains, 

We bow our heads to you ; 
Ye sparkling, gurgling fountains, 

We've drunk our last from you; 
Ye old familiar faces, 

Endeared by many a smile, 
We'll go to other places, 

But think of you the while. 
Departure has its sadness, 

The future seems but blank, 
Yet we will pluck with gladness 

The flowers on Avon's bank. 

Mrs. Sara C. Allaben, of Aiken, South Carolina, gives some 
inside views of the institution : 

His manners were those of a gentleman, quiet, dignified, with no 
airs or assumption whatever. He never fretted or fumed during 
class-time. In fact, his serene, dignified manner seemed to hold the 
most mischievous youth in check. Upon request he would allow his 
pupils to examine his class book. Perhaps he thought if they were 
not doing well it would make them more ambitious. 

One incident shows his especial kindness and good sense. I had 
a corner room on the fourth floor, larger than the ordinary rooms. 
When the evening nine o'clock bell rang, "our clan" of ten or a 
dozen girls would assemble there for fun and frolic. One evening a 
Miss Ostrander, by some miraculous method, transformed herself 
into an object called a "Turkey Buzzard." She hopped about in the 
most ridiculous manner, and we laughed till we were weary. "Well," 
I said, "the turkey buzzard makes us laugh, but I could get up some- 
thing, if I chose, that would frighten you even if you saw it made, 
and knew who was wearing it." The young ladies teased me for a 
week after. At last I consented to prepare it if they would not 
expect me to carry it about. It was that horrible-looking monster 
called a "White Horse," to be held over a person's head by two 
sticks, grinning and bowing at the onlookers in the most diabolical 
manner. A young lady in my French class, who had more than any 
other insisted on my making it, volunteered to wear it. She was so 
successful in frightening the young ladies at whose rooms she 

-s John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

knocked for admittance that she finally resolved to call on Miss 
Palmer and Miss La Monte, two teachers who roomed on the third 
floor. I tried to dissuade her, but go she would. Professor Hurst, 
who was calling on the ladies, opened the door. He grasped the 
specter, unmasking K.'s face. She screamed and he released her in- 
stantly. He could not help recognizing her, and she lay abed for a 
week feigning sickness to avert suspicion. Nothing came of it, 
however, and I doubt if it was discussed in the Faculty meeting. 

The merriment of a winter's frolic appealed to him, and he 
wrote in memory of one a poem of eight jingling stanzas 
which he called "The Sleighing Party." In these rhymes he 
skillfully connects the overtaking of a company of young folks 
by a heavy snowstorm while on an evening sleigh ride, their 
slow progress, bewilderment, loss of the road, the sudden clear- 
ing of the sky, the discovery of the road and their safe return, 
with the legend told by Irving in the Sketch Book : 

The Catskill Mountains were said to be ruled by an old squaw 
spirit, said to be their mother. She dwelt on the highest peak and had 
charge of the doors of day and night to open and shut them at the 
proper hour. She hung up new moons in the sky and cut up the 
old ones into stars. 

Catherine E. La Monte 59 

The Lover 

Catherine E. La Monte. — A Look Toward Germany. — Studying German at 


The acquaintance of young ''Professor" Hurst with Miss 
Catherine E. La Monte, the teacher of painting and other 
branches of "Fine Arts," as we have seen, began most pleas- 
ingly. It grew steadily into mutual admiration and esteem 
and ripened into hearty friendship and genuine love. He 
became her accepted lover in the spring of 1855. In his 
Journal he records this event of heart history : 

June 5, 1855. — Now, my good old Journal, I will introduce to you a 
name with which you may in time become quite familiar — Miss La 
Monte. Good Journal, take care of her, she will be doubly dear to 
you when you and she get better acquainted. She is my betrothed. 
I love her; she is beautiful, and has a heart. That is enough for 
you, for vulgar eyes might get a glimpse of these lines upon your 

Soon after the engagement Miss La Monte began teaching 
in a school at Liberty, Sullivan County, New York. From the 
letters to his betrothed some selections will give essential links 
in the chain of his rapidly developing life : 

May 3. — Just fourteen years ago my mother died. O Kate, if such 
a lovely woman, as my mother was, were only living now she would 
love you as dearly as she would me. 

16. — How many, many thoughts rose in my mind as if by magic 
when you asked me if I had ever read Festus. Indeed I have. It 
has beguiled many a swift hour of my time at college. I like it very 
much and would point you to some favorite passages of mine if the 
book in which I marked them had not fallen into the hands of one 
of the most detestable pests of society — a book-borrozver. 

26. — I have thought that there is too much of infidelity in woman's 

6o John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

heart ; indeed, I have thought she was forgetful of those who loved 
her; but I have judged her too harshly; you have redeemed your sex 
in my estimation. 1 look back upon my past experience and through 
the years that 1 have never loved, and they form a blank in my life. 
I have never known before what real life was. I am sure it does 
not consist in length of clays, in threescore and ten, but in the days 
and years of love which the heart lives. 

June 5. — If there were need of me here (Ashland) until the middle 
of August I should perhaps stay, but I shall have to be in Maryland 
then to settle with my uncle — I shall be of age at that time. I some- 
times think I must spend next winter at the South — I mean farther 
down than Maryland ; for my chest pains me at times and I must 
guard against the worst. Don't you mind it, my dear Kate, I only 
need warm weather. I don't think we shall continue longer than 
the close of the quarter — at any rate, I will see you at that time, if I 
live and am well. 

I wrote a letter this week which will affect us both materially. 
When I was in Baltimore I left my wish to have the farms belonging 
to my sister and myself sold. My sister's husband. Dr. Kurtz, has 
written to me to know if I am still of that opinion. I wrote him 
"no," but that I wished one to be retained, the old homestead for me. 
I meant for you and me. I will lose by not selling it, but matters 
have changed, you know, since I was in Baltimore, and I have the 
happiness of another to consult as well as my own. 

16. — When I think of us and know how T much we love each 
other, I feel perfectly happy. To know that there is one who can love 
me in prosperity or adversity affords me more enjoyment than any- 
thing except religion. I am happy beyond the common lot of mortals, 
and I owe much of it to the kindness and feeling of your heart. 
Whenever you tell me how much you think of me and how devoted 
you are, I love you more and God more. We know not what changes 
may come over us in life, but we do know, Kate, that we can weep 
for each other's sorrows and smile with each other's joys. There 
will be love and sympathy that will be as lasting as our lives, and I 
believe as enduring as eternity. We can help each other to serve 
God better, and we shall not be separated in death. 

August 6. — Kate, how would you like to go to Germany next year ? 
We can be married before we go. I will attend a German University 
(Berlin in all probability) and will fully prepare myself to take a 
good position in this country when we return. I have thought of it, 
but can't tell certainly by any means; — or had you rather I would go 
first and we be married when I return? In that event I should not 

A Look Toward Germany 6i 

remain more than a year, but I would rather we should go together. 
If I don't go as soon as next year, it will be from some circumstances 
that I do not now know. Perhaps I shall not go at all. It has been 
my intention for several years, however. 

14. — I am glad to hear you speak as you do of going with me to 
Germany. As I remarked before, I intend to go before a great 
while, but at what particular time I cannot now tell. We will talk it 
all over together first. 

17. — Dear Kate, wonders will never cease — I am going home at 
the close of the term, but will return and spend the winter here. My 
mind has never been so perplexed before, unless it were about this 
time one year ago. I do not wish to go to a new place where I know 
no one, and a physician who knows all about me thinks I would be 
safe in remaining here if I attend to myself properly. I told Mr. 
Pearson that if he would give me the Department of Languages, 
raise my salary to $400 a year, and allow me to leave any time during 
the winter that I might choose, provided he could supply my place 
by a few weeks' notice, I would remain. He agreed to it, and I 
shall make Ashland my home for the winter. I told him that this 
bargain extended no farther than spring. He agreed. 

Harrisburg, Pa., October 22. — Dr. McClintock has given me con- 
siderable information with regard to German Universities. I some- 
times think it is so hard that I cannot always be with my friends. 
Arbogast says we shall be together again if I go to Germany next 
year, for he will go with me. 

Ashland, November 18. — I think it is a settled matter with me, if 
my health last, to go to Germany. I have been making arrangements 
to that effect and have concluded to go. 

January 7, 1856. — I was very busy during the day (New Year's) 
at German, and I determined to finish Wilhelm Tell — the best play of 
the best German poet — before Sunday. I finished it on Saturday 
night, and at reading it I was thrilled and delighted, perhaps more 
than with any book in our own language. This gives me encourage- 
ment, and I am able to some degree to satisfy my early longing for a 
knowledge of German literature. 

February 18. — At the first of this quarter some young gentlemen 
came to me and wished me to take charge of a Shakespeare Club 
which they wished to form. I did so, as they were the finest students 
here, and so we have been meeting two nights in the week ever since. 

Just about this time, my dear Kate, one year ago I was sick, as 
you will remember. I shall always think of you for your kindness 
and how I loved you in my pain. Well, those are old days now to 

62 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

us both, and we can look back upon them with some degree of 
pleasure in spite of my pain, because it was then that our hearts were 
forming that connection which death alone can break. Affliction 
c< rtainly helped to knit my heart to yours, and I believe it helped to 
unite yours to me. 

26. — I am now busy on my lecture before the "Mystic Nine." The 
subject I have chosen is, "Why Americans Love Shakespeare." The 
subject, I think, will apply to the object of the Club, and I hope the 
matter will apply. 

March 9. — I have to deliver a lecture in Catskill at the close of the 
term on " The Origin and Nature of the English Language." The 
subject is prescribed and the lecture requested by the Teachers' 
Association of this county. I think I have my hands full, don't you? 

17. — I had bad news from home a few days ago. My uncle's only 
son died. I think he was about six years old. It will grieve them 
almost to death. I wrote Uncle John a letter to comfort him as much 
as I could, but a father's and mother's love is unappreciable by any 
but themselves. 

Our "Mystic Nine" will have their exhibition this week on Thurs- 
day. I have my address done. I have nearly finished my essay on 
"English Language" for Catskill. 

21. — Last night we had our "Mystic Nine" Exhibition. The read- 
ing Shakespeare and the Farce were the best things that have ever 
been in Ashland. We had a crowded house, more than were ever in 
the Seminary before. The reason was there were a great many 
invitations sent out to particular people, so that we had a splendid 
audience in size and behavior. My address was twenty-five minutes 

A visit with Miss La Monte at Charlotteville, on her return 
from Liberty, and a journey to Maryland intervene. Again 
he writes : 

Cambridge, May 3. — Just fifteen years ago my mother died. Many 
sad and bright scenes have passed since then, and before another 
fifteen years shall have passed I may be with my mother in heaven. 
May 3, it will be hallowed in your affections as it is in mine. 

At Home, May 10. — There is great opposition here at home to my 
going to Germany and still more to my taking anyone with me. They 
think it would really be injudicious. 

For about two months he is in Carlisle, preparing for his 
trip to Europe. 

Studying German at Carlisle 63 

Carlisle, May. — I am here studying German. I take three lessons 
a week, and long ones. I have read nearly two hundred pages, be- 
sides an indefinite number in the grammar since I came here. I do 
not think I shall have any difficulty after getting to Germany in 
understanding the lectures. I believe I told you what steamer we 
would go in — The Washington — on 9th August. You will be 
benefited by the voyage, and may God grant that our stay in Germany 
may better fit us for each other and for God. 

June 22. — Dr. McClintock preached this morning in chapel ; it 
was a good sermon, of course; for I never heard him preach a bad 
one. Mr. Arbogast is but little better. I took him out riding yester- 
day; this morning I talked with him about going to Germany. He 
expected to go in August with us, but I told him that the doctor had 
told me he could not go by the 9th August, and that he must get a 
great deal stronger to go at all. He has not strength enough to 
stand the sea voyage, and possibly he would be subject to a lingering 
illness in Germany. He asked me if I would wait for him; I told 
him I could not, that I would have gone in April or May if it had not 
been for waiting for him, and that he might be a great deal longer 
getting well or have a relapse and prevent me from employment here 
and going away altogether. He may, perhaps, think hard of it, but I 
cannot help it. 

27. — I am glad that you express \our willingness to go with me to 
Germany. It is a task to leave friends and relatives for so long a 
time as two years, yet I think we can both improve ourselves a great 
deal and, if nothing especially disastrous happen, we will return in 
improved health. I expect my sister will feel the trial greatly, but 
yet she submits when she thinks that it is for my good. 

July 1. — Mr. Arbogast has given up all idea of going to Germany 
with us. He cried like a child when he told me that he knew he 
could not go. I think it is almost time for us to be making some ar- 
rangements about when we shall be married. Now I cannot go to 
Charlotteville much before the 3d or 4th August. On the 6th we had 
better leave Charlotteville so as to be in New York 7th. What are 
you willing to do? Shall we be married the night before leaving 
Charlotteville? and does your father wish a company at his house? 
or had we better be married in the church and just afterward take 
the stage for Albany? The latter I prefer, and do not wish any party 
or anything of the kind; but I leave the matter in your hands to do 
as you feel best about. One thing, we must be in New York on 8th 
August, as I shall perhaps meet some friends there. The probability 
is that I shall have no one to go up to Charlotteville, which is not 

6-j. John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

what I had expected. Whether we are married in the church or at 
your father's house, wedding cards will have to be sent. Had I 
better get those in the city? and what must be put on them will be 
dependent on where we are to be married. I am afraid I cannot 
get to Charlotteville in time to send them to a distance, but will be 
there as soon as Sallie lets me leave home. How many will you 
want ? 

July 5. — Since I wrote you last I have received a letter from "The 
Bremen Line of Steamers" agent. I shall engage a stateroom for 
us at once. 

You ask : " When may I expect you ?" I answer, any time after 2d 
August. I can hereafter let you know the precise day, but not now. 
I shall have some business to attend to in New York, which I will 
do before going up to Charlotteville. 

I imagine that we shall soon feel at home in Germany. I shall 
have a number of letters of introduction and they will go a great 
way toward that. 

July 10. — I am pleased with your arrangement, but do not know 
how you will be married in white silk and travel at once. I am very 
well, and start for home in the morning. 


The Engagement Prolonged 

The strength of the tie which bound these two hearts in 
hope, in purpose, and in love was suddenly and powerfully 
tested by the issue presented between the nearly perfected plans 
for the wedding and the strong convictions of his sister and her 
husband, and his Uncle John, that a wiser plan and one more 
conducive to their united interests for the future would be to 
postpone marriage. How well this test was met, and how suc- 
cessfully though painfully passed, may be learned from the 
letters written at this juncture : 

Cambridge, Md., July 14, 1856. — I reached home on Saturday. On 
Friday I met my uncle in Baltimore. He had heard of my getting mar- 

The Lover 65 

ried through my sister. You know that my idea was not to get married 
when I passed through Baltimore last on my way to Carlisle, but since 
your father's proposition of a loan of money I had determined to ac- 
cept it and be married. My uncle had just heard of it and I had 
desisted writing because I chose to speak to him in person. My sister 
was strongly opposed to it and had written to him to use his utmost 
influence to dissuade me. I had written that Mr. Arbogast would not 
accompany us. The very idea that I had been so fondly resting 
upon for nearly two months was bitterly opposed by my friends; not, 
my dear Kate, that a single one of them has the least objection to 
you, but that they wish me to obtain your consent to postponing the 
marriage one year. This is not my wish ; my wishes and fondest 
hopes would be realized if we are married and sail immediately for 
Europe. You have made every preparation for it, and so have I. I 
suppose you have purchased everything necessary for our immediate 
marriage. I have even gone so far as to engage passports and 
passage for us both. 

The reasons on which my sister, uncle, and Dr. Kurtz rest their ad- 
vice are these : they all think that I should not marry without knowing 
exactly what will be my field of labor, and that, in case some accident 
should happen to me, you will be helpless in a strange land. They 
are equally opposed to my staying two years abroad. I started from 
Carlisle with the hope of soon possessing you, the idol of my heart 
and almost of my reason. In Baltimore I met my uncle's strong dis- 
approbation of the measure; here, at my sister's, they urge the same 
strong reasons. I cannot say there is no weight in their reasons. 
Your father's consent was given me to take you away on condition 
that my uncle and friends agree. They have never heard definitely 
of it until very recently, as we ourselves have not, and it has only 
been within the last three days that I have been able to speak face to 
face with them on the subject. As much as they dislike my going to 
Germany, they dislike still more for me to subject you to any unneces- 
sary trouble. My sister gives her consent to my going to Germany 
and remaining one year, after which that on my return I marry you 
and both come down among my friends together. It is the ardent 
wish of my only sister, the advice of Dr. Kurtz, and I am sure will 
be sanctioned by my uncle. Shall we yield to the advice of my 
friends ? I leave the question to you and your kind father to decide. 
It is sometimes an unpleasant thing to yield to friends and their 
entreaties of love. Nay, I go farther, it is sometimes unpleasant to 
have friends. The friends who advise me to do as I now propose to 
do are true friends of the heart and wish me every happiness, and 

66 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

to bring to you the same conjugal happiness. I can, perhaps, ac- 
complish my object in one year of hard study in Germany. With 
two months' study of German in Carlisle, I think I can accomplish a 
great deal in Germany in one year. As I said, my friends are op- 
posed to my staying any longer. If we get married next summer it 
will have been two years and three months since we were engaged, 
not then as long as I anticipated when we were engaged at Ashland. 
Do not let this affect you much, for I will see you very soon. In a 
few days after I get an answer to this letter I will start for Charlotte- 
ville. I want you to come into the family without a single objection; 
here you will find as dear a sister as you left at home, and as kind 
friends as any you leave behind, except those that exist only in parents. 

I suppose you have written to some of your friends that we will 
soon be married. I have done the same and have invited a number 
of my friends to meet us in New York. This they will expect to do 
and, if you agree to the wishes of my friends, I will write to them 
the contrary. My friends have no objection to my marrying at 
once if I do not go to Germany. But I must go to Germany; for I 
believe it will be far better for us both in after life. They do not 
wish me to remain more than a year in Germany, and do not think 
that I should postpone the marriage any longer than that. Heaven 
knows that I shall not be happy until I am married to you. Ever 
since I talked with my uncle I have had but little enjoyment. Even 
in conversation, in my private moments and everywhere, I have been 
thinking of the sad change in our present arrangements. But before 
I see my own friends next summer I shall be united to you, and we 
both come south together. Yes, my dear Kate, you are the hope of 
my life. There is a sympathy — a chain which unites us that can 
never be broken. My friends wish to lengthen that chain, not to 
break it. It cannot break by its own weight, for you and I love as 
long as we live. There is no change in feeling, no change in the 
intensity of my love. It is as lasting and as constant as the beatings 
of my own heart. Do you blame me for what I advise, namely, that 
we wait one year? It is not happiness lost; it is like a slow but 
steady spring; summer will come. I believe your father will not 
blame me, and if he will only look at the matter in a practical point 
of view I am sure it will be best. I inclose a few lines to your father; 
they are about the same that I have written to you. I think we can 
take a ride to Cooperstown. Please write your own convictions of 
my course. Your own Tohx. 

I will start almost as soon as an answer comes from you and your 

The Lover 67 

His letter to Dr. La Monte of same date inclosed one also 
from Dr. Kurtz, his brother-in-law, both briefly stating reasons 
for deferring marriage until his return from Germany. 

Cambridge, July 18. 
To Miss La Monte : 

I know you must have had an unhappy time for two or three days 
owing to my last letter. Have you thought it unkind in me to write 
as I did? I do not believe such a thought will cross your breast. I 
hope not, for your happiness is my great aim. Do not let your mind 
dwell upon what I have written; give no one information on the 
subject; just let the matter rest until I get to Charlotteville ; then we 
will do whatever will make us most happy for the present or pros- 
pectively. Do not grieve, do not let sad thoughts possess your mind. 
I tell you candidly I am willing to do whatever will increase your 
happiness and try to give all due weight to the opinions and advices 
of my friends. Whatever will make you most happy, I will do. So 
do not give way to sad thoughts. It was right for me to write what 
I did. In my letter I tried to express only the convictions of my 
friends. When I see you I will express my own. The Doctor and 
Sallie think a great deal of you. I was visiting last night with them. 
Next Thursday (24) I will try to start from here, and with some 
effort I can possibly be in Charlotteville on Saturday, 26. Do not 
blame me for having written that letter, no matter how unexpected 
it was. I send a rose ; it has a kiss for you. Give my love to all. 

July 21. — I cannot make all my arrangements as soon as I had 
expected, but will be in Charlotteville as early next week as possible. 
I cannot get there by Saturday night this week as I had hoped and 
written to you. I love you constantly, devotedly, more, if such a 
thing can be, since I wrote that task of a letter than before. I know 
that during my year in Europe I shall be deprived of many a joy, 
but yet it is honorable to yield to friends even though many sacrifices 
must be made. 

July 25. — Here at home I live in a careless style. Not careless as 
regards you, dear Kate, for I do not believe a thought of you could 
occur to me and pass by without a care that you may be happy and in 
excellent health. Yes, you are always an object of solicitude, and, 
however far we may be separated, you are the same to me, the one 
whom I love and the one who loves me. I believe every word you 
ever told me. Could I disbelieve a word, a look, from you, my days 
would be unhappy. Well, I did not get from home as soon as I 

68 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

expected, otherwise I should have been at Charlotteville before you 
get this letter. The reason I did not get off a few days sooner is 
that my clothes were not prepared as soon as they were promised. 
1 shall start from here on Monday if nothing happens. Without 
delaying two hours in Baltimore, I shall keep on to Philadelphia and 
be in New York Tuesday morning. So by Wednesday night you 
may expect me. I want to spend all my time with you. I have a 
world to tell you which you know notdiing of now. I am afraid you 
have given yourself too much uneasiness about Germany. I hope not. 
I have prayed that the matter may not weigh too much on your mind 
and feelings. I believe that my prayers have been answered. I am 
determined when I see you to make every sacrifice, any sacrifice 
sooner than your happiness shall be interfered with in the least. 

The pathos of this ten days' visit and the converse of these 
lovers in the shadow of a foreseen separation of a year or more 
cannot here be traced. Enough to know they both faced the 
disappointment bravely and adjusted their plans to the changed 
situation, strong in a mutual confidence and fidelity which were 
never diminished. Before starting on his first trip across the 
Atlantic he sent this word to Miss La Monte : 

Dey Street House, New York City, August 8. 
We happened to reach Albany in time for the boat, but it was 
merely a " happen " and not the particular wish of the stage driver. 
This morning we reached the city about seven, after a delightful ride 
down the river. I found everything right and have a stateroom 
which I expect will be occupied by me alone. The Washington is a 
huge-looking vessel, and to all appearances can stand anything. I 
hope you will anticipate as pleasant a time as I do. I know you 
feel, but remember that what I do for myself is also for you. 

The Student-Tkayeler 69 

The Student-Traveler 

A Landlubber's Log. — In Brunswick 

His departure from the home land, his first ocean voyage, 
and his first German home in Brunswick are described in his 
Journal and in letters to Miss La Monte : 

New York, August 9. — Saturday — Dey Street House overnight. 
Went over to steamer Washington in good time, and was fairly ini- 
tiated into German life. All around were gabbling Deutsch. 
Friends were bidding each other good-bye in German. Old German 
women were carrying their children in German and sailors of the 
boat were fixing the rigging in German. The first thing I was told on 
entering the boat was, "Clean your feet." I thought that was a good 
indication of cleanliness on the steamer, of which I was afterward 
disabused. Crowds were gathering on the wharf. I saw no 
familiar face, while almost everyone was looking (perhaps for the 
last time) his friend in the face, who had shaken hands and left the 
boat. At last I saw Professor Schem, of Dickinson College, who 
had been apprised of my departure. How glad I was no one can tell ! 
I had left dear friends in Maryland, a far dearer one in Charlotte- 
ville ; but no long-tried friend gave me the parting hand, the parting 
kiss, the parting look as I stepped on board the steamer. Professor 
Schem gave me a hearty shake-hands and every hope of success. W e 
sailed at twelve. I shed no tears. I had none. I am in the second 
cabin among the Dutch, low Dutch. Slept well during night and 
waked up with no point of land to rest my eyes upon. My native 
land though not in view, yet no less dear or highly prized. 

10. — Sunday on the ocean — not much like Sunday in a quiet New 
York village or country town in Maryland. The sailors knew no 
difference or acted none. Some were stretched out on forward deck 
with head on a piece of iron, bunch of rope, or handspike, sleeping 
away, or it may be reading a New York Herald and smoking an 
insufferably stinking Dutch pipe. We had no service, and I could 
scarcely realize it was the Lord's Day. We saw a number of 
whales playing about the ship. They were the first I had ever seen, 

yo John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

and their long sleek hacks and streams of water were curious enough. 
In the afternoon a fog settled over the sea, and almost before we 
were aware of it we were in the midst of it. Went to sleep with 
minute whistle in my ears. 

ii. — Rose late. The fog had disappeared. Played a game of 
chess with an Englishman named Coxherd with whom I have formed 
a very pleasant acquaintance. He is a fine fellow. 

12. — Awoke about 7 a. m. Had a fine sleep and washed in salt 
sea water all over, as on previous morning. The sailors give no little 
annoyance as they scrub the decks just over my berth. Really it 
seems as if they were scrubbing my own back with a flesh brush. A 
raging appetite is growing upon me. The meals on the steamer are 
so decidedly Dutch that I can scarcely conform to them, and were I 
not so insatiably hungry I would undertake to be aristocratic and 
dainty, but it is no use to conceal feelings. Beat the Englishman at 
chess. Saw a beautiful meteor at night. It is now late at night. 
The sailors are singing "Old Dog Tray/' "God Save the Queen," 
"Lilly Dale," and some of the familiar songs of my own native land. 

13. — Rose in time for breakfast. Some of us in the room came 
near losing our breakfast, as but one could dress at a time. Gradually 
becoming acquainted with fellow passengers of second cabin. Find 
myself loading with cards and invitations to visit at Cassel, Heil- 
bronn, and all the other Dutch places inconceivably hard to pro- 
nounce. The meals are still Dutch. The soup had macaroni. I find 
it hard to eat. Potato salad which for fear of forgetting I say is 
made up of sliced cooked potatoes, oil, onions, and vinegar, and — but 
that is Dutch enough for the present. Tried to translate some 
German, but cannot fix my mind and commenced reading Helen 
Lincoln for passing time. Read my Bible regularly. Was invited 
strongly and repeatedly by my English friend to play cards, but re- 
fused. He is not so anxious to play chess, however. I write in for- 
ward cabin. Some playing cards, children are crying and playing, 
some drinking lager, and others looking on, while all are talking 
Dutch, French, or something which is not so near my mother 
English. I like my language more and more. 

14. — Sat a long while on the prow of the boat and watched the 
bounding and breaking waves, the floating polypi, the sailing fish, the 
distant whales, but saw no land and could only love and remember 
scenes in my native land. The last one from whom I had taken the 
parting kiss in my country occupied mostly my thought. How dear 
life seems to me when I know that some one loves me ; but love is 
on the land and I am on the sea. Ah, I know that love bears me up 

The Student-Traveler 71 

and the prayers put up to heaven from a loving heart in my distant 
mountain home bless me even on the angry waves. O may I be able 
to breathe a worthy prayer to bless the soul and life of my existence. 
Went to bed amid fog, but feel a calm trust in God that I am safe 
and would be permitted to return home with improved mind and more 
capacity for doing good. 

15. — Watched the variegated jelly-looking fish. Went to bed in 
such a sea that I was completely rocked to sleep and my berth was 
sidewise, cradlelike. 

16. — Read through Children of the Abbey. Pretty fair story if 
plot constitutes a story. Commenced a piece for Ladies' Repository 
on "The Sea ! The Sea !" Don't know whether or not will finish. 
Great rejoicing that the fog is gone. Commenced letter to Kate. 

17. — Birthday on the sea. Captain had services in after-saloon to 
which forward cabin passengers were invited. Captain read hymns, 
" From all that Dwell below the Skies," and " From Greenland's 
Icy Mountains," one of Watson's sermons, and prayers, Episcopal 
Prayer Book. The sailors attended, but were lively enough when 
Captain did not see them. They were all dressed up finely enough. 
Afternoon German preaching in forward cabin. A Hungarian and 
Irishman were disorderly, at which the Captain was near confining 
them both until end of voyage. The day was quite Sundaylike, but 
O, how different from land ! Commenced letter to sister Sallie and 
continued Kate's. 

18. — Wrote some on "The Sea ! The Sea !" A lecture at night by 
Peit Stenardonics, a Hungarian exile, a good speaker, and late 
captain in Hungarian army. 

19. — Finished "The Sea !" but have not copied it. 

20. — Wind rises, we enter English Channel. It is quite stormy for 
a landsman. 

21. — Slept but little during the night. Rolled about in my berth. 
Every joint in the boat seemed to creak. The boat pitches fearfully. 
Nearly all on board seasick. I ate but little, to guard against it. All 
are in expectation of seeing the Scilly Island lights. 

22. — Got up in the night thinking it was day and I would see a 
fine sunrise, but alas! on rising and dressing in a reel, found the 
boat heaving fearfully, with the bright heavens and the sailors on the 
lookout for land. About 9 a. m. made Land's End, England. No 
one knows but those in the same situation how happy I felt on seeing 
land once more. What beautiful chalk cliffs all along the English 
coast ! Sometimes we were far out of sight of land, but soon came 
in front of an abrupt point and could see the beautiful green fields 

j2 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

and parks of Merrie England. It was night when we passed Hnrst 
Castle, perhaps the home of my fathers. I could see only the out- 
lines of the old towers by moonlight. It was beautiful in its gloomy, 
silent melancholy. We entered the Needles without getting a pilot. 
It was difficult to enter, but our Captain and mate risked it. We 
reached Cowes about n o'clock at night. A boat came after con- 
siderable waiting to take off the mails and passengers for Southamp- 
ton. I was a little sorry to see some of the passengers leave, but 
thus acquaintance is formed and broken all through life. It is sel- 
dom that traveling acquaintances are permanent. It requires some- 
thing more than mere accident to perpetuate acquaintance, and we 
have but little faith in love at first sight. We left Cowes about three. 
Mailed three letters, one for Kate, another for Ladies' Repository, and 
third for sister. 

23. — Enjoyed the beautiful scenery of England very much. 
Brighton, the great bathing place, and a favorite resort of the 
Queen, presented a beautiful appearance through the spyglass. 
"Shakespeare Rock" was of chalk where King Lear didn't jump off. 
The coast of France in the distance. Dover is a beautiful place — a 
large city and has splendid buildings; Dover Castle is grand, and I 
hope to visit it before leaving. Hastings is fine, and William the 
Conqueror landed there in 1066. The great battle between him and 
Harold occurred close by. His old castle is on the hill to the north. 
It is now in ruins. Sailors, officers, and all have been continually 
talking of the stormy North Sea. 

24. — The sea is rather quiet, and we are sailing on the North Sea 
with all sails up. Met a good many boats, very unlike the lonesome 
time we had on the Atlantic. A number of storms are in view. We 
make the coast of Holland. It is rather low in appearance and in 
fact. Saw Heligoland in the distance. Its inhabitants never leave 
the island. They are always the best of pilots and sailors. 

Steamer Washington, August 15. 
To Miss La Monte : 

You cannot tell my feelings when I stepped aboard the steamer in 
New York unaccompanied by anyone save the avaricious porter. I 
say you cannot tell my feelings, but you can, too ; those feelings found 
a response in your heart and I dare say you watched the hours of 
Saturday, 9th, and knew as well as I did when 12 o'clock came. I 
did feel as though I would like to see some familiar face and grasp 
some sincere hand. My baggage had been stored away and I was 
ready to leave, only I wanted to see some friend. While I was thus 

The Student-Traveler -3 

watching the eager crowd, I saw one, it was no one you know, but 
one whom I thought a great deal of, Professor Schem, of Carlisle. 
I had not seen him since I left Carlisle, but he knew I was to leave 
on 9th, and had not forgotten. I went off the boat, shook hands, and 
I imagine he was glad to see me. I told him how it was with us ; 
he thought it best as it is, and said that I could accomplish my object 
in a year abroad. We talked till just before the boat left. He 
gave me a hearty grasp and earnest hopes of success. It was all I 
wanted then, some expression of sincerity before I left. 

August 22. — I have felt, my dear Kate, that your prayers have 
helped me. Almost ever since I left you, I have had an unusual 
trust and confidence in God. Yes, I know your prayers have helped 
me ; I have prayed for you, but I feel more in need of prayers than I 
know you are. I have a thousand things to guard against that you 
have not and know nothing about. I am so much afraid that you 
have been troubled about me. O, I trust not. Since I remain in 
Germany but one year, I know now that it is best that you did not 
come. I should probably have kept you two years from home and 
without having employed the most of my time in strict study. I 
might have lost the year which I now gain. I intend, if possible, to 
accomplish all my expectation in one year's time, and if I do not I 
shall consider that God knows best and does best. 

His arrival in Bremen, August 25, was little more than a 
preliminary to a hasty departure to Brunswick, from which 
place, after securing quarters, he writes to Miss La Monte 
August 3 1 : 

At first I stopped at the "Deutsches Haus," but it was in a narrow 
street and looked rather gloomy ; so it has been something of a relief 
for me to get into a private family. My old landlord and landlady 
are really funny people. They can't speak a word of English, and we 
have great times to understand each other. He sends me up the 
German newspapers every morning, for which I thank the boy in the 
best German I can command. I have two rooms because they are 
both small and are connected. Conscience knows how old the house 
is. It is half bent with age, and instead of its head getting gray, it is 
getting green as fast as the moss can cover the rough, irregular tiles. 
The Dom is about twenty feet, not that much, from my room. It is 
an old, old church, full of pictures and arches and statues built by 
Henry the Lion. He is buried in it, and I believe other kings also. 

74 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

My breakfast is sent to me at 7^2 in the morning. It always con- 
sists of delightful coffee (a nice pot of it), six rolls and butter. I 
eat all up commonly. Yesterday morning they sent me only five rolls, 
which I devoured in a hurry. I go to Miss Agnes (Sach) to recite 
at M to 10; go to the same house at dinner and supper. We always 
talk German, and I am getting along pretty finely. 

On Foot in the Harz Mountains 

His foot-journeys and the life of the open air formed a chief 
item in the combined pleasures of studious observation and the 
recuperation of health. This habit now forming was strength- 
ened by several pedestrian tours during his first stay in Europe. 
The first was a short one, from Brunswick to Wolfenbuttel, on 
September 10, of which he writes (Journal) when beginning 
a second and longer one in the Harz Mountains : 

September II, Brunswick. — Had a pleasant time at Wolfenbuttel. 
So much of the "charming dust" was enough to fill me up with it or 
rather choke me, but I did not walk home, or that might have been 
the case. All through the road from Brunswick to Wolfenbuttel it 
was grand — splendid avenues of trees. We reached hotel in the 
afternoon by railroad. Took late dinner, but it was all the better to 
make up for it. Had chance to read a number of pages in Schiller's 
Fall of Netherlands, when Waite and Coit (Joshua) took it into 
their heads to go to Harz next morning. I believe I was the first, 
however, for I mentioned that it would be a good idea ; for the 
weather was so fine, which is something of a rarity thus far in Ger- 
many. Well, I slept well after the nine miles walk of the day. We 
took railroad to Harzburg which is situated at the foot of the Harz 
Mountains. Coit, Waite, and Registrator Sach were company. We 
then commenced the ascent of the Harz. Of course, we rested occa- 
sionally. We overtook a party of ladies who were going as far as 
the old castle on the way to the Brocken. At last we reached a 
hotel situated by the ruins of an old castle which Julius Caesar is 
said to have built, but more probably Henry IV. Gathered some 

The Student-Traveler 75 

little flowers from the old castle walls to send to Kate, but as I have 
gathered so many on the way and mixed them I can't tell which is 
which. We went out of the way a mile or two to get a fine view 
from some high rocks. We met a party on mules, who had just come 
down the Harz. There was a pretty girl among them. I went into 
a house or several of them to see how the people lived. We took a 
guide at one of the houses. He would talk very loud, and as I asked 
him to tell me some Brocken yarns he would tell me some fine ones, 
and on my insisting that he should talk slower and lower he would 
not do it. He was clever, and I had some fine jokes with him and 
his frau when we left him. I believe they kept the cow in another 
room of the dwelling. Had some delicious milk here — it was just 
like cream. We finally reached the great Brocken. We had been 
walking uphill nearly nine hours and were tired. Had a grand sunset. 
I had never seen the like before. 

12. — Rose quite early and, after going to the top of the observatory 
and witnessing a "Sunrise on the Brocken," came down to breakfast, 
or rather coffee and bread alone, as is the custom here in Germany. 
What a time coming down the hills ! No one can tell but those who 
have undergone the same experience. My legs were tired, I believe, 
more than in going up the evening before, because different muscles 
were brought into play. First we were in a beautiful vale and then 
on some grand point. The way to Ilsenstein was very pleasant after 
I gave my knapsack to a boy to carry. We finally reached Ilsenstein, 
a point 350 feet over the vale below and 1,450 feet above the level 
of the North Sea. We did not go to Ilsenburg, but swept on our 
way to Wernigerode. I gathered a little flower that was peculiar to 
the land over which I traveled, to send to some of my friends and 
particularly to her who is nearest my heart and whose locket I bear 
about with me. We were almost worn out, and every five minutes 
asked the Fuhrer when we would be where there is anything to eat. 
At last we reached a Wirthshaus. Huge and small antlers were hung 
around the walls, and since then we came to a house where they were 
so arranged on the walls as to form different figures, such as dia- 
monds and others. I had been talking on the way with some German 
ladies who accompanied us. They could understand me, and I could 
partially understand them. Here at the Gast Haus we had sausage, 
black bread, and milk, which quite refreshed us all. Then we started 
for Wernigerode again and had a good echo or two at one point on 
the way. We approached the city within a mile, when a delightful 
landscape was presented to the view. Below us the vale was gradual 
and presented a fine appearance. To the right on the side of the 

j6 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

far-stretching hills were peasants laboring in the barley and potato 
fields. They take off their hats at the approach of strangers, and 
sometimes they dispatch one for money. In front of this beautiful 
landscape is the old castle of Elbingerode, high on a mountain with 
the village below and between us and it. To the left rises the peak 
of the Brocken. For real beauty this landscape surpassed anything 
that I have seen in Europe or America. 

We stopped all together at the Deutsches Haus. We partook of 
table d'hote, but I had just half-satisfied myself with six pears that I 
had purchased at the city gate. We went to the top of the castle, 
which is at present occupied by the court of the city. After going 
up a long high mountain side we came to the outside of the old 
castle. A woman came out with some keys, and we supposed she 
was going to carry us up to the top of the castle and let us see the 
fine landscape that we had just viewed from a more retired place; 
but, no, she kept carrying us around and around, always on the 
ground until we were within fifty feet from the top of the building. 
We saw some flowers and. grapevines and a pretty fair view below, 
considering the branches of the trees in the way. At last we came 
to a halt. She carried us through an old stairway or two, but of no 
observatory did we see the inside. On the whole I was disappointed, 
but gave our conductor some money from American name rather 
than from any idea of benefit or pleasure derived from the old castle. 
We had now traveled six hours, but here was not the end, and we 
had to go three hours more to Riibeland, making nine hours for the 
day, and, counting three miles to the hour, twenty-seven miles. 

Riibeland. — We had a pretty good supper, but I was awfully tired 
and worn out. I was startled at times in my sleep — one time I 
thought myself actually sick, but up, up and out, no time for dreams 
here. We visit Bauman's Cave, and the iron and marble works a 
little out of town. 

13. — Long, long we go till away in the afternoon we got to Ross- 
Trappe. At night slept at bottom of Ross-Trappe with Hexentanzplatz 
behind and the rolling stream in view, with dark mountains behind it. 

14. — Visit Halberstadt, and now at night I am so tired, here in 
Brunswick, that I must go to bed. 

On this outing in the Harz Mountains he makes these com- 
ments : 

It is seldom the case that the American who travels in Europe 
ever cares much about visiting the Harz unless he does it to gratify 

The Student-Traveler j~ 

his taste for geology. But it is not everyone who has this taste, and 
hence travelers prefer to go by railroad or post through Europe in- 
stead of putting up with some inconveniences and doing a little foot 
traveling. For those, then, who intend to do all their traveling in a 
car or coach the Harz can afford no inducement. One must expect 
inconveniences such as walking up a great many mountain sides, a 
restless night from too much exercise, and sometimes a little hunger. 
Already supplied with these facts, we commenced a pedestrian tour 
to the Harz, and for all the inconveniences I suffered I now feel 
amply repaid. 


At Old Halle 

After a few side trips to Wolfenbiittel, the Harz Mountains, 
and Magdeburg, mid-October saw our young student settled 
in Halle, and in its famous university we find him matriculated 
October 31, 1856, as a student in the department of Theology, 
which registered four hundred and forty-five the latter half of 
that year. Three other Americans were his companions in 
theological study — William Alvin Bartlett, of Binghamton, 
New York; Joshua Coit, of New London, Connecticut; and 
Clarendon Waite, of Worcester, Massachusetts. All four had 
their home at 6 Scharnngasse. Another American was one of 
seventy-nine students in the department of Philosophy, Henry 
Hedge Mitchell, of Belfast, Maine. Halle was crowded that 
year with seven hundred students, of whom these five were 
the only Americans. John Fletcher Hurst was listed on the 
rolls of Professor Jacobi in Church History, of Professor Roe- 
diger in Introduction, of Professor Tholuck in Encyclopaedia, 
and probably of Professor Julius Miiller in Doctrinal Theology. 
In his letters and Journal his own pen has supplied a picture 
of his life at Halle, and on some excursions to other places. 

j8> John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

Halle, October 19. 
To Miss La Monte : 

The next morning, after arrival, I was visiting a curious building 
in Halle, and fortunately fell in with an American by the name of 
Bartlett. I found him to be a very good fellow, and one whom I 
could get along with as a companion. 

October 22. — Bartlett happened to be living in the same house that 
the two Puritans had just entered, and it was very close to the 
University and looked out on a beautiful promenade near the Uni- 
versity. There was but one room vacant. That was in the fourth 
story and at the back part of the building. It was very small, and a 
very tall person would have considerable difficulty in bending his 
head and shoulders for the many angles which are formed by the 
hip roof and un-American sort of window. Independent of that was 
the little bedroom which was just large enough to come out of the 
next morning the same way one goes in overnight, without turning 
around. These two little rooms I engaged, at about $17, till next 
March, with heating of one included. Everything else I have is 
extra. My house expenses for a week I think I can nearly determine. 
One half bowl of loaf sugar, one can of lamp oil, four loaves of 
brown bread, l l A plates of butter, with three cups of coffee every 
morning and three cups of tea at night. My dinner I take with Bart- 
lett, in a little eating house about five minutes' walk from the boarding 
house. Generally my dinner costs about thirteen cents, but if I take 
rabbit instead of beefsteak it is something more, as well also if I 
have the daring impudence to call for two or three potatoes more 
than they put on my plate. My plates of food I keep in a little drawer 
in my room, and I can pull the bell whenever I wish any more brown 
bread, or a little turf to put in the stove. 

The professors, too, are somewhat different from the overdignified 
manner which I have seen in colleges at home. They are exceedingly 
kind. The two Yankees, Bartlett and I, were invited to Dr. Tholuck's 
to tea the other evening. We had a pleasant time, and Mrs. Tholuck 
is more like an American lady than anyone I have seen lately. I 
heard a lecture to-day, but the professor spoke as if his mouth were 
full of brown bread, and even one of the German students told me 
that he was hard to understand. If Dutch can't understand Dutch, I 
don't know what will become of English. 

His purpose to see the historic places of Europe carries him 
out of Halle for three or four days before he has been three 
weeks within its classic precincts. 

The Student-Traveler 79 

November 1. — In Weimar — the home of Goethe, Schiller, and 

2. — In Erfnrt, where Luther was a monk ; visited the cell and 
bought some autographs — representations of Luther's chirography as 
well as Melanchthon's. 

3. — Visited the Thiiringer-wald, Gotha — the home of Prince Albert 
— and Eisenach, where I drank five cups of tea, smoked a cigar, 
talked over college days, the compound and some of its illustrious 
members, as well as over-sea experiences. Don't feel tired much, 
although have walked nearly thirty miles to-day. 1 

Halle, November 5. 
To Miss La Monte : 

While you are all together some evening indulging in nice cake 
and other such luxuries, I am away up here in a back attic room 
reading some Dutch books and every few minutes taking a slice of 
my brown bread, if it is mealtime with me, or speaking bad German 
to some student visitor. Well, these things can't last forever. 

Halle, November 24. 
To John Hurst: 

My Dear Uncle: The new life to which I have been subjected 
and the study which I must perform have prevented me from doing 
many things that I did not by any means intend to neglect when I 
left the United States. One of them was to write to you, but I 
believe at this late date you will willingly read a few lines on what 
I have been doing since I have been here. The first six weeks I 
spent in Brunswick, one of the oldest and handsomest of the German 
cities, where I lived and studied German in a nice family to whom I 
had a letter of introduction. The language is spoken in greater 
purity in Brunswick than in any other part of Germany, and this 
was no little inducement to spend a little while there before attending 
University lectures. During the four weeks that I have been listen- 
ing to the lectures in Halle I have succeeded in getting accustomed 
to the language and the style of the lectures, so that at this time I 
feel that I am deriving profit from the ideas as well as the German' 
when I listen to a long lecture. I had several letters to professors 
here, and as soon as I became fixed in a boarding house I paid them 
calls and handed my letters to them. That was enough to secure 
their kindness and attention, and each one of them with whom I am 
acquainted has acted to me in such a different way from what I had 

1 For an interesting account of this outing see his Life and Literature in the Fatherland, 
pp. 396, ft. 

8o John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

been accustomed to at home that I felt at once that they were really 
kind friends. 

Journal. Christmas Eve. — Studied hard all day. Had been hoping 
ever since I had been in Halle that Dr. Tholuck would give us 
American students an invitation to his celebrated Christmas Eve 
celebration. On the morning of the day when he was to have it. he 
sent out his bungling invitation to one of the members who was off 
traveling, which was likely to knock the remaining ones out of a 
good time unless we opened the letter or our absent friend returned. 
Bartlett opened it, and there was an invitation for us all. So we went. 

Christmas Day. — Studied pretty hard again. At night we English 
and Americans had a great supper. 

December 26. — Started in cars for Dresden. No fire in the cars. 
I distributed tracts in the cars. Almost everyone whom I gave them 
to seemed very glad to get them, but one fellow in the corner looked 
like a Jew, and I noticed him very curiously to see what he would do 
with a tract, but he would not even take one. The one who sat next 
to him handed one to him, but he refused, and when he saw that 
nothing was charged for them persisted in refusing. In Dresden was 
almost frozen. Arrived at "Golden Angel'' Hotel ; finely accommo- 
dated. Fell in with a fine old man from Gottingen, who is, I think, 
a professor there. He was kind, and we have been together since. 
Sunday heard a fine half of a sermon in a Lutheran church, and then 
went to the great Catholic church, where there was a greater amount 
of circumstance and show than I had before seen. It is now Sunday 
night. With the prayer that God will continue to bless me, and my 
friends at home, and make Germany more Christian, I here drop 
my pencil and sleep at peace with God and all the world. 

Dresden, 27. — What have I really seen to-day ? The Green Vaults, 
the Historical Cabinets. What a world of jewels, silver utensils, gold, 
and everything else that reminds one of luxury ! What struck me 
most was that all the fine articles were productions of the middle ages. 
And then the Great Armory, the coats of mail, the slippers of Kant 
and Napoleon with them, and a thousand other mementos of a great 
many other great men. 

28. — Visited with my friend the Japanese Gallery. Had much joy 
in visiting these antique specimens of sculpture. Visited once more, 
and more attentively, the picture gallery, and gave a farewell look 
at the Madonna. 

The trip to Dresden was lengthened to take in Berlin, Pots- 

The Student-Traveler 8i 

dam, and Wittenberg. This is the way he plans for another 

tour : 

Halle, February 22, 1857. 
To Miss La Monte: 

I have been working like a Turk all this winter, and really I feel 
as if I ought to rest a while. We shall have but six weeks to see 
the cities of Eastern Germany. Dresden I have already seen, but 
then we must spend a couple of days in Prague, three or four in 
Vienna, then keep on to Trieste, take the steamer from there to Ven- 
ice, and then perhaps direct across the Apennines to Rome. We shall 
expect to make a hasty visit and take it rough. 

Venice, Italy, March 18. 
To Miss La Monte : 

How I did hate to leave Halle ! I little thought that I could get 
attached to such a rough-looking, antiquated place as Halle is, but 
so it was, and I could not leave without sincere regrets. The Wednes- 
day night or evening before I left Halle I spent very pleasantly with 
Bartlett, for I know not whether I shall ever see him again. Next 
morning I bade him good-bye in bed, and my heart yearned after him 
when I gave him the parting hand. My books were all packed up 
and put in charge for me at Halle until I may order them to be sent 
to the U. S., with whatever additions I may make to them before 
leaving Europe. I dislike so much to give the "Leben sie wohl" to 
my good old landlady and her old dissipated husband. The girl with 
dirty hands, who used to make my fires, had grown familiar to me, and 
I was sad even in giving her the parting words. Another girl, who 
used to bring me my bread and coffee, had such a pleasant voice and 
was always so kind that I disliked very much to leave her. The old 
bootblack came to see me the day before I was to leave, to see if 
I had any old clothes or boot-legacies for him, as well as to get 
his last Thaler for bootblacking. I didn't want to leave even him. 
All my old clothes I gave to my fat old landlady for whatever poor 
children she thought might need them. Yes, I drank my last cup 
of coffee, ate my last piece of bread, and stood at my desk for the 
last time with no little regret. 

The Rev. Dr. W. A. Bartlett, who frequently met his theo- 
logue friend in after life and who was pastor of the New York 
Avenue Presbyterian Church in Washington during the first 
few years of Bishop Hurst's residence there, gives us the bene- 

82 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

fit of his keen-eyed observations at Halle and on sundry jour- 
neys with our student-traveler: 

Bishop Hurst, as a young man in the University of Halle, was a 
typical American youth of the period. He had the push, the enthusi- 
asm, the confident ability, and the good nature of a young man with 
a future. Forty-eight years ago, the students from the States were 
not so numerous as to-day in German Universities. 

When we met at Halle, in the fall of 1856, to prosecute our the- 
ological studies under Julius Miiller, Tholuck, and Jacobi, we were the 
sole Americans in our line of work, although soon afterward we were 
joined by two others. Young Hurst, coming from the Eastern Shore, 
Maryland, brought its peculiar traditions and customs, and in his 
hearty, genial manner entertained us often at meals, at the house of 
Tholuck, by explaining these American eccentricities. At this time 
Hurst was a robust, hearty boy, kind, earnest, and industrious ; he 
mastered rapidly the colloquial German and took his notes of lectures 
in German schrift. This period prophesied his future success and 
promotions ; it was the gate which opened into his succeeding occupa- 
tions, and it forecast his methods of work and their characteristics. 
His sturdy faith withstood the rationalism of Strauss and kept him 
true to his Christian ideals and experience. He was an honest disci- 
ple of Tholuck, who dealt the Tubingen school its deathblow. We 
were often at the table of the great professor, the Saint John of the 
Halle apostolate. He was a favorite companion of his also in long 
and instructive walks, in which theology and personal piety and the 
grand themes of life and eternity were discussed. He made the best 
use of his time, and laid the foundation of those high qualities which 
crowned his exalted career. 

In the spring of 1857 Hurst and myself made a foot tour through 
the Thuringian and Black forests. Galled and weary footpads require 
much present grace in time of need, which is generally late in the 
afternoon after weariness of the flesh in sight-seeing, and demoraliz- 
ing fatigue. I think as I look back to that sunlit journey we stood the 
test of our piety fairly well as incipient saints. It was just prior to 
our civil war, when the North and South were waxing hot over 
slavery. It would not be exactly fair to say that we anticipated 
the great conflict, but I recall a certain sunset, after a hard day's 
tramp, when we discussed the " irrepressible conflict " with some 
physical and energetic arguments — an argumentum ad hominem — 
which caused us both speedily afterward humiliation and repentance. 
Hurst was not the type of a pietist as such, but rather a student who 

Leaving Halle 83 

set out to prove all things and hold fast that which is good. His 
Godward asceticism was warmed by human contacts. 

We met often enough in the heat and burden of our day's work to 
review humorously the German experiences. 

The Rev. Joshua Coit, corresponding secretary of the Massa- 
chusetts Home Missionary Society, says of young Hurst at this 
period : 

He was of an earnest, eager spirit, strait-thinking and outspoken. 
His mind was active and inquisitive. He was positive in his convic- 
tions as to right and wrong, and did not fall in with much of the 
German student laxity, but withstood manfully temptations to let down 
his spiritual life. 


From Halle to Rome 

The remaining eight months of his stay in Europe were 
divided between journeys by rail, by boat, and on foot through 
the southern and central countries of the Continent and in 
England and Scotland, and two brief sojourns, one of about 
five and the other about three weeks, in Heidelberg. Brief 
excerpts from his fascinating accounts (Journal) of this really 
his first round among the great scenes of nature and of human 
history must satisfy us : 

March 13, 1857. — Started from Halle at 7 a. m. Met my company 
in Dresden and proceeded down to Prague. In the evening started 
for Vienna. Had a cold ride all night. Fortune knows how many 
times we had to show our passports. 

14. — Vienna we reached in a snowstorm. I walked up from the 
cars. The hackman carried my companions to the wrong hotel, and 
I had some difficulty in finding them, but succeeded at last. We all 
put up at the "Golden Lamb." We started for Saint Stephen's 
Church. How much we enjoyed it ! We first went to the top of the 
high tower in order to get a good view of the city. 

84 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

15. — Sunday we went to the Church of Saint Stephen's and the 
Imperial Chapel. The melancholy chanting of the Roman Catholic 
choirs always fills me with emotions, and the most unfeeling Prot- 
estant cannot look at the poor Catholic as he approaches a picture 
of the Virgin or a cross, and bows as if in earnest longing for a 
better and happier life, without being impressed with the sincerity 
of his heart. 

16. — We started early in the morning for Trieste. We reached 
Laibach late at night and ordered the coachman to take us to the 
"Golden Bell*' Hotel, but he did not do it, and we found ourselves 
in the hotel that he preferred. We told the hotel-keeper that we would 
take the diligence next morning for Trieste. He awakened us at 
4^2 a. m., but after eating breakfast and getting ready to leave we 
found ourselves in his own conveyance. 

17. — A long and tedious day was this ! — jj miles' stage ride from 
Laibach to Trieste. Our stage broke down and we had rain all day. 
What a stew we were in ! We all got to the nearest house and 
squatted around an old woman's brick stove. At last we hurried oft. 
We had a good many omnibus drivers and had to pay all trink-geld. I 
sat on the right side of the stage next to the broken wheel and always 
watched to see when the linchpin was slanting, but when we got to a 
blacksmith's shop we got all things fixed. We tried many ways to 
pass away the time. I shall never forget the games and stories we 
employed. At last we saw away down in the valley below us a world 
of lights. This was Trieste, and there the classic Adriatic. We could 
see the lights from some boats on the water. We went rapidly down 
the hill, and when we had nearly reached its bottom we saw the side 
of the mountain studded with village lights like a casket of jewels. 

18. — We started from Trieste soon in the morning for Venice. O. 
what a glorious sight this was ! There were the grand old Apen- 
nines in the distance. Here we are sailing on the old Adriatic. We 
had a good breeze and reached Venice about the middle of the day. 
A flood of gondolas came crowding around the boat, and we char- 
tered one to take us ashore. Ashore, did I say ? No, to take us to 
our hotel steps, for we did not step on ground, but on the steps of 
our hotel. After getting something to eat — yes, even before that — 
we went to the famous Place of Saint Mark's. Here was the Doge's 
Palace and the Church of Saint Mark. Never shall I forget my first 
view. We did but little else than walk about and look at the canalled 
city of Venice. The inside was yet to be seen. 

21. — Saw last of Venice; had a ride for the last time in a gondola. 
Set out in cars for Padua with Webber. We had a cold, gloomy 

Padua, Ferrara, Bologna 85 

V/2 hours' ride. Arrived in rain at Padua, found no carriage to carry 
us to hotel, and after hiring a porter wound our way about 1V2 miles 
to hotel, "Golden Eagle." 

22. — Webber was sick abed, and I had a gloomy time that day. 
It was Sunday, and of course I did not visit the curiosities as a trav- 
eler. Went to the Church of Saint Anthony. I shall never forget 
how I was moved on seeing the poor people bowing on the cold floors 
and before the image of the Virgin. 

27,. — At one we started on vettura for Ferrara. We had a toler- 
ably comfortable time to Rovigo. I shall not forget the flying ferry- 
boats and how everyone wanted money from us. Rovigo was a dirty 
place, and we went to the hotel to which our vetturino brought us, 
as we hired him on condition that he pay everything. We fixed up 
pretty well. Had pranzo and went to bed, Webber jumping a good 
deal in his sleep, probably owing to apprehension from the robbers ; 
for we all knew that we were not in the best quarters. 

24. — We rose early and started for Ferrara. It rained a good deal 
of the way, but we reached Ferrara about noon and went to see the 
prison where Tasso was confined in his madness. I shall never forget 
how Byron's name looked cut on the outside. We passed through 
lowlands and reached Bologna about 9 p. m., stopping at the Hotel 
Pellegrino, a nice place and very homelike. The landlord and his wife 
were as kind as they could be. We felt as if we were at home. 

25. — We went around first in the old University — to the dome — 
and had a fine view of Bologna and the surrounding mountains. 
Went through the anatomical collection also, and then to the Picture 
Gallery. I saw there the Santa Cecilia, by Raphael, a beautiful pic- 
ture. The faces are simple and yet grand, a characteristic of Raphael. 
Saw the tomb of the Volta family and Napoleon's sister. Took a walk 
in the public gardens. Ate some famous Bologna sausage. Heard 
our landlord tell of robber dangers between Bologna and Florence. 
We were all greatly excited; talked over the dangers and trials to 
which travelers are subjected. I sewed up my watch in my coat 
collar, but it stuck out so plainly that I took it out and packed it in 
my carpetbag. 

26. — Rose at 3 and started at 4 a. m. for Florence. Paid out our 
account, took leave of our good landlord, and then walked to diligence 
office and started out, seven in banquette. We were all gratified to 
see that we had an escort of soldiers to guard against the robbers. 
We were now on the way to Florence, riding in the dark and subjected 
every moment to robbers, but we saw and heard from none. We 
had a rainy day. We came in the course of afternoon to a dirty 

86 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

hole which we all had to w r alk over. I was the first one to find a 
fire in a rude peasant cot. I made free with the baby and got warm. 
We reached Florence at ioM> p. m., sleepy, tired, and worn out. 

Of this day and the spirit of one of the company Mr. Coit 
says : 

I recall with amusement his vigorous determination not to be 
robbed by brigands the day we started from Bologna at 3 a. m. in a 
vettura. Our road was dangerous, though it had been several weeks 
since an attack had been made. The rest of our party thought dis- 
cretion the better part of valor. But Hurst, who put his valuables 
in his stockings, was determined to fight rather than be robbed.- But, 
alas ! no brigands appeared. 

27. — I strolled over the classic Arno and wandered along one of 
the streets beyond it. One of the first things that struck me was on 
a door, the name of Powers, sculptor. How glad it made me feel 
and how proud to think that I had a fellow-countryman abroad who 
had done so much for the land of Washington ! 

28. — Rode out to Fiesole. 

29. — Walked a long distance to the English church. How my 
heart rejoiced once more to hear God worshiped in my native tongue ! 

From 29th March to Thursday, April 9, had as interesting and 
pleasant a time as could be expected in visiting and reconnoitering 
Florence. I cannot enumerate half what I saw, but Florence will 
always live in my memory, yes, in my affections. W r hat a satisfac- 
tion we all had in visiting the studio of our great artist, Powers, the 
maker of the Greek Slave ! We were pleased with all that we saw. 
Powers himself was modest, as many great men often are, and as kind 
and inducing to stay as he could well be. We recognized around his 
shelves of busts many of our American great men and felt that 
really we were in the studio of an American. The order to visitors, 
"Don't touch the work," was in English ; reason I will give when 
asked. We registered our names in his album and gave his son a 
hearty shake-hands when we left. Powers himself disappeared 
without anyone noticing him. 

April 9. — On Thursday afternoon we started from Florence, the 
flower-girl stuck the last flower in our breast coat, and. after paying 
her the little pittance, we left in very unpleasant and second-class 
cars for Siena. At Siena we were beset by beggars. Next morning 
we walked about town and saw the principal places that were worth 

Accident near Rome 87 

seeing, and left in the stage for Rome, great Rome. Old Journal, I 
do not want to tell you all about a stage ride of nearly two days' 
length, and especially put down such a melancholy picture as I would 
be compelled to do. Viterbo, Acquapendente, the beautiful lake, the 
getting out and walking, all would deserve a notice. All is classic 
ground if we remember that the Romans and Etruscans and Sabines 
once lived. 

Many a hermit or shepherd's hold had we seen in the ground, and 
many a laden ass and brigand-looking Italian had we met, when we 
came in sight of one fine-looking bridge, narrow in the middle and 
wide at the ends, like so many other Roman bridges. I had identified 
this bridge as the one where Constantine had his celebrated dream, 
and I told my companion so, an American who happened to ride in 
the banquette at my side. We were both indulging our imagination 
on the subject when we saw that we would come in contact with the 
left side of it. It was inevitable. I was high from the ground and 
didn't know what to do. It seemed like a dream to me. I looked at 
the precipice below to the left and to the hard stones. The stage 
reeled, I jumped to the right and fell on my arms. I felt injured at 
once, if not internally, at any rate badly in the forehead and arms. 
The passengers all appeared very much concerned. The conductor 
declared he must send to Rome for a wheel and wagon tongue, as 
ours were both broken. Then the company all went to a little locanda 
to sleep until called for, except the German, and he stayed with me. 
I shall never forget how restless I was, and how kind he was to me. 
He wrapped me up in shawls and his cloak and allowed me to lean 
upon him. How many passed as we both sat there alone, the 
peasant on his little ass, the woman driving on her little gang of 
calves. The night was moonlight, and we had some time been in 
sight of Saint Peter's. The peasants all looked curiously through the 
windows, some appeared sorry, others looked on indifferently as if 
they were glad it was not they, and thus they passed along. Time 
passed slowly by, and at last the wheel and tongue came, like am- 
bassadors from the Eternal City, to receive us. We started slowly, 
the postilions seemed more careful, if indeed they were the same ones, 
and thus we wound up the hill. We called at the locanda, took in 
our associates, and went along our way to Rome. 

Half the horizon seemed to be what the Germans call a Morgen 
Roth. Indeed, I had never seen a more beautiful view in all my life, 
I mean an early morning view. The old Saint Peter's stood in the 
distance before us; the Capitol and all that once made Rome so 
grand at home and so influential abroad. My head was racked with 

88 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

pain. I was dreadfully pained in every limb and muscle, and so I 
made my entrance to the Eternal City. I thank God that I was not 
killed. (Professor G. N. Webber, of Smith College, who was with 
him, says, "The accident might easily have been a fatal one.") His 
mercy I will try to bear in mind more hereafter than I have ever 
done before. We reached the diligence office, had our baggage over- 
hauled, and I was in great confusion to know to what hotel I could 
go, so I started off alone to Hotel d'Amerique. No lodging there. 
All was full. I asked if I could not be allowed to use or take an 
American's room for a few minutes, not to sleep, but to dress my 
forehead. No, the most of them were not yet up, and there was no 
chance. They referred me to Spillman's, and after walking up and 
down many flights of stairs I could not find Spillman. Went to 
Hotel dAllemagne then. Waited a long while, and at last a room 
was given me for a few hours until the owner came back. It, too, 
was at the top of the house, but I was glad enough to get any place 
to dress my wounds. I was shocked to find my cuts so severe, but I 
kept a good heart and dressed them as well as I could, then went out 
in search of a private apartment, but all efforts were fruitless. 
Finally went to a coffeehouse and drank coffee. My bandaged head 
attracts the attention of everyone. About n went up the steps in 
Piazza di Spagna and found Webber and the German. We then 
went out again to coffeehouse and afterward hunted after rooms, but 
I was too weak ; could walk no more, and the German was so kind to 
me that he gave me the use of his room and bed; and so I took a 
pleasant nap. I had a physician soon. He told me not to be alarmed, 
as there was no danger. Webber got a good pair of rooms, and I 
thanked him in my heart for getting them. 

Easter Sunday, 19. — Went to Saint Peter's Church and got a good 
place to see the ceremonies and, after all the ceremony was con- 
cluded, to see the Pope give the benediction to the assembled multi- 
tudes. This was an impressive scene. The Pope is a kind-looking 
old man, and I dare say he is really a good man if his government is 
a weak one. 

20. — Visited the Pyramid of Cestius and the Protestant burial 
ground. Stood by the graves of Shelley and Keats, and plucked some 
flowers for a memento for my friends at home. This was a beautiful 
scene : the mountain made of earthenware, the houses covered with 
it at the foot of the hill, the distant Saint Paul's, the feeding cattle, 
the cross of the hill, the Pyramid, the burial ground and cypress and 
monuments, the Saint Peter's, all of it hid but the dome, the distant 
mountains, the Capitol, the Forum in front, were all enchanting 

At Heidelberg 89 

enough. The return home was by the Tarpeian Rock and the foot of 
the ruins of the Palace of the Cassars. 

23. — Ascended the cupola of Saint Peter's. Finished all our sight- 
seeing, had wandered for the last time through the living Vatican, 
had taken another look at the Coliseum, the Saint Peter's, the Guido's 
Aurora. A great time in my life were the two weeks in Rome, never 
to be forgotten. 

From Rome to Glasgow and Homeward 

April 25, 1857. — Reached Naples. 

28. — Visited Pompeii and Herculaneum. 

29. — Saw and ascended Vesuvius. 

30. — Sailed to Capri and saw the "Blue Grotto." At night slept in 
the Hotel Tasso. 

May 2. — Started from Naples and bade farewell to the south of 

3. — Anniversary of my mother's death. May I never forget it, and 
hallow her memory and love, for a mother's love is eternal. Left 
Civita Vecchia in the evening for Leghorn. 

4. — Reached Leghorn early in the morning. Went ashore to Pisa. 
Returned in time to take the boat for Genoa. 

5. — Found ourselves in Genoa harbor. 

6. — Started for Arona, the southern point of Maggiore, and passed 
through Alessandria. Stayed in Arona. 

7. — Went to Luino on a cloudy day up Maggiore. From Luino to 
Lugano, across the lake and then to Como. 

8. — Went up and down the lake and back to Milan. 

11. — Started for Chiavenna. Left Chiavenna and crossed the 
Spliigen Pass. Slept and rode all night in a Swiss diligence. 

13. — Crossed Lake Constance and kept on to Munich. 

16. — Started for and reached Heidelberg, received letters, read 
them and then got a room. 6y Hauptstrasse. 

17. — Attended church with Bartlett. From to-day for one week I 
have scarcely done a thing except write letters. My mind is off study. 

He wrote two excellent articles for the Christian Advocate, 
on Easter in Rome, and on Old Rome, while he tarried for a 

90 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

month or more in Heidelberg, whose natural and literary at- 
tractions hold him in leash until with fresh vigor he starts 
first for a Rhine trip and a little later for the Alps. Of his 
enchantment with the scenery of the place, where he had in- 
tended to matriculate and take lectures regularly, and of his 
consequent delay in beginning his attendance at the university 
until it was too late to go to more than a very few and to these 
only as a visitor, he makes his naive confession in his Life and 
Literature in the Fatherland.' 

Heidelberg, May 18, 1857. 
To Miss La Monte : 

I have a nice pair of rooms, as nice as I ever had in my life. They 
are just what I wished. I can look from my bedroom upon the old 
castle. This town is good for my health. I don't mean to say that I 
have poor health now, but that it will be a great thing for my 

June 7. — Heidelberg is a very little place, as you can see from the 
picture. I have drawn a mark on what I believe is the very house I 
live in. Another place which I have marked is called the Molkenkur, 
and, although it is not the highest of the peaks, yet I think it far the 
most beautiful. I often go up there and sit an hour or two at the 
close of the day. Then I can hear the music from the castle below, 
and look to the west where the Neckar and the Rhine unite in that 
charming vale, and toward where I cannot see, but where I can love 
my own dear friends at home. 

I anticipate no little pleasure in going up the Rhine. My studies 
will necessarily be very much broken in upon. Here I have lost 
considerable by not getting back sooner from Italy. My tour along 
the Rhine will take me a couple of weeks. Then after that is over I 
must start for Switzerland on a pedestrian tour; from there to Paris, 
to London — home. I think it would be better to see these countries 
than to go home without doing — it would be to me a source of con- 
stant regret to do so, and in traveling one gets what he could never 
learn in his room. I shall have done all I could expect by October. 
I shall have gained a knowledge of the German language, besides a 
fair idea of Italian, some experience in speaking the French, to say 
nothing of the Hebrew which I studied last winter in Halle and the 
substance matter of the lectures, as well as the customs, manners, 

1 See p. 116. 

At Heidelberg 91 

and conditions of the country and people I shall have seen. That, I 
think, ought to be a source of gratification to me. I am thankful that 
I have been able to do as I have. It will always be a source of 
pleasure and profit to me, and I trust to you. Neither of us should 
regret it. 

Heidelberg is more like a watering place than a German village, 
and this takes away a great deal of the enjoyment that I would have. 

June 8. — Almost every morning I get up at seven or thereabouts 
and walk to the castle. The birds sing cheerily, and everything is 
fresh and pleasant. By the way, we have nightingales here. Did 
you ever hear them sing ? Professor Hundeshagen is very clever 
and kind to me. How much I want to see my own land again ! I 
could stay much longer in Europe and to advantage, but I am eager 
to get home, and I feel sometimes as if I would get right up and start 
to-morrow. My heart and feelings all prompt me to it. 

These bright days in Heidelberg brought again to his hand 
his coy muse, and from his six stanzas on Heidelberg Castle 
this is the third : 

I see that castle as I write, 

I see its statues resting there, 
Each represents an armored knight 

Who fights for faith and lady fair. 
Since knightly days has love grown purer? 
O, is it true that hearts are truer? 

June 23. — Left Heidelberg for Worms. Saw tree under which 
Luther slept. Then went to Mainz. Walked in the Anlage and visited 
the summer theater. 

24. — Saw the house where printing was invented. Went to 
Wiesbaden and saw the gaming. Went in afternoon to Kreuznach. 

25. — Left Mainz and stopped at "Bingen on the Rhine." Returned 
to Bingen about dusk. 

26. — Walked to Niederwald and Rudesheim. Returned to Bingen 
and took boat for Goarshausen. Walked up the Lurlei, and there I 

27. — Went to the Reichenberg and returned over the hill opposite 
Rheinstein. Visited Rheinstein in Saint Goar and went on to Boppard 
and there I stayed all night. 

28. — Took first boat to Coblenz. Met an Englishman at Ehren- 

29. — Walked to Ems. ■ 

92 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

Haarlem, Holland, July 5. 
To Miss La Monte: 

I have had a very pleasant time since leaving Coblenz. You must 
read that part of Childe Harold referring to the Rhine. I have seen 
and stood on every hill and by every place that is mentioned. 

July 23. — Left Heidelberg for Freiburg. 

24. — Walked from Freiburg to Hof, and rode in diligence to 

25. — Saw Schaffhausen and Falls of the Rhine, and then went to 

26. — Attended English church, went bathing, and walked up to 
L T etliberg. 

27. — Walked from Uetliberg to Albis, where I took breakfast. 
From there to Zug. Crossed Zug to Arth. Ascended the Rigi — a 
big day's work. 

28. — From Rigi down to Lucerne. With Paton called on Bryant, 
the poet, and family. 

29. — Crossed the Lake of Lucerne to Fliielen, passed Tell's Chapel 
and the place where he shot the apple from his son's head. Slept that 
night in Goschenen. 

30. — Crossed the Gothard Pass to Hospenthal. Slept that night on 
the Furka. 

31. — Passed the Rhone Glacier and took breakfast at its foot. 
Walked to Grimsel and spent four hours on the Aar Glacier. Slept 
in Guttannen. 

August I. — Ascended the Reichenbach Fall and walked on the 
Rosenlaui Glacier. Slept on the Great Scheidegg. 

2. — Witnessed the Swiss peasants' Schwingfest. Ascended the 
Faulhorn. Grand scenes. 

3. — Came down and took breakfast in Grindelwald. Parted with 
Paton and Dale at the Little Scheidegg, where I spent the night. 

His next two weeks covered a stop at Interlaken and sail 
up and down Lakes Thun and Brienz : walks over Gemmi Pass, 
to Zermatt, over Saint Theodule to Chatillon, to Courmajeur, 
to Chamouny, and to Geneva. Eight days he was in Geneva. 
He says, "So charming was Geneva that I felt like spending 
all my days there." Two weeks he gave to Paris, and thence 
by Rouen to Havre and London. Here he tarried eight days 

A Pioneer Student 93 

and then to Oxford (one day), by rail to Warwick, on foot 
to Stratford-on-Avon (night), back to Warwick Castle; then 
a walk with heavy pack to Kenilworth Castle and a ride to 
Birmingham (September 24). Thence he goes to Manchester 
and, after a short trip in Scotland, leaves Glasgow on the 
Edinburgh, October 3. On the homeward voyage he reads 
Noctes Ambrosianae. 

William Wells of the laity and W r illiam F. Warren of the 
ministry were probably the only Methodists from America who 
preceded him in European study. Dr. Buttz says : 

Bishop Hurst's visit to Europe in 1856-57 was of the utmost value 
to himself and the church. He was among the pioneers of our 
Methodist scholars in Germany and in foreign travel. In his inten- 
tion to go to Germany at that time he showed a discrimination of 
the importance of contact with the world which was of great value 
to him in his subsequent life, and it gave him the outlook which 
produced his work on the History of Rationalism, and undoubtedly 
tended to enlarge his view of the value of literature and theological 
thought which manifested itself in his numerous and valuable con- 
tributions to the literature of the church. I think it was also very 
valuable farther in the fact that it enlarged his appreciation of the 
educational work in which he afterward took so prominent a place. 
It seems to me his going abroad at that time and his experiences were 
the foundation of much of the most valuable services which he 
rendered the church. 

04 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 


The Itinerant 

Two Months of Busy Waiting. — Preaching "Under the Elder." — Head- 
quarters at Mechanicsburg 

Upon his arrival at home his conviction that he should enter 
the ministry of the gospel, which had ripened into a clear call to 
that high vocation, led him to seek for a field where he might 
find employment for the gifts and graces which many leaders 
of the church saw and knew to be his. The Rev. Dr. Jesse T. 
Peck, then a pastor in Xew York, took a personal interest in 
the young man from " Piney Neck," and wrote to Pennell 
Coombe, a presiding elder of the Philadelphia Conference, on 
October 21 : 

It gives me pleasure to introduce to you the bearer, Brother John 
F. Hurst, a graduate of Dickinson College, who has just returned 
from a year's study and travel in Europe. He is now ready, if 
Providence favor, to enter the ministry and prefers Philadelphia 
Conference. I knew him well in college and have great confidence 
in him and expect a very useful life from him in the great itinerant 

After a short visit to Charlotteville he hastens to Cam- 
bridge, where he preached his first sermon, December 6, 1857, 
at the Methodist Episcopal church, from Psa. 130. 7, "The 
Hope of Israel." He had some notes, but was so confused he 
could not see them, and so they proved more of a hindrance 
than a help. This text he used afterward on three occasions : 
his first sermon on Carlisle Circuit, at New Cumberland, Penn- 
sylvania, on January 3. 1858; at Mechanicsburg. January 4, 
and at Irvington. New Jersey, October 24. He writes to Miss 
La Monte from Baltimore, on November 4: 

A Busy Waiting 95 

In New York I met Dr. McClintock on the street and on a pressing 
invitation I called on him. We spent an hour or two of pleasant 
conversation. He is anxious for me to join the New Jersey Con- 
ference, and promised his assistance, which I told him he might 
use for me. 

And again from Cambridge on November 14: 

It may be that I give a course of lectures here in Cambridge, but 
still I am not sure. In case I have sufficient encouragement to do so, 
I will commence next week. My friends all say without exception 
that I have grown fat and well-looking. Now, I don't want you to 
infer that they think me good-looking. Sallie says I have grown 
ugly and fat; now I could stand that, but when she says I have the 
German brogue I think that is too much for my good nature. Now, 
have I any German brogue? I don't believe you will acknowledge 
that. I visited a few days ago the little village schoolhouse where I 
went to school six or seven years. It looked very much smaller than 
it used to look — it is like a little cocoanut-shell. I saw the pictures I 
cut on the benches a long while ago — I would have recognized them 
had it been in China. Now, don't laugh when I tell you about cutting 
pictures. You said my picture of the old church in Coventry was 
like a cat. Now, wasn't that a compliment? You really didn't do me 

How his pen had already acquired the busy habit is seen 
from parts of these two letters to Miss La Monte, from 
Cambridge : 

November 23. — I have been writing in fits and starts since I came 
here. If I give a course of lectures, as I may do, then I shall be all 
ready. I have three long ones already done. I shall write no more 
on the course until I know whether or not I give them. 

November 26. — I am writing some every day, first Memories of the 
Rhine, and then something else of my own experience. I do not 
want these things to escape my memory. I have never known what 
it is until recently to have good health. 

His correspondence in December gives us some interesting 
items concerning his last month of waiting for an opening. 
To Miss La Monte he writes from Cambridge on the eighth : 

96 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

I have great difficulty in finding a vacancy in the New Jersey and 
Philadelphia Conferences. I cannot tell as yet where I shall go. I 
am in a great difficulty about the matter, and were it not for the 
climate I should regret that I had not accepted a professorship in 
Charlotteville Seminary. But God does all things well. I have an 
invitation from Dr. Collins to come to Carlisle and talk over matters. 

Carlisle, Pa., 14. — From here I shall go to Philadelphia in all 
probability, and if a vacancy can be found in the New Jersey Con- 
ference I shall get it. I am now ready for work once more. Did I 
tell you that I preached in Cambridge before I left, on " Let Israel 
Hope in the Lord " ? 

Carlisle, 16. 
To Dr. William La Monte: 

I expect to commence preaching on this District in January; but I 
will write particulars to Kate in a few days. 

Washington, D. C, 17. 
To Miss La Monte: 

I have taken or at least promised to take a place on the Carlisle 
Circuit, to preach. The town of Carlisle is not embraced in the 
circuit; that is a station, and I think the circuit by no means a 
pleasant post to fill ; but it will only be for a while. 

His Journal and contemporary letters give glimpses of the 
external circumstances and internal battles, with more victories 
than defeats, of the young preacher while he was undergoing 
the process of " breaking in " within the bounds of the newly 
formed East Baltimore Conference : 

January 1, 1858. — In Philadelphia on way to Mechanicsburg. 
Talked in La Pierre Hotel with an old traveler and had much 
pleasure from it. Came near missing the train. Thoughts on 
Heaven and Hell. 

2. — Rode during the night to Harrisburg — went to market early in 
morning — went to Mechanicsburg — found Reese Marlatt and my 
future colleagues Norris and Dunlap — like them very much. 
Quarterly meeting. Put up at Dr. Day's. 

3. — Attended quarterly meeting. Spoke in love feast, and had a 
good time — told my experience. Had communion after Dr. 
Dougherty's sermon. Afternoon took horse and rode down to New 

A Circuit Preacher 97 

Cumberland. Preached at night to an attentive and large congrega- 
tion, from "Let Israel Hope in the Lord." Had pretty good freedom. 

4. — Walked around New Cumberland and became acquainted with 
a number of people. Returned to Mechanicsburg and preached at 
night with but little freedom because I had less faith. Had quite a 
number at altar, but it was owing to Norris's exhortation. God give 
me faith next time. 

5. — At night had a glorious time — about twelve at the altar. 
Talked with a great many of the careless young men — one promised 
to come to the altar. Felt a peace of God in my heart which makes 
me feel good again like old times. 

6. — Good meeting at night. Talked with a good many of the 

Dr. Day loaned him a saddle horse for his use on the thirty- 
mile circuit. The record is that the horse put in as hard a three 
months' service as was good for him, and that the splendid 
animal needed a vacation at its close. 

7. — Preached at night with more faith and liberty than I had ever 
experienced before — text, "The Prodigal Son." Had a few mourners 
— supplicated with many to come — young men too, but they would 
not come. 

8. — Slept but little overnight. Did me good to hear that I had 
preached acceptably. 

9. — Made preparation to start out on a long horseback ride — Norris 
with me. We went to Coover's and dined, then went down to Lis- 
burn, name of the town from Lizzy Burn, who gave a graveyard to 
the place. Stopped at Lloyd's. Preached on Prodigal Son — felt more 
than satisfied with my high and holy calling. Life's a joy when you 
lead it right. 

10. — Started early in the morning for Lewisburg. Preached on 
the Samaritan Woman — did better than I had any right to expect — 
felt well during the exercises. Had good dinner and started for 
Wellsville. Preached on the Samaritan Woman — felt freedom. 

11. — Felt greatly rejoiced when one of the young workmen told 
me that he had been thinking a good deal on what I had said the 
other night on the Christian living a separate life from the sinner. 
Did me good. Led class in evening and had a good one. 

12. — Ride home — fourteen miles. Norris preached — fifteen mourn- 
ers at the altar. Felt sleepy, but talked some to the mourners. 

13. — Wrote on sermon nearly all day. At night talked to the sin- 

98 John Fletcher Hurst — A BiOGRArnv 

ners. "I guess you know who I am," said a sinner who was con- 
verted and who promised me to come to the altar a week ago. Had 
a good deal of faith. Prayed a loud prayer at meeting after sermon. 

To Miss La Monte he wrote on January 14: 

I have reason to feel encouraged by what I have done so far, 
although I see that I have yet a great deal to do and struggle for. I 
find that the horseback riding helps me amazingly. My colleagues 
are both very fine fellows and good preachers. I am perfectly 
delighted with them both and would consider it lucky if I could have 
such ones next year, but I intend to leave this Conference and join 
New Jersey Conference. 

14. — In evening preached on "Awake, Awake, O Arm of the Lord," 
in Mechanicsburg. Had liberty. 

16. — Wrote some on "Rationalism." Started with Norris and 
Lippincott for Papertown, stopping at Boiling Springs. 

17. — Papertown. Slept with Norris. Both woke up with sore 
throats and hard colds. Preached on "Living Waters." Hadn't much 
freedom — throat, bad cold, and want of faith all had share in failure. 

18. — Ate oysters after service with Norris — had a real good time. 
What a world of sorrow oysters can hide ! 

19. — Attended church at night — three mourners at the altar. Two 
men drunken in the church — led them both out. 

20. — Preached at night on " The Value of the Soul " — had liberty, 
but a sore throat — was told by Norris sermon was a good one. 

21. — Read some in History of Rationalism. Had much peace in 
God. God blesses me and I feel and know it. 

24. — Woke early in morning thinking about preaching. Preached 
on "Worship God." A great deal of feeling was manifested, and it 
was decidedly the best sermon I have preached. The Spirit of the 
Lord was with me. 

25. — Zug said rode his horse too fast. Had several intimations that 
I had improved in preaching. Afternoon wrote some and read on 
Rationalism. The Lord help me to make a good article for the 
Quarterly on that subject. 

26. — Started for Carlisle. Dinner with Bishop Waugh. Heard 
Bishop Waugh talk to new converts and preach afterward from the 
"Jailer." Called on to pray — failed because of no faith. 

27. — Traveled with Bishop Waugh and Dorsheimer to Mechanics- 

Licensed to Preach 99 

29. — Am getting gradually initiated into the ways and doings of 
the Methodists. 

30. — Dillstown. Preached at night on "Revive Thy Work." In- 
vited mourners to the altar — none came, but I believe the Lord will 
bless and revive us and his work in this place. 

31. — Went at nine to love feast — Father Bennett officiated. I spoke 
and the Lord blessed me. 

February 4. — Read assiduously all day. Had but little faith during 
day, and could not pray as much as I wished to — the devil still holding 
me by the ears by pride. Retired to my room and tried earnestly to 
have faith, but not much of it had I. Went to church and experienced 
some pleasure and pain by talking to young men. Lord, help me to 
get some of them on a good track. 

Mechanicsburg, February 5. 
To Miss La Monte: 

I expect, if God permit, to join the Newark Conference in April. 
I think my chances for success are better there. I would perhaps 
join the Baltimore Conference, as I have had flattering offers al- 
ready, but that Conference will not admit me on as favorable circum- 
stances as one farther north. I think you must have a strange idea 
of riding a circuit on horseback — now, that is a capital plan — I only 
wish you could see me on a good horse. I tell you the boys clear the 
track when "the preacher is coming'' ! 

6. — Fiddled and fooled around town till dinner. Rode down to 
Lisburn with Brother Dunlap and heard him preach on "Seek the 
Lord while he may be found." I exhorted afterward. Felt well — 
had liberty, as Norris says. 

7. — Preached on "Worship God," but had not so much liberty as I 
could have wished — it is all of faith. Rode back to Lisburn — blessed 
on the road — the Lord gave me liberty at night on "Lord, Revive 
Thy Work." Some sinners were convicted. 

8. — Visited a poor consumptive young man. He was a lesson to 
sinners. I prayed with him and consoled him to the best of my 
ability. Evening preached, and here saw first the labors crowned 
with success — three souls struggling for liberty. 

10. — Mechanicsburg. Went to Carlisle and there passed my ex- 
amination for license to preach and recommendation to traveling 
connection. Passed a fair one. When I retired for the stewards to 
vote on my case, A. A. Reese, the elder, remarked that he "thought 
there was a preach in me." Lord, grant it, and make it possible ! 

11. — Started late in afternoon to Lisburn. Preached with liberty 

-•.. - 

ioo John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

on "For every man shall bear his own burden." The Lord gave me 
liberty, and three mourners were at the altar. 

12. — Read and wrote and had a great deal of faith. Norris 
preached at night from "What will you say?" A good sermon. Four 
mourners at the altar. 

13. — Worked hard and finished Beranger. 

14. — Rode to Lisburn in the snow. Shivered and shook after get- 
ting to Costello's. Preached tolerably. In afternoon back to 
Coover's, and preached same sermon on "Arise, young man !" Very 
little faith in the people or myself. 

Mechanicsburg, February 15. 
To Miss La Monte: 

I have reason to think I am acceptable here in my efforts to please 
God and save souls. They are anxious for me to return here after 
Conference, and, were it not that young preachers can't get married 
in this Conference, T think I should join it. I fear one farther north 
will not agree so well with my health. Poor Bishop Waugh is dead ! 
I had a railroad ride with him only a few days before his death. He 
was ready to die. No one could be with him ten minutes without 
feeling and seeing that he was as fit for heaven as any man who 
lives on earth. A few days ago I stood my examination for admit- 
tance into Conference. How unworthy I feel in entering upon the 
responsible work of the ministry. May God give me a Christian 
heart and a fervent devotional spirit. 

18. — Preached in Lisburn on "Her ways are ways of pleasantness." 
Not much liberty. Two converted — three at altar. God help the 
last one ! 

20. — Lewisburg. Preached at night to a good audience on "Lord, 
Revive Thy Work." Not much liberty. The Lord gave me some 
faith, however. 

24. — Studied in Watson's Institutes until 1 o'clock. 

25. — Read 34 pages in Watson's Institutes, and a little in Fisk's 
Travels. O, how glorious a thing it is to feel the truth growing and 
bedding itself in the mind. Lord, give the truth a big taproot. 

Mechanicsburg, February 25. 
To Miss La Monte : 

Our two preachers are going to Conference in a few days, and at 
their request and that of the church I will remain here until they 
return from Conference. I consented, though I fear it will interfere 
with my visiting the Eastern Shore before going into New Jersey. 

The Itinerant ioi 

I was just looking over my dry bones (skeletons), and find that I 
have preached just twenty-one times and have eleven complete 
skeletons all jointed, varnished, and hung up by the neck. 

2J. — Lord, help me to set a good watchman on my lips. 

March i. — Read in Upham's Interior Life; also in Moore's Lalla 
Rookh, and Fletcher's Appeal. 

2. — Read some in Watson. Wrote commencement on Rationalism. 
Smoked at night — determined not to smoke until after dinner. 

3. — Can't get mind fixed on prayer as I pray. Lord, help me to 
conquer all my difficulties. 

7. — Lisburn. Rode to Lewisburg. Preached with not much liberty 
on "Christian Army." Rode to Wellsville. Preached on "Christian 

9. — Mechanicsburg. Wrote until dark on Rationalism. 

10. — Before going to bed felt an unusual trust in God. 

11. — Wrote all morning on Rationalism. May it be useful and tell 
the truth. 

12. — Went in evening to Harrisburg and heard Everett lecture on 
the character of Washington. May we imitate him ! Coming home 
had an accident and narrow escape from falling in the river. 

13. — Packed up to leave. 

14. — Preached last sermon in Mechanicsburg on "War a Good 
Warfare." Tried to do something and had a complete failure. 
Chagrin, disgust, thoughts of failing possessed my heart and harrowed 
up the soul within me. Lectured a little while at Sunday school, and 
in evening at prayer meeting. The Lord give me freedom. 

Cambridge, March 19 or 20. 
To Miss La Monte: 

I know not what sort of a place I shall get — perhaps a circuit, per- 
haps a little station. The Lord can do with me as he chooses. I am 
in his hands and try to be willing to labor in whatever place he 
pleases. I am writing with a gold pen which was given me before 
leaving Mechanicsburg. It is a very nice gold pen and pencil, and I 
think more of it than I would of a suit of clothes. 

He preached on Carlisle Circuit thirty-four sermons from 
eleven texts, in eleven weeks, at nine different places, as fol- 
lows: New Cumberland once, Mechanicsburg six times, Lis- 
burn eight times, Lewisburg six times, Wellsville twice, Paper- 

102 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

town twice, Dillstown five times, Bethel three times, Boiling- 
Springs once. During these eleven weeks of circuit riding he 
traveled on horseback one hundred and eighty-four miles, and 
used these eleven subjects and texts : 

The Hope of Israel, Psa. 130. 7, twice; 

The Prodigal Son, Luke 15. 18, four times; 

The Samaritan Woman, John 4. 14, four times; 

Awake, Arm of the Lord, Isa. 51.9, three times ; 

Value of the Soul, Matt. 16. 26, three times; 

Worship of One God, Exod. 20. 3, five times ; 

Revival of God's Work, Hab. 3. 2, three times ; 

Personal Responsibility, Gal. 6. 5, three times; 

Young Man, Arise, Luke 7. 14, twice; 

Pleasantness of Wisdom's Ways, Prov. 3. 17, once; 

The Good Warfare, 1 Tim. 1. 18, four times. 

At Irvington 103 

The Pastor 

At Irvington 

Of his reception into the Newark Conference, his introduc- 
tion to his first pastorate at Irvington, a village just south of 
Newark, and his experiences there, as well as in the four other 
pastorates which followed, his own Journal and letters tell very 
nearly all the story : 

March 15, 1858. — Mechanicsburg. Made some calls for last time. 
Took morning train for Baltimore. Slept at Maltby House. 

16. — Bonnie Brook. Started from Baltimore at 7. Retired early 
and slept superbly. 

20. — Read in evening Homer and his translators. Lord, give me 
strength of body and mind. 

25. — Philadelphia. Started early from Bonnie Brook by stage for 
Bridgeville. Enjoyed rest very much at Saint Lawrence Hotel. 

26. — Newark. Started in 10 a. m. train for the unknown town of 
Newark. Finished Oliver Twist on the road. May it be of use to 
me. Went to Presiding Elder J. S. Porter. Found him a blunt, per- 
haps warm-hearted man. 

March 26. 
To Miss La Monte: 

Here I am in Newark — I found the Presiding Elder of the Newark 
District first. He is a very kind, clever man — I was surprised to find 
him a Marylander by birth. What is more singular, he knew my 
father and all my friends long before I can remember. 

I have not been so well since I left Pennsylvania. I had a dreadful 
cold in Maryland and still feel the effects of it. The wind blows 
strongly here this morning and my right lung pains me some little. I 
trust it will be all right. I would not like a return of my old complaint 
which used to trouble me before going to Europe. 

27. — Rose early. All morning wrote on sermon for Sunday. 
28. — Walked a long way to West Broad Street Mission and en- 
joyed love feast. Preached to a small congregation. Had consider- 

104 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

able liberty. Brother Porter, P. E., behind me. He gave me but 
little encouragement to join the Conference. 

29. — Received $10 for article on Tholuck — the first money ever re- 
ceived for anything I have written. 

30. — Rode to Morristown. 

31. — Morristown. Was benefited and improved from seeing the 
Conference proceedings for first time. 

April 1. — Went to Conference and attended closely to all the pro- 

2. — Attended Conference. Admitted. May I never be otherwise as 
long as breath warms my body ! 

5. — Irvington. Conference adjourned in morning. I was on the 
tiptoe of expectation until my name was read off for Irvington. I 
thank God for the appointment, and pray to him that I may be useful 
here. Came on to Irvington and strolled over the town. Called on 
some of the members. Pleased with the church amazingly. 

6. — Called on a great many persons. 

April 7. 
To Miss La Monte : 

I have some fear as to my health ; my appetite is good, but I cannot 
say that I have reason to think I shall be vigorous and strong. This 
year will decide with me whether I shall succeed beyond the shadow 
of doubt or not — I mean in case of health and strength. 

9. — Slight pains in right lung. 

11. — In the morning preached my first sermon in Irvington, on 
" Justification by Faith," and I believe the Lord strengthened me. 

12. — Commenced to read prayerfully Clarke's Commentary through. 

17. — Had power in praying with some of the families. 

19. — Low-spirited and but little life and ambition. 

21. — Read in Augustine's Confessions, and in Pascal's Pensees. 

25. — Greatly blessed in my room. Preached with some liberty from 
"Thou shalt have no other gods before me." South Orange (p. m.), 
preached on "Faith." Had a good time. The people shouted 

27. — Keep up my regular hours in reading Clarke's Commentary, 
two hours a day. 

30. — Love of God still warming my unworthy heart. 

May I. — Had great satisfaction in reading Thomas a Kempis's 
Imitation of Christ. 

4. — Evening. Some liberty, and I foolishly called on a young man 
to exhort, who talked a long while without any effect. 

At Irvington 105 

7. — An old lady, Sister Eaton, told me some of my pulpit errors. 
She seemed to know more about preaching than I did. I know but 
little. Help those who are worse than I. 

9. — Ten persons baptized. 

13. — Met Brother Vincent (John H.), former pastor of the church. 
Pleased with him. 

15. — Talked with Vincent until late during night. 

16. — Six joined church — two on probation — four by certificate. 

May 17. 
To Miss La Monte : 

I would rather be the humble instrument in God's hands of leading 
one soul to repentance than be Napoleon. I expect to preach as long 
as my health will allow, and when I can't preach it seems to me I 
would rather the Lord would call me to live with him. 

18. — Had a sermon from Vincent — five persons rose for prayers. 

19. — Loath to bid Vincent "Good-bye." 

23. — Strong joy all day. Somebody must be praying for me. 

26. — Practiced nearly two hours as usual in reading aloud and get- 
ting sound of words. Will it ever be that I can enunciate correctly ? 

27. — Manumitted Tom and sent papers to Cambridge. 

29. — Received proof sheets for piece on Beranger. Lord, help my 
writing to be useful to my fellow men. 

May 29. 
To Miss La Monte : 

I am trying to learn a number of new things — one is to talk to 
children in Sunday school. I find it a difficult thing to combine the 
interesting and the useful. Now, don't laugh — I am going to take 
lessons in vocal music. I think it will be of use to me in more ways 
than one. 

June I. — Three young ladies converted at our prayer meeting. 

2. — In evening went up to see C , and found him a converted 


4. — In evening commenced notes of Life of Luther. 

7. — Ilsley, the music teacher, told me it was doubtful whether I 
could ever learn to sing. But, by the help of God, I will learn to sing 
and preach too. 

On this day he wrote to his former senior preacher, Richard 
Norris : 

io6 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

I find the ministers and laity much more warm-hearted than I ex- 
pected, and, unless something that I can by no means foresee should 
happen, I shall spend my life in this Conference. There were 41 
members when I came here, since then I have taken in seven more; 
and last week four more persons have professed conversion. The 
most of my members were women, but we have been making havoc 
in the devil's ranks by managing to get some of their husbands con- 
verted. Three prominent, wealthy, and influential men have joined 
us in the short time that I have been here. By the blessing of God 
there is new life in the members. There is a regular Universalist 
preaching or lecturing here, an Arian or Unitarian church, a Meth- 
odist, and Dutch Reformed. 

11. — Wrote lines on Bethlehem for my Palestine class. 
15. — Had a largely attended prayer meeting — two at the altar and 
two rose for prayer. 

To Miss La Monte : ■* 

My teacher says if I have patience I will yet learn to sing. I know 
you laugh at my taking singing lessons, but I'll laugh at you if you 
don't ride well. Yesterday our choir made three mistakes — say, I am 
not getting to be a critic ! 

To Miss La Monte : 

Yesterday I preached the two poorest sermons I have as yet under- 
taken to preach. I sometimes think I will give up. It seems to me 
that my tour in Europe is of more real use to me than all my other 
life put together. 

29. — Read Manfred with beans in my mouth. Now I understand 
why Demosthenes practiced articulation in a cave. The beans made 
me open my throat. 

To Miss La Monte : J X 5- 

Last evening I preached in Clinton Street Church. I had had but 
little sleep on Saturday night, and my Sunday school labors were 
equal to a sermon, and by the time night came I was not only hoarse, 
but had a severe headache. Preaching, I suppose, will never go 
easily with me. It will always make me nervous. 

July 8. — The huge dimensions of my lips with my bronchial throat 
may, after all my labors, debar all great progress in oratory. But I 
shall strive on. "Genius is labor." If the man who said that told the 
truth, then, by the help of God, I'll be a genius, I hope. 

At Irvington 107 

Dickinson College on this date conferred upon him the 
degree of Master of Arts. 

10. — Some gleams of light from God's throne shot down into the 
gloomy caverns of my soul. Help me to preach thy word with power. 

July 12. 
To Miss La Monte : 

I have had a severe difficulty with one of our new converts. He 
was too self-conceited, and his religion or professed religion did not 
seem to take away any of his egotism. He had shown it several 
different ways, and a short time ago he began to tell me that my 
management of the church was not right. It was more than I could 
stand without reproof. He went off and told egregious falsehoods, 
whether intentional or not I will not say, about me. They circulated 
around pretty freely, but I trust they will not injure the cause of 
Christ to any extent appreciable. I find it my greatest difficulty to 
conquer my own evil nature. I used to think before I became a 
minister that I would have less of the troubles of life; but my severest 
conflicts have been since I have been trying to serve God in my 
present calling. 

16. — My voice is a great perplexity. I have broken myself, or I 
think so, from talking and speaking whiningly through my nose. 
Then, I spoke throaty, and I believe by using green grapes in my 
mouth I have partially broken myself of that. When shall I get to 
speak clear, sonorous, heart-searching words right from my lung?' 
cellar and basement? 

18. — Lord, make me useful, and give me a hand in tearing down 
some of the brazen doors of Satan's hundreds of Bastilles. 

22. — I have received some valuable hints from Stevens's Preaching 
Required by the Times. 

July 26. 
To Miss La Monte : 

I preached in the morning at Chatham, from "The Choice of 
Moses." After church I went home with a man (Jacobus) four 
miles in the country and preached in afternoon in a tent which stands 
beside a church now in process of erection (Livingston). In the 
evening I preached again, and with more acceptation than at any 
time during the day. I wound up with a severe headache and nervous- 
ness. I fear I shall never get over my nervousness. It must be the 
remains of my Italian accident. My paper on Beranger is not a deep 
piece — I have contempt for such writing. I would rather write a 

io8 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

page so that everybody can understand me than to write a dozen 
folios of hieroglyphics. 

August 5. — In afternoon read Carlyle's Hero Worship. There are 
gems of truth in all Carlyle's mud. 

j. — I feel very unwell and have done so for six weeks. If I can get 
a check cashed I will go away. 

To Miss La Monte : August 8. 

I preached with feeling, although I could hardly stand up. You 
must have prayed for me. 

10. — Went to Long Branch and remained until August 19. 

To Miss La Monte : LoNG Branch, August 16. 

I am better than when I left Irvington — I have now a good ap- 
petite, but my head aches whenever I attempt to read or write. 

17. — A gloomy birthday at Long Branch. I would like to read 
Macaulay's England through again. I mean the first two volumes, 
and for the first time the last two. This would improve my style. 
Then I would like to study Tacitus, Livy, Xenophon, closely. Let it 
be my life to be instrumental in converting souls and writing a good 
church history — which shall show God's hand in the development of 
Christianity. God help me, but shall I live ? 

To Miss La Monte: Irvington, N. J., August 22. 

I do not think my visit to Long Branch has done me much good. 
It was a relief from study, but my headache returned yesterday with 
redoubled severity. The doctor thinks it occurs from my severe 
accident in Italy, together with overtaxed brain. 

26. — It peels me to be criticised, but the Lord will help me. O Lord, 
deliver me from my faults. 

To Miss La Monte: August 29. 

I am glad to say that I am better now than when I wrote you last, 
but I am far from well. I haven't the severe headache I had, but am 
weak. I preached this morning with but little power. I fear the 
people went to their homes but little profited and interested. What 
a melancholy sometimes seizes my mind ! O Kate, let us fly fre- 
quently to the outstretched arms of our dear Redeemer. 

September 2. — Mr. Ilsley, my teacher, says I can yet learn how to 

At Irvington 109 

sing. Perhaps I will. Have thought a great deal over consecrating 
my property as well as my mind to the cause of God. I owe the 
Lord at least a tithe. Have I been asleep? 

3. — Went to see Brown, an elocution professor in New York. He 
says I have great faults to be remedied. Engaged to take lessons 
from him at $20 for 15 lessons. My music and elocution lessons will 
conflict with my purse, but what accomplishes me helps to save souls, 
I trust. 

8. — Went into the woods and practiced elocution. 

10. — Committed Quarrel of Brutus and Cassius for elocution prac- 

13. — Took music lessons. My teacher, Mr. Ilsley, said it would 
be lost time for me to try to study vocal music — that I had neither 
voice nor ear. If 1 live, ask in ten years if I have a voice. I paid 
him his charge for 9 lessons, $5.63, and left him. 

16. — Took elocution lesson of Mr. Brown in New York. I feel 
that it is in me to make an effective speaker. Nobody believes it, but 
I do believe by the blessing of God I shall be able to influence an 
audience in course of time. 

17. — Practiced on Hamlet's Soliloquy, and Spartacus's Address to 
the Gladiators at Capua. My voice seems to have increased in power. 

19. — In morning preached on "Sabbath Day" with more preparation 
than liberty. 

20. — Bought old Herbert's poems. 

21. — Read a little in Aurora Leigh. . . . Poor people have more 
in them than the world thinks. 

September 23. 
To Miss La Monte : 

I have just come from a first-rate prayer meeting. It was in a 
private family. I have a public church prayer meeting on Tuesday 
evening, on Wednesday evening I have a class meeting, and on 
Thursday evening I have prayer meetings in different parts of my 
charge in families. I find these last very successful and influential. 
There is less of stiffness and reserve at them than there is at some 
of the others, and altogether I think them more fraught with interest. 

25. — Heard from my long-expected books in Halle. They are all 
bound and are now on the way here. But what a bill ! — $253. I 
only expected about $150. I feel badly about it, for it will interfere 
materially with my plan for beneficence. Sawed some wood to-day. 

26. — In afternoon I went to see a sick old bad man. He is serious 
and convicted of sin. I believe thou wilt bless him, O Lord, for 

no Toiin Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

thou wouldst never have convicted him unless thou hadst intended 
his good. 

October 3. 
To Miss La Monte : 

I was in Newark, October 1, at a missionary meeting where Rev. 
S. L. Baldwin was ordained elder for the China Mission. We had an 
address from Rev. F. Burns (colored). Bishop of Liberia. 1 confess 
I did not like to see him rise and address a missionary meeting, but 
so appropriate and correct was all he said that I considered his the 
speech of the evening. That night, Friday night, I stayed with an 
Englishman named Simpson. His wife has a great many of the 
manuscripts and letters of the Wesleys. Coke, Fletcher, Watson, 
Clarke, and other distinguished Methodist divines, as well as of other 
noted men. I was interested with them very much. 

October 4. — Spent an hour in Reeves's antiquarian bookstore over- 
hauling old editions of Seneca. Bought a translation of Seneca. 
Was much encouraged by my elocution master. 

6. — Practiced elocution by reading Byron's Isles of Greece. 

7. — Reached elocutionist before he was dressed. Had but little 
spirit, but he encouraged me a great deal. I think it will terminate 
in much good. I paid him $20 for twelve lessons. I wonder if I 
ought not to have paid that amount to the missionary cause. 

12. — Practiced declamation as usual. My throat seems to be a 
little smoother than a nutmeg grater. 

16. — It is my ambition and, by God's help, I shall make both a 
speaker and a writer before I die. 

17. — In evening preached to the young men from the text, "Where- 
withal shall a young man cleanse his way ?" Had a good many young 
men out. God bless every young man who heard me ! 

18. — Met to form a singing school under Mr. Ilsley, who said he 
could not teach me anything. 

20. — Have received the Memoirs and Remains of R. A. Vaughan. 
Dr. Whedon has asked me to write a review of it. ... I believe 
that the Lord will make a preacher yet of me, after all. Why do 
I not sleep o' nights? I feel restless. I want in my half-conscious 
dreams to be speaking before great audiences and enchanting multi- 
tudes. Strange that I should have this constant thirst and so little 
adaptation to satisfy it. The fangs of the adder are suited to his 
nature; the teeth of the lion to his rapacity; the claws of the sloth 
to his propensities and nature ; but should I, one of God's creatures, 
too, have no adaptation of my powers to my thirst? The lawyer 

At Irvington hi 

can speak with boldness and efficiency before the jury of twelve for 
his client. Why should I not be able to speak effectively before my 
little church half full of people for my God? I will do it. If it is 
in me it shall come out. It must come out. 

26. — Why were thousands converted under the influence of White- 
field and but half dozens under the preaching of many an obscure 
pastor who was a better student ? There was a power of eloquence 
and a power from heaven, a human and a divine power, united to 
produce the marvelous effect. Now, Lord, I do trust thou wilt give 
me both. I will do what I can toward getting the human. Wilt thou 
not only increase that, but confer the divine? 

28. — I think something will come from my throat yet. The head, 
heart, throat, and tongue must harmonize to make me a successful 

30. — I do not use the pebbles in my mouth as much as I did. 
I used to run my words together too much. Mr. Brown thinks I 
now make too much of a pause between my words. This is the other 

November 1. — Mr. Brown says I am improving. I begin to think 
there is not so much value in what he says. Yet my increasing con- 
gregation says something. Wrote to my friend Paton. of Sheffield, 
plans of writing an edition of Seneca. Attended stewards' meeting 
at which two novelties happened — all there in time and their minister 

November 1. 
To Miss La Monte : 

Yesterday I preached from the Ministry of Angels, and in evening 
from Saint Paul's Conversion. I had an unusually good time. My 
congregation was larger than it had been at all before. I think that, 
though I fail sometimes, I shall succeed. I see not far ahead of us 
a bright future — I thank God for the vision. 

2. — I think I am improving in speaking. Freeman gave me an 
idea, namely, speaking from my abdomen. I think I shall now be 
able to try it, through his hint of getting a richness ; but dare I say 
such a word of my voice? 

7. — Preached a. m. on Faith and Works. My tongue was tied. 
I stammered at times, but I got along; yet. if I had been one of the 
congregation, I do think I would have left the church without having 
felt that I had learned anything by coming. 

8. — Mr. Brown says I am improving. I would rather see it — I mean 
feel it. Still, my voice is not so much like a rasp as it was. The 

ii2 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

words scraped against the sides of my throat six months ago like 
a flint along a file. 

9. — Wrote to Gould and Lincoln on Vaughan. I would like to edit 
an edition of the young man's works. 

11. — Hoarseness all the week. When God says so I can go no 
farther. Until he says this I shall try to improve my throat. In 
early life I lost many hours of improvement because I had no hope of 
reaching twenty-one years of age. Lord, help me to improve moments 
in thought. I find it so hard to think without my pen in my hand. 

13. — Sent my critique on Studien und Kritiken to Dr. Whedon. 

14. — Preached this morning on Religion and Education — Wisdom 
and Knowledge shall be the stability of the times. I made a fist of 
it — a dreadful fist. I hope I shall never keep people from reading, 
or hearing, or visiting, by as unprofitable a sermon as this was. 

15. — Saw Sheldon, Blakeman & Co. about editing Vaughan's Hours 
with the Mystics. 

November 15. 
To Miss La Monte: 

When I remember that I have been preaching nearly a year I 
wonder that I have not improved myself more. But it takes time 
for an acorn to make an oak — sometimes it dies in the ground. 

November 21. 
To Miss La Monte : 

I preached on Thanksgiving Day and had a better congregation 
than is usual on such occasions. I read my sermon, the first that I 
have done since I have been here. I made Righteousness a crown 
with three precious jewels set in it. These jewels were Prayer, 
Patriotism, and Praise — and these were the branches of my subject. 
I was more satisfied than I usually am. 

22. — Started for home. Cold. Took Vaughan's Essays and Remains 
with me, and slept at night in a dirty bed at Bridgeville. 

He spent ten days at his sister's, "Bonnie Brook." 

December 5. — My people really seemed glad to see me back again. 
There is comfort in that. 

December 15. 
To Miss La Monte : 

On Monday I read my Evangelism in Germany before Preachers' 
Association. Some encomiums were heaped on it. What did me 
good was that some of our older preachers thought well of it. 

At Irvington 113 

January 2, 1859. — Preached in evening on Joy in Heaven over One 
Sinner that Repenteth. Decided on this text as sun was going down. 
Never in such a fix before. 

January 6. 
To Miss La Monte : 

Look not upon the gloomy and desponding side — God tells us to 
hope. The stars shine it, the flowers teach it, the birds sing it, the 
very sleigh bells, that I now hear ringing past my narrow window, 
preach it. 

7. — My voice is getting to be a little more manageable. I think 
by the end of five years' constant labor I shall have been able to 
improve it a great deal. If people with good voices would work on 
them as much as I do with my bad one, we would have many a 
Demosthenes, Cicero, and Chrysostom. Labor is intended for a rich 
field as well as for a poor one. 

9. — Preached on The Christian's Duty to the Sinner, in morning 
— I Sam. 12. 24. Thought I made an awful fist of it; felt so badly 
I could hardly conclude with prayer. 

11. — Heard my sermon on Sunday morning very highly spoken of. 
Why is it I am no judge of what I preach? 

19. — I am endeavoring now to cultivate the low tones of my voice. 
How complex a thing is the voice of man ! Of nine perfect tones, 
but 17,592,186,044,515 different sounds; thus 14 muscles alone, or to- 
gether, produce 16,383; thirty indirect muscles ditto 73,741,823; and 
all in cooperation produce the number I have mentioned ; and these 
independent of different degrees of intensity. What a power is in 
the voice, if such is the number of tones of which it is capable ! 

January 27. 
To Miss La Monte : 

My health, I am thankful to God, has greatly improved. My pros- 
pect of life and labor is now very good. 

31. — Through labor much can be done. And this is not so much 

the desperate efforts as the constant efforts. Be it mine to be doing 

something with my grating diseased throat, every day. Practicing 

some pieces in Shakespeare : Marullus to the Roman populace ; Marcus 

Brutus on the death of Caesar; Mark Antony to the people on Caesar's 

death. Have practiced these a great deal. I believe they have 

assisted me, but the minister has more than mere excitement to help 

him — he has the Holy Spirit. 

H4 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

February 2. 
To Miss La Monte : 

My people are apparently anxious for me to remain with them. I 
have never told them the greatest reason (for leaving), that I wish 
to be married. I have given them one, that I think a young man 
ought not to stay more than one year in a place, if he would improve. 

7. — Worked on a review of last number of Studien und Kritiken 
which Dr. Whedon requested of me. It was hard work indeed, for 
no pay and no name. But it is all right if it does good. 

8. — Worked a little on review of the Kritiken. It is hard work 
to get sense out of what has but little. Why can't a German, if he 
has thoughts, write them down so that people will read them ? Surely 
it is worthy the language of Luther to frame it well. 

10. — Preached in evening on "Awake, thou that sleepest" — not 
much spirit manifested. One converted. That is worth a thousand 

13. — Preached with tolerable liberty a Missionary Sermon. Felt 
rejoiced when people gave about $50 — nearly double their custom. 

16. — Concluded review of Hours with the Mystics and corrected 
former part of it so as to get it into Dr. Whedon's hands at an early 

February 17. 
To Miss La Monte : 

I fear for my situation next year, not on my own account, for 
wherever there is a congregation, there it is my business to go and 

23. — Talked with Rev. Mr. McElvey (Dutch Reformed) this week 
on the subject of eloquence. He says I speak too fast and made other 
strictures, which, though not so pleasant, yet did not come with ill 
feeling, but with kindness and I dare say with truth. He gave me 
some hints which he seemed to think I had never heard of, but which 
I well knew. He says he does not practice ; he thinks everybody ought 
to exercise his voice as much as Vb hour every day. He little thought, 
nor did I tell him, that he was talking with one who had spent 
nearly 400 hours on his voice the past year. 

February 24. 
To Miss La Monte : 

I shall soon leave here, I believe, respected and loved by my people 
and congregation. To think that I have done some good will be 
the pleasantest treasure I can bear away with me. In our prayer 

At Irvington i 15 

meeting last night one penitent was at the altar. I find the people, 
many of them, strongly objecting to my leaving. A blacksmith, an 
ignorant man and a member of no church, says he thinks he will 
have to go to Conference and petition for me to return. This I 
consider a compliment — the greatest one I have had from any source. 
If the common people can understand me, I do feel that my labors 
have been useful. 

28. — Went to Astor Library and read Davies's Holland in prep- 
aration for my lecture on Holland. 

March 3. 
To Miss La Monte : 

I have been writing a lecture on Holland to deliver in this village. 
It is one of a course by different persons. I have studied the matter 
very closely, and, with the addition of my experience in that country, 
I hope to give something of interest to-morrow evening. I have 
just finished it — it will be over an hour long in the delivery. Either 
it will be a very great bore or it will be something of a treat. 

I have no idea of where I shall go after leaving here — perhaps back 
in the mountains, though I do hope not, on your account as well as 
my own. But I trust we shall not have to stay in the mountains long, 
at any rate, should we even have to go there. 

March 10. 
To Miss La Monte : 

Well, my lecture on Holland is over. I had a large and flattering 
audience — the largest according to the weather that has been at any 
of the lectures. It was highly spoken of, more so than I would like 
to write you ; I would write you, but I know very well that you 
would not burn it, even though I should request it. 

March 17. 
To Miss La Monte : 

Last night, after I had taken tea with one of the most prominent 
members, about eight o'clock in marched couple after couple until the 
room was filled. Then commenced a speech to me by one of the men. 
After finishing he handed me a purse "in the name of the ladies of 
the church." I replied, of course, as they seemed to expect one. After 
that we had music, refreshments, and a very pleasant time. The purse 
was afterward counted and found to contain more than $50. Some- 
times presents are made to ministers, which from the manner of doing 
make him feel more like a beggar than otherwise. But this was done 
well. I had a hint that something was on the carpet, but still I was 
surprised. It affords me no little gratification to know that they wish 

n6 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

me to return. In fact, I have had to defend my course every day 
for three weeks now. But the people will not swallow what I say. 

17. — Told Brother Porter I wanted to be married and wished a 
married man's appointment. He talked pleasantly and assented. 

26. — Had a surprise of a little storybook from two girls. They 
wanted to give me something and knew not what better. I appre- 
ciated it as if it had been a lost book of Livy. 

On the twenty-seventh a class of ten girls gave him a copy 
of Stevens's History of Methodism, in three volumes, "as a 
memento of affection for one who cared for the 'Lambs of the 
Flock.' " 

28. — In looking back on the Conference year now ending I am 
glad to see that the spiritual condition of the church is much better, 
their benevolent contributions more than double, and their pastor's 
salary seventy dollars ahead of the previous year. One of the greatest 
things I have learned is to work, even though I cannot see success 
ahead, as though it were there. The greatest acquisition of the year 
is a taste for preaching. It goes very hard now sometimes, yet I 
no longer look upon the ministry as below the other professions, but 
now as the most honorable. 

April 4. — Started for Conference this morning. Reached Haver- 
straw and put up at the house of Leonard Gurnell — a very pleasant 

5. — To-day examined on Watson's Institutes, Wesley's Perfection, 
geography, grammar, and sermon. 

6. — Bishop Simpson looked very feeble, but I think many prayers 
went up for his speedy restoration to good health. There was an 
affecting time at the sacrament of the Lord's Supper. 

7. — Conference proceedings were conducted in the calmest spirit of 
Christian love. 

9. — Walked up, with Dr. Crane and several others, the Great Thorn, 
the mountain that rises back of Haverstraw — a beautiful view we had 
of the Hudson and the fields back of the mountain. 

11. — Appointments read out — mine at Passaic, Xew Jersey. Very 
unfavorable reports of it, but still I hope to do some good there. 
Slept but little. Not satisfied with appointment, but say nothing. 
Hope to see the day when my appointment will depend less on the 
dictum of elders and bishops than the will of the people. But God 
knows what is right. 

From daguerreotype, taken in 1859, soon after their marriage. 


At Passaic 117 


At Passaic 

April 13, 1859. — Find my new place small, neglected. The Meth- 
odists in the background, the congregation a handful. 

14. — Bad cold. — Fear that all my elocution lessons will do me 
little good. But still I may have some power after all to do something 
in the way of public speaking. During the last year I thought it 
would be next to impossible for me to do anything but write a little, 
yet I know not that either my tongue or pen will ever do anything 
worth the world's remembrance. But as God will. 

Passaic, N. J., April 14. 
To Miss La Monte: 

Though urged, I may say to the last, to return to Irvington, I still 
refused and determined to take a married man's appointment. That 
appointment is Passaic, a small village on the New York and Erie 
Railroad, about twelve miles or a half-hour's ride from Jersey City. 
There are not more than half the members here that I had at Irving- 
ton, and in many other respects it is not so desirable a place to live at. 
The church is not so neat, but equally as commodious. The place 
is made up of the Dutch Reformed altogether. They have the power 
and wealth. The parsonage adjoins the church. It is a neat little 
house, much better than the parsonages of larger places. It is fur- 
nished to a great extent. The latter part of week after next, or about 
Tuesday the 3d of May, we will, if it suits you and we are spared, 
be married. I want you to have as good a home as possible, but 
I cannot promise you much in this place. We must get along as best 
we can and hope for a better residence after leaving here. My salary 
is not very large here — $400. I think you will be happy here. 

17. — Preached in the morning to 38 people on the Ascension of 
Christ. Sunday school, 30. Throat choky. Maybe that throat will, 
after all, do nothing but guzzle down. I wish it may thrill up. 

18. — At Dr. Howe's doing a mere nothing, not even thinking, or 
reading, or scarcely living. 

April 20. 
To Miss La Monte : 

To-day the former pastor has left the parsonage, and they have 
commenced to clean it throughout. It will be done by Saturday night 
next. I think we can be married next week. ... I like Passaic 
better than at first. 

n8 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

23. — Nothing done again this week. I must make up for it somehow 
when I get settled in parsonage with a wife. The Lord make me 
happy when I get one. 

Sunday, 24. — In evening preached on the Sower and the Seed. 
Congregation much larger than before. 

25. — Started for Charlotteville to get married. Met Wellington, 
Kate's brother, on street. We took Albany boat at 6 p. m. 

26. — In morning found ourselves aground 10 miles below Albany. 
Reached Albany too late for Charlotteville stage. 

27. — Stage for Charlotteville. A long, tedious day — 10^ at Char- 

28. — Married at 7 o'clock in morning by David La Monte, Kate's 
uncle. Started immediately for Albany. Stopped at Delavan House. 

29. — Paid $8 for night's lodging. Took New York boat. As fine 
a day as I ever saw. The Hudson was glorious. In evening at home, 
where we found a company ready to receive us. Supper ready. 

30. — A few people called in, but they were very slow about it. 

Mr. Charles M. Howe, of Passaic, says : 

In addition to his regular church work, he went quite regularly to 
the "Notch" and preached on Sundays in the afternoon. "Notch" ap- 
pointment was a neighborhood some four miles from Passaic, or 
Aquackanonck, as it was then called. Whenever the pastor was 
unable to go, Dr. Howe went himself and would preach. Often there 
would be an audience of only from four to ten people present. The 
church and parsonage were about one mile from the center of the 
village and, although I was only a young boy, I well remember walking 
down with our school teacher every night to sleep in the parsonage 
as protectors, while the pastor was away on his wedding trip. The 
life and preaching of Mr. Hurst were of such a high standard, and 
made such an impression on our village, that for years his services 
have always been referred to with marked kindness and regard. 

May 1. — Rode with Dr. Howe over to Boiling Spring to recon- 
noiter the ground a little. In evening had a large congregation and 
preached on Reading. 

2. — This week betook myself to study in earnest. Practiced elo- 
cution every day. 

3. — On Sunday morning I find my thoughts greatly exalted by speak- 
ing Coleridge's Ode in Chamouny. It elevates my feelings and often 
puts me in a preaching frame. 

6. — This week getting naturalized to my books once more — the car- 
penter is looking over his handled, loved tools again. 

At Passaic 119 

7. — Practiced elocution in morning and sawed wood in the after- 
noon. Was all in a sweat from it. 

12. — (New York) Tract Society Anniversary. Speeches by Dr. 
Kirk, Missionary Vrooman, and Henry Ward Beecher. The last was 
a great one and well done. It was a rebuke to the American Tract 
Society on slavery issues. He far surpasses Spurgeon in several 
characteristics of greatness. Without indorsing his antislavery ultra- 
ism, I admire his boldness and steadfastness of purpose. He preaches 
with an aim. 

15. — I preached on Christ raised as Moses raised the serpent — at 
Germantown. Talked to Germans in their own language for the first 

16. — Believe that my voice is improving some little. Have given 
myself more to the Lord. His giving me health and a desire to build 
up my voice seems to be an indication that he intends at least to 
make something out of me. 

19. — I am trying to make arrangements to have the backs put on 
the benches in the basement of the church. People must be made 
comfortable, or they will stay at home. 

22. — Preached in the morning on Christ the Vine. Led the Sunday 
school class. Preached in German at Germantown. and in evening 
to young men. I think it the hardest day's work I have ever done. 
Some pain in my chest after all over. 

27. — In New York trying to make arrangements for a German 
preacher for Germantown. 

30. — Elmore (brother-in-law) told me my voice was melodious — 
the first praise it has ever received in my hearing. I fear he was 

June 13. — Went to Germantown to see about getting a new church 
for the Germans. 

17. — Went to Boiling Spring to meet German preacher. In rain 
few hours. 

19. — Preached with more earnestness than thought. 

21. — Commenced attending lessons with Professor Taverner, of New 
York, teacher of Drs. Bellows, Chapin, McClintock, Crooks, and Mil- 
burn. He is very theoretical ; still I hope to be very materially 

27. — Had the blues most dreadfully. In my room without doing 
anything save looking out of my window into my back yard. 

July 1. — Tried more than ever I did to think out a sermon. Extem- 
pore writing is worthless. 

22. — My mind has been more than ordinarily impressed with the 

120 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

holiness and sacrifice of my calling. I think C7od has never shown 
me hefore its extreme responsibility — perhaps because he, the All- 
Wise, knew that it would be overpowering unless he showed it to me 
more gradually. Whitefield's zealous, burning heart has impressed 
me wonderfully. It is a scorching rebuke to unworthy, inactive me. 
I have, notwithstanding a defective elocution and weak lungs, deter- 
mined resolutely that I will not compromise my calling by dabbling 
in literary sketches to the neglect of my ministry. I have, it is true, 
a small parish — not thirty souls all told, who are members of my 
church. This was very discouraging at first. It is now sometimes. 
But they are souls, and for them I am bound to labor. They need 
far more than I can give them, and therefore they are entitled to 
all I can do for them. I will try to do the work of an evangelist. 
But I am not what I ought to be. I have not felt in my own soul 
the higher enjoyment which I really believe is permitted to those who 
seek it. I wish sanctification (for that is what I mean) had some 
other name that would be less startling to me. But purity of heart 
I have never had as some have enjoyed. I must commence what 
I left off in the early part of my college course under Dr. J. T. 
Peck. God help me now to begin again to labor in earnest for it. 
The use of tobacco I must forever relinquish. It is injurious to my 
throat and necessarily interferes with my speech. May I lay aside 
every weight and the sin that most easily besets me ! Thou, God, art 
the only witness of my heart at this time. Give me grace to persevere 
in my duty and obligations and resolutions. 

From the third of January, i860, I begin to write up the neglected 
spaces in this Journal from July, 1859. Here is a period of nearly 
six months, and in this are embraced some of the most important 
events of my life. I can safely say that my difficulties have been 
in a certain sense the sorest in all my experiences, as this account will 
show. Yet what I have done and resolved to do will perhaps have 
a more decided influence on my future labor than my previous prep- 

My small congregation has had a very depressing influence upon me. 
The Dutch Reformed Church having evening services in the winter, 
I have been deprived of their congregation, with a part of which 
I had been favored once on Sabbath in the summer months. My con- 
gregation scarcely averages fifty, perhaps not more than forty. With 
every desire to be successful, and only successful in the measure of 
usefulness to God, I have tried to increase the number of my auditors. 
I cannot get full seats. Yet I will labor on and pray much to God 
that I mav be instrumental in salvation. I need not conceal that the 

At Passaic 121 

slender audience I have has been a saddening cause of religious 
despondency. It seems as if I do no good whatever, as if I am worth- 
less, that I shall never be useful. I have consequently become very 
much dissatisfied with my situation at Passaic. I always think of 
leaving, and yet I have refused all overtures to go elsewhere. I 
think I have as much reason to be chained here and yet preach as 
Paul had, while fastened to a Roman soldier. 

I merit no more hearers than I have ; alas, they are enough souls 
to answer for at the judgment bar, and enough to feed with spiritual 
truth. I cannot depend on my audience, therefore, for inspiration. 
My help must come from God. Frequently my audience is not over 
twenty-five. To-night (7th) my wife says we had a good congre- 
gation last Sabbath. "Yes," said I, "I counted thirty." I had been 
forming habits of thought for use in addressing audiences, but since 
I have been in Passaic it has been almost impossible for me to think 
in my hours of solitude of expressions and ideas to use to my people 
on the next Sabbath. I cannot study and observe with the reference 
to my pulpit that I would like. Yet I find it easier to preach to a 
handful of people than when I first commenced dealing with such a 
quantity. A few weeks ago I preached at Bloomfield for the Rev. 
S. H. Opdyke. His congregation numbered 70, and afterward he 
regretted to me the small number. I told him I felt quite inspired in 
addressing them because they so far exceeded my own. Thus I find 
I can adapt myself better to a few than before. 

To the same cause, a small congregation, I must attribute my 
diminishing attention to the study of elocution. I have bought Bautain 
on Extempore Speaking and am reading it now. I think it the best 
work that I have ever examined, tending to improve the elocutionary 
powers. Every day before dinner I read ten pages of Paradise Lost, 
sometimes sitting, but oftener standing. This I read more for the 
maintenance of my strength of voice than for the acquisition of more. 
I cannot improve and nurse my voice with that interest which I 
exercised formerly, simply because my auditors are so few. I can 
work against nature in the cultivation of my vocal organs, but it 
seems more than I can do to recite soliloquies and dramatic scenes 
as I did in Irvington, and have but a handful of auditors next Sab- 
bath. But perhaps it is well that I quit this, and maybe my handful 
are blessing me with a richer gift than Trinity Church could confer. 
I will try to think so, at least. Yet I intend to continue reading to 
my wife from some work of poetry or history, so that my voice may 
not be like an undrawn and rusty sword on the coming Sabbath day. 
This I shall do, because I think it mv dutv both for my health and 

122 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

future success. I have a belief that in time I shall have more people 
to visit and be improved by in the work, as well as to preach to on 
the Sabbath. If I deserve, the Lord will give them; if not, may he 
keep me in Passaic till the day of my death ! I think, however, that 
the kind Being who has bent me into a vocation so much against my 
will and restored my health against my or my friends' expectation 
and led me to improve an almost incorrigible voice, at least somewhat, 
will still be my protector, and will not allow my feet to slip. This 
is my prayer, yea, my faith; I shall battle on. Soon the spring will 
be here, and then my congregation will grow perhaps from a new 
bleaching factory, erected half a mile from the church, together with 
some of the Dutch whose hour of evening worship will be changed 
to the afternoon. How much I think of one who comes to my 
church ! I meet a man next day and give him a warm wish for happi- 
ness as I grasp his hand. But God leads me down into the valley to 
show me where my strength lies. Still, I will not say that I compre- 
hend the Providence that has brought me to Passaic — that I must 
leave for the future. 

In regard to my spiritual experience. My mind has been much 
employed in the investigation of the doctrine of sanctification. I 
have always had a prejudice to that portion of Methodist doctrine, 
based, of course, on an entire disbelief in the power of acquiring such 
a blessing. Nor have I been free from this since my entrance into 
the ministry. I have been more convinced by the holy life of individ- 
uals than by doctrinal statements of the subject that there is a very 
lofty position in Christian life which most religious people never reach. 
Fletcher's life and deeds are more to my satisfaction than both his 
and Wesley's writings. I will not depreciate a work which I have 
lately read on the subject. Peck's Christian Perfection. I think 
it a most admirable book and highly satisfactory, though I regret 
that so much space has been employed in controversy and clearing 
the way to his more positive arguments and experience. These are 
what we need, what Methodism needs, what the world needs for the 
active employment and enjoyment of this great truth. To the men- 
tioned work I feel indebted to a great extent, but as yet I am in the 
dark, and I know not when I shall be admitted to the full light of 
religion. I pray some days very ardently for this great blessing, then 
again its importance does not press upon me for some time. What 
I need is a constant sense of its necessity to my usefulness and the 
development of my spiritual nature. I see so much that I could 
remedy if relieved of sin. O that sin were eradicated from my heart, 
that I might not suffer by these uprisings of passion and feeling! 

At Passaic 123 

Now, when made holy, sin will be cast out, the viper gone, though 
I am sure that temptation will be presented to me all along my path 
in life. I now have the power to conquer every spiritual foe, but I 
want to be relieved as much as possible of the struggle. Do I mistake 
the doctrine ? I hope not. This much I know ; there is such a truth 
as holiness for man. Prayer will make an application of the boon 
to me. Why need I stop to question how all this is to be done? 
God in his good pleasure will devise a means for my salvation, if 
I act according to my present light. The Israelites did right in 
marching directly down to the shore of the Red Sea. It was not 
their place to inquire how the Lord would save them and destroy 
their pursuing enemy. Now I am determined by the grace of God 
to go on in the pursuit of holiness. I pray God to give me strength 
and a continued purpose that I may continue, if for life, the ardent 
struggle for the great boon. 

In composition have been doing a little. Hours with the Mystics 
has lain in Dr. Whedon's drawer for a year, he telling me frequently 
that he hoped soon to be able to use it. The other day he told me 
that he would like me to take it home and after reading in Blair's 
Rhetoric his chapters on the Structure of Sentences to revise it. I 
have read those chapters and am thankful from the bottom of my 
heart for the Doctor's advice. I soon after read over my article and, 
as highly labored as it undoubtedly was, I would not have seen it 
in print for anything. Indeed, I am startled that I had let such 
a composition leave my room. I made the resolution to think more 
and write less some months ago, but I can only perceive a very slight 
improvement. Yet in this, as in other difficulties, by prayer and 
steady effort I think I shall be successful. 

Some weeks ago I paid a visit to my friend Rev. W. A. Bartlett, 
of the Brooklyn Tabernacle. He told me much of his great success, 
his multitudes for a congregation, his salary, his preaching. How 
little I felt as he told me these things. We are both travelers abroad, 
and both alike in many respects. Now he is popular, courted, lectur- 
ing everywhere, living like a lord; and I am in a country village, with 
but forty for a congregation, $450 for a salary, and no personal 
sympathy scarcely from any people in the community. Must I freeze 
at this rate? Am I to vegetate like a weed and shed no fragrance 
on any circle of humanity? It sometimes seems to me as if I am 
nothing and can be nothing. Then, again, I think that God has not 
made me to swing my little lamp in a gloomy mine, but has made 
me able to build a beacon-light on some grand mountain cliff. How 
impenetrable is the future! Can it be seen? No, I cannot guess at 

124 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

it even. God make me influential for good! If power, influence 
would alienate me, then make me as the chaff which the wind drives 
away. How I would like to lead such a noble life as Robert Hall's! 
He suffered almost continually, and yet how persistent in the cause 
of truth, how filled with an idea of his impotence, how full of the 
Spirit of Christ ! Some are masters of the pen, some are gifted in 
many other respects, but he was a master in the art of thinking. Ay, 
that is an art ; happy he who learns it. 

One reason why I have succeeded no better in the pulpit exists 
in my desire to do too many things. I wish sometimes I had not so 
many books. I was seized the other day with a desire to commence 
the reading of Schlosser's World History. It would never do for 
me to do that. True, it would be storing my mind with facts, but 
in the same time I could master several commentaries more profitably 
to the wants of sinful men. So I have determined to use Schlosser 
only for reference. Neither can I write on any subject that fancy 
may light upon. I can do most when I write and think and read 
on kindred subjects. 

When I was in college I was made to believe that I was somewhat 
of a writer. But of late I have begun to think myself very indirect, 
pointless, and inaccurate in my writing. Dr. Whedon, too, is very 
severe on me, and I feel quite downhearted after every conversation 
with him. My only source of encouragement is simply this — I like 
to w r rite. There is nothing, save warm preaching to an attentive 
congregation, that makes me forget time and self, like writing. Let it 
lie a while. I then wonder at my folly. Perhaps the whole sketch 
would disgrace my name forever in this life if it were published. I 
must take more time; study good models. Then I will do more. I 
trust that God may teach me how to work in the true way to do the 
most good. 

Sunday, January I, i860. — I have been impressed very seriously 
by reading Barnes's Comment on the First Chapter of John's Gospel. 
He there lays it down as a principle that a minister must place Christ 
first of all, not himself. I fear that this idea has not been prominent 
enough in my preaching. May I forget myself in the magnitude of 
my message received from God my Father ! 

January 27. — I have of late found out a very great error of mine 
in the preparation of sermons : I had always something of a plan 
in mind before commencing, but it was not full enough. I had not 
taken enough views of the subject. My design was to develop one 
idea of the text instead of bringing out as many ideas as the text 
contained. I am trying now to remedy this defect. I am learning to 

At Passaic 12 

be more judicious in my remarks about others. Perhaps I have 
been too communicative and free in my manner. I will not indulge 
in too much levity, but try to live in all soberness with the fear of 
God before my eyes. I have held myself aloof from the un-Methodist 
portion of this little community hitherto; and I trust for the last time. 
But I must learn my duty so slowly ! I would that I could know my 
whole field of duty in one short hour. O God, I beseech thee to 
grant me some years of life after thou hast shown me my whole field 
of duty. 

My plan of study at present is : 

5^4 a. M. — Rise — Prayer — Meditation — Reading Watson's Theology. 

7^2 a. M. — Breakfast — Reading N. Y. Times — 2 chapters in Old 
Testament — 2 chapters in Kitto, corresponding thereto as nearly as 
may be — 1 chapter in Barnes's Notes. These I try to finish by 
10 a. m. or thereabout. 

10. — Study of sermons. 

12. — Theological studies — mostly doctrinal. 

1 Vz p. m. — Reading Milton — Declamation or some vocal exercise. 

2. — Dinner. 

3. — Pastoral work. Miscellaneous reading. Church duties, or the 
study of homiletics. 

This rule I vary somewhat, for the mind will not do machine work. 

January 30. — I have received great advantage from a Scotchman 
residing in our village — a teacher named Duncan Campbell. He excels 
in three respects : the faculty of teaching, a knowledge of scriptural 
facts, a very correct use of language. The greatest service I have 
derived from Mr. Campbell is in respect to my use of words.- I felt 
badly at some of his corrections. Indeed, I thought, as to some of 
the phrases attributed to me, that I did not use them in speech at 
all. Behold he was right, for I subsequently found myself using the 
same expressions. In another sense has Mr. Campbell improved me: 
he has corrected me where his opinion was the reverse of mine as 
to the propriety of the matter; but on deliberation I have invariably 
come to the conclusion that he was right. In this connection I cannot 
forget the feelings instilled into my mind by the reading of Dr. 
Macduff's Footsteps of St. Paul. I thank God it has fallen into my 
hands. It was loaned me by a dying old man. 

My friends in this place are kinder than I deserve. Some days ago 
sausage was sent in to us by our friends ; then coal, then pork and 
other things. Not the value of gifts, but the heart which they betoken, 
is of importance to me. 

I have of late read Ruskin's Lamps of Architecture. How beauti- 

126 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

fully does he introduce and explain a Scripture truth with his secular 
cause! I would that I could build such beautiful temples on such 
noble foundations. But my work is greater than his. I would rather 
lead one soul to Christ than build enough stately churches for the 
world's worship, or to be Giotto or Angelo. I like much Hugh Miller. 
I have been reading aloud his Testimony of the Rocks; how grand 
and gorgeous is his language ; how rational his conclusions ! Worthy 
such an author of human memory and love. God be thanked that 
he could not destroy what he had performed. One may end his life, 
but he cannot end his works. I hope to become a tolerable potter 
of English. I would only become such in order to make people love 
the Lord more. 

February 10. — My friends at my little Notch appointment have 
raised a purse of $15 and given it to me as a token of their esteem. 

March 1. — O for seals to my ministry! I sometimes wish that I 
had to preach every day in one place or another. When I consider 
how lifeless I am, how seldom I preach, how ineffective even in the 
pulpit, I feel like casting my books into the flames and rushing forth 
to preach on street corners and on wharves, anywhere, to be the means 
of saving some immortal souls. But I will wait and mayhap God will 
show me something more to do. 

8. — Jersey City. Heard H. Grattan Guinness preach. His great- 
ness, in my opinion, consists in his frequent quotations from the 
Scriptures, surprising you with one after his statement of a truth. 
Also he is so lucid in his words, so natural and withal so really but 
not vehemently earnest. Maybe God will give me a quiver and bow 
some day. 

12. — Attended Preachers' Association. Read my essay on Ether- 
idge's Adam Clarke. Returned home refreshed in spirit. 

14. — Requested by Committee to make one of the addresses of the 
Bible anniversary at Conference. I consented with reluctance. 

16. — In evening Mrs. H. and I were surprised by a visit from about 
thirty of our friends, nearly all outside of the church. When the 
company left we found ourselves possessed of $31 in money, some 
provisions, and a fine rooster. A pleasant episode this in our monot- 
onous Passaic life. 

18. — In view of my repeated failures to keep my appetite in sub- 
jection, I form this solemn resolution, asking God's assistance toward 
its strict observance : 

1. Before each meal to pray to God to help me to be temperate at 
the table and eat nothing that I know to disagree with me ; also to be 
very sparing of what does suit me. 

At Passaic 127 

2. To eat nothing between my meals, not even a bonbon. 

3. To eat no meat at supper, very sparingly of preserved fruits, no 
rich cake. 

4. To eat nothing before retiring to bed. 

April 4. — Hackettstown. Conference opened this morning. Bible 
meeting to-day. The speakers were J. O. Winner, J. F. Hurst, T. H. 
Landon, J. R. Bryan, and W. Dwight, of Constantinople. I didn't fail, 
but came a very short distance from it. 

7. — Spent the evening at home and thought over my morrow's 

8. — Afternoon rode over with four other candidates for deacon's 
orders to Vienna. The sermon was delivered by James Ayres on 
Giving a Reason for the Hope Within You. Afterward Bishop Scott 
ordained us to the holy office of the ministry. 

He was reappointed to Passaic. 

11. New York. — Made purchases of Macknight on the Epistles. 
The author is Calvinistic and thus renders some passages, but he gives 
the sinew of the truth of God. 

May 14. — Boy (John La Monte) born at 11^2 a. m. Perfect and 
well. That night at family prayer we dedicated him to God. 

July 2. — This day married my first couple. In afternoon the dear 
baby was baptized by Dr. John S. Porter. 

Mr. F. A. Wilcox, of New York, says : 

I recall spending a most happy Fourth of July as a guest at the 
Bishop's modest home at Passaic Bridge. I had been thrown into 
the somewhat Bohemian life of a New York law student at that period, 
with restraints a little slackened, but was greatly impressed with the 
beautiful Christian atmosphere that pervaded that happy household. 
It was an incentive to good which had a lasting effect on me. 

August 19. — Should I die without the time for witnessing let this 
be known : I die with Christ, consequently I expect to live with him. 

He made his first trip to Niagara Falls in late August, 
taking in Trenton Falls and Sharon Springs on his return. 

November 26. — Within the last two months I have spent some six 
dollars more than I ought to have done. May God pardon me for 
my extravagance and lead me to better deeds. 

December 1. — To-day sent off my first article on Foreign Religious 
Literature to the Methodist. 


Of his work in Passaic Dr. John M. Howe says : 

Methodism, up to this pastorate, had made but little impression 
upon the community. Mr. Hurst's influence helped us somewhat with 
those who had previously looked down upon us. His handsome de- 
portment and services essentially promoted the welfare of the church. 


At Eiizabethport, Fulton Street 

His assignment at the Conference session of 1861 to Fulton 
Street Church, Eiizabethport, was a distinct promotion and 
recognition of the growing power of the zealous and indus- 
trious young pastor. Mrs. M. A. Huntsman, one of his most 
helpful and efficient members here, gives the following testi- 
mony of this pastorate : 

When he arrived here we had only one stove, in a rented parsonage, 
and no money in the treasury. Brother Hurst appeared not at all 
discouraged. It was about four weeks before we got things arranged 
for proper housekeeping. Very soon he became acquainted with all 
the members of our church as well as the general public who were 
not members, particularly the young people, with whom he was a great 
favorite. The attendance increased and his work was blessed by 
adding many members to our church. 

His position and influence during these troublous days of 
the republic are well set forth by W. W. Park, a member of 
this church, who also gives loving tribute to his pastor's work 
and character : 

The stirring times of '61 and '62 were fraught with much concern 
to the church as well as our country. He, being a young man, was 
fired with zeal for God, church, and country, and well do I remember 
the stirring appeals made by him from pulpit and rostrum in behalf 
of the union of the states. These were heroic utterances, in a heroic 
time, of a heroic man, and it required a man of sterling qualities to 

At Elizabeth port 129 

stem the disloyal spirit that prevailed in this section of Jersey at that 

The quiet, thoughtful demeanor of John F. Hurst as pastor, student, 
scholar, teacher — for he was a preacher in every sense, a teacher of 
the Word, deep in thought, impressive in delivery, simple and childlike 
in manner — left an impress on the minds and hearts of all who 
listened, which remains to this day. I remember on one occasion, 
when he was preaching on loyalty to God and country, a man occupy- 
ing a seat in the gallery followed him sotto voce, through the entire 
discourse, to his annoyance. In closing he arose in majesty and, with 
a keen wit cutting to the quick, administered such a rebuke to that 
disturber that he quailed before it, sneaked away, and never annoyed 

A congregation of three or four hundred greeted him, and often 
more. The pent-up powers of mind and heart burst forth in all their 
eloquence, grace, and spirit. Here he organized the first young peo- 
ple's class, he being its first president or leader. That class was a 
grand success, and its influence remains to this day. There was much 
opposition to its formation. It was thought to be an innovation 
upon the right and discipline of the church. But withal it lived, thrived, 
and is a strong auxiliary to the church to-day. When we think of 
the great work of the young people's societies of to-day, and the 
wonderful progress they have made in the various lines of good in 
the church and world, may we not claim for our beloved pastor, John 
F. Hurst, the honor of first organizing the young people for work, 
in the early sixties? 

Another phase of his struggle with the question of writing 
books as related to his work as a minister appears in a record 
of September 19: 

Never until now have I been able to see truly that I must perform 
one work. I had great plans for reading history and biography, 
also for writing my contemplated History of Rationalism, for which 
I have been collecting materials at great expense of time and money. 
I should have but little to do save letting my pen run. I have pretty 
well mastered the theme. But I will not write it until doomsday, 
sooner than I will infringe one particle on my ministerial vocation. 
My letters to the Methodist for children I will continue, as I only 
use an hour or two of recreation in the work for that purpose. May 
the Lord bless the household of J. W. Alexander for that noble man's 
work on Preaching. I cannot estimate the good it has done me. 

130 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

The heart and household of the parson at "The Port'' were 
gladdened on December 30, 1861, by the arrival of their sec- 
ond child, a daughter, to whom was given the name of Clara. 

The people of his congregation planned and carried to 
success a surprise upon their pastor and his wife on February 
24, 1862, leaving them in possession of purses containing $100 
for him and $17 for her, "pin money," as it was termed, and 
also very delightful memories of this united expression of 
appreciation and good will. The large company came to the 
parsonage in the absence of the family, and not the least 
amusing circumstance was the objection made by the servant 
in charge to the acts of the committee of ladies, who went 
early. She "knew Mrs. Hurst wouldn't like it," and advised 
them to "wait till she came home" ; and it was only by the 
opportune arrival of a very intimate friend of the family that 
her fears were quieted, and she allowed them to go on without 

At the fifth session of the Conference in 1862 he delivered a 
most instructive and impressive address upon the Tract Cause, 
and was ordained elder by Bishop Thomas A. Morris. During 
the second summer of this pastorate Mrs. Hurst and the two 
young children spent the most of August at Flemington, New 
Jersey, at the parsonage with Rev. S. H. Opdyke and family, 
and the letters of the husband and father during this separation 
reveal among other things his lighter vein of humor and 
methods of recreation : 

August 3. — I am greatly troubled about my celery — it won't grow 
a bit. I don't know what I shall do to coax it along. If I knew 
of anybody that has been in the habit of using beer, I might get a 
little to give to it for its health. I must either replant or you will 
have to do without. 

6. — I pulled the cucumbers yesterday and am going to pickle 
them to-night. There were seven nice ones. Two tremendous ones 
I found had grown old and yellow. 

At Elizabeth port 131 

Here is a hint as to how he organized a fishing party and 
what were the spoils : 

11. — I have got splendid crab bait. I shall have a good lunch. Sev- 
eral of the preachers have sent notes saying they cannot come. I wish 
Opdyke were here to go fishing with us to-day. I don't know what 
I shall do with all our fish. Poor things, they little dream of what 
havoc we are going to make. 

12. — Well, my party disappointed me sadly. None came except 
Dr. Porter and Brother Buttz. Booth, the young man from Brooklyn, 
who preached for me Sunday night, and his friend, and John Porter 
completed our party. We had everything good and fine. Mrs. Porter 
had a splendid dinner, which we were so anxious to eat that we got 
tired of fishing very soon. We caught nothing but one toad fish, 
which Buttz caught, and we threw over for good luck. We landed 
on Shooter's Island about il l A o'clock and stretched ourselves out and 
had a first-rate dinner. Then we talked, and talked until it was time 
for me to go home. We had a fair wind home, but no sail, yet we 
wanted to sail. What should we do? We had a big piece of old 
dirty torn canvas, so we hoisted that on two oars and with that we 
sailed home amid the applause of every boat's crew that we passed. 

To John and Clara. 13. — I must tell you before I go to bed how 
much I think of you and how often I call to mind your dear little 
faces. Wouldn't you like to go to our picnic next Wednesday? Well, 
get mamma to put you into a good little flour bag and give you to 
the stage driver and have him send you down to me. Wouldn't we 
have a good time? Then, after we had taken a good many little 
walks I might send you back again to Flemington. For tea, which 
I prepared myself, I ate six pears. I think you would like to have 
a taste of them. I bought them from an old German woman who 
was around with a wagon load this morning. 

To Mrs. Hurst. 19. — I must tell that yesterday I did what I have 
long intended to do about writing for the Methodist. I told Dr. 
Crooks I was tired of the Children's Stories, at which he expressed 
his regret. He told me I could have a respite of six weeks if I liked 
and then could go at it again. But I told him that I thought he had 
better put the matter in other hands. He then consented and asked 
me to translate some German theological articles at my leisure. This 
I consented to do, for it would be according to my taste. I can select 
them from my own books on hand and need never feel hurried. 

He was after this persuaded to furnish many more stories. 

13- John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

September 27. — (Plan of work.) 

5 a. m. — Devotion — Declamation — Scripture Verses. 
7 — Breakfast. 

8^2 — Sermon. 

11 — Exercise. 

12 m. — Writing. 
I p. M. — Dinner. 

Tuesday and Friday — Pastoral Visiting. 
Wednesday and Thursday — Miscellaneous Reading. 

This new plan has been made to relieve a weakness of my eyes 
caused by writing early in the morning. — J. F. H. 

October 1. — Commenced writing essays for Herzog's Encyclopaedia 
to-day at 4?4 o'clock p. m. 

November 12. — Commenced on Rationalism and Its Later Phases. 
May God inspire me to write it in such a way that some men of this 
land may be saved from the blight of a wrecked faith in God's Word ! 

1863, February 2. — Heard Wendell Phillips lecture on the Lost 
Arts. The most masterly performance I ever listened to. 

8. — Missionary day. Dr. Carlton preached. Collection $130, or 
nearly double any previous collection. 

11. — Prayer meeting in church in evening. More interest than 
in any previous meeting. One lady came to the altar and was con- 
verted. She was a boatman's wife from Lockport, N. Y. Her face 
was indicative of her peace with God. 

12. — Have just read an excellent little work. The Still Hour. I 
do not fulfill one of its principal requisites, time enough in prayer. 
I would that I could talk more with God. 

15. — Mariner's Harbor. At close of services was visited by com- 
mittee from Hedding Church, Jersey City. They proposed my going 

17. — After prayer meeting returned home and found a surprise 
party. Dr. Carlton addressed me and gave me an album containing 
$100. A small sum of $15 was handed to Mrs. Hurst. 

24. — Spent most of the time in copying from a German translation 
of Rose on Rationalism. The only copy I have been able to get, and 
this from the Library of Union Theological Seminary. 

25. — Concluded Rose on Rationalism. Want to get material at 
command so as to go right to work when I reach another place. I 
think I can preach as well and work thus for the press too. 

March 2. — Spent day mostly in old bookstores in Nassau Street. 
Purchased Lodge's translation of all Seneca's Works. 

5. — Heard that the people of Hedding Church were changing their 

At Elizabeth 133 

mind about having me preach for them. I know that Providence 
will do all right, but how hard for me to keep my finger out. 

7. — Talked calmly and kindly to a man who has reviled me. He 
confessed his sin. He was a steward in the church. 

9. — New York. Expected pleasant time and was very much dis- 
appointed. Had but little business, ergo, I conclude not to go any 
more to New York without business. 

12. — In evening in Brooklyn heard Wendell Phillips lecture on 
Toussaint L'Ouverture. I have never seen the equal of this man 
Phillips, much as I dislike his politics. 

25. — Conference met at Jersey City. Appointed one of Committee 
to publish Minutes. Examined class of candidates for probationship 
in the Conference. 

27. — Much excitement about my appointment. The prospect is for 
Staten Island. 

28. — Invited to take charge of Bayard Street Church. Declined it, 
as that would place me in New Brunswick — out of the Conference. 

29. — In evening went to John Street M. E. Church and spoke there 
on missions. 

30. — Was told that my appointment would be Water Street, Eliz- 

31. — Conference closed to-night at 11 o'clock. Sent to Elizabeth. 
O that many souls may be converted there ! Then will I rejoice with 
joy unspeakable. 


At "Elizabeth, Water Street 

His appointment to the Water Street Church, Elizabeth, 
was another advance in the Conference. In 1867 AYater 
Street was changed in name to Elizabeth Avenue, and the 
church name was also changed and remained Elizabeth 
Avenue until the society merged with Saint Paul's in 1877 to 
form the present Saint James, the first opening service occur- 
ring April 15. His Journal and letters give the most faithful 
picture of this important pastorate : 

134 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

April I, 1863. — Arrived at home again after a long week's absence. 
The dear children I was so glad to see again. May the Lord spare 
them and make them both useful to the world, is my most fervent 

9. — Moved up to Elizabeth. Had a reception. Full house and 
warm greetings. 

27. — Read a sermon yesterday on Unity with Christ. Heard criti- 
cisms on it afterward from Mr. Denman. "Why did you read last 
Sunday?" "Because I liked the change for sake of variety and I can 
thus please another class who don't like extempore discourse." "O, 
we all like extempore discourse. There is no division on that subject: 
our people like preaching, not reading." What a blow was that! 
But the next thing he said melted me: "I heard a man say, 'He 
must have borrowed that read sermon from somebody else.' " I think 
now I am almost cured of reading sermons. I can't stand a thrust 
like that. 

May 3. — I have been reading McCheyne's great success in preach- 
ing. May God grant me an earnest work of revival here ! I would 
willingly sacrifice everything, even life. 

13. — Finished after repeated failures my first chapter on Ration- 
alism. It has grown from a few to many pages, owing to later investi- 
gations. I trust God will make it useful to the young men of this 
great land. 

July 4. — Spoke an address at Tottenville, Staten Island. Caught 
a severe cold. 

5. — Fainted publicly in the congregation this a. m. while Dr. Porter 
was preaching. Cause, exhaustion from yesterday's labor. Fell 
against the stove. Hurt my head and back. Did not feel alarmed 
on awaking. Felt safe in God's hands. 

7. — Much recovered from my fall. Resolved on a new method 
of preaching — to preach one year memoriter one sermon, the other 
extempore. This I do for experiment and if successful to continue. 

11. — Commenced translation of a volume of Tholuck's Sermons. 

14. — Wrote two pages in History of Rationalism. First for a good 

18. — On my knees I declare that in future I will be the black man's 
friend, and if my previous course has seemed dubious may God forgive 
me. The riots in New York have disgusted me with conservatism. 

23. — Daily plan of work : A. M. 5. Rising and devotion. 6. Reading 
Bible and Elocution. 7. Breakfast. 8:30. Study of Sermon. 1 1. Mis- 
cellaneous Writing. 

P. M. 1. Dinner. 2:30 Wednesday and Friday: Pastoral Visiting. 

At Elizabeth 135 

Tuesday and Thursday : Reading and Business. Saturday : Recrea- 
tion. 6. Supper. Miscellaneous Reading on spare evenings. 10. 

25. — To-day I have finished the 64th page in MS. of an Historical 
Account of Rationalism and its Later Phases. I propose to complete 
it by next April, the work to be about 500 pages. But I must not 
infringe upon my allotted time as given in my plan. 

28. — Last night, while in a small prayer meeting in class room 
No. 3, I felt a new accession of power from God. While Brother 
Denman was praying I felt strangely full of new light. I could not 
ejaculate — I said, " How sweet to receive blessings from on high." 
I heard an inward voice say, " Trouble yourself not much about the 
means you use — I will make the work easy for you." O, how good is 
God ! I felt that to doubt would almost have been atheism. 

30. — Felt the holy influence of my great blessing all day. 

August I. — Wrote three pages to-day on my Rationalism. Find 
myself getting easier in composition now than I was at first, seldom 
having to cut and paste my leaves. 

10. — Preached extempore from a well-prepared and fully written 
sermon. Was not at all satisfied. I concluded to read a sermon occa- 
sionally. Thus I can make use of my advantages far more than in 
extempore discourse. Of course I shall find opposition ; but I am 
perfectly willing to endure any sacrifice for the sake of helping my 

17. — Started for a two weeks' vacation in Maryland. 

23. — Sold my farm, Weir Neck. 

27. — Started for Gettysburg. In afternoon went over part of the 
battlefield in company with a man who was a spectator of the battle. 

28. — Visited the Seminary and general hospitals. Saw several 
Marylanders among the wounded. The scenes are awful to behold. 

September 28. — I consecrate myself to God for time, then it will 
be unnecessary for eternity. Will leave off the use of tobacco and 
excess in eating — both of which have been the curse of my life. Will 
also cultivate an amiable and forbearing spirit — never speak in haste, 
and do nothing for mere effect. 

October 1. — Have been using special means for a revival in my 
church. Find God's Spirit at work in the congregation. 

4. — I have never had such confidence in prayer in pulpit as to-day. 
It seemed as if I was talking with God, to him. 

9. — Last night two souls, man and wife, were converted at the altar. 
I feel the necessity of cultivating kindly tones. I think the manner 
of pleasant speaking has much to do with success in these revival 

136 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

meetings. Says Whitefield, "I carefully sought out those acceptable 
tones that were like a spell upon the heart, even when the words 
were unremembered." 

II. — It seems as if my heart would break if souls are not converted. 

25. — I shall make it my aim in future to aim directly at the 
conversion of souls. Wrote 15 pages on my Rationalism this week, 
besides making sermons, preaching on Wednesday and Tuesday even- 
ings, and writing a children's story for the Methodist. 

December 3. — In my meetings have been blessed with the conver- 
sion of about thirty souls. The majority were from the Sunday 
school. God has blessed us, and yet it seemed to me as if I had faith 
enough for the conversion of a hundred souls. I have been writing 
a children's story every week for the Methodist, and I am working 
rapidly upon my History of Rationalism. I wrote twenty pages last 
week, eighteen of which were done one day. 

Here is a reproof in writing modified with a judicious ad- 
mixture of good will in a letter written December 22 : 

Mr. L : I yesterday purchased two blank books from you and 

you wrapped them up as I thought in greasy paper. I did not wish 
my clothes soiled, and therefore asked you to wrap them up in other 
paper. You became very angry, tore off the wrapper, and in great 
wrath you put on another, scarcely knowing what you were doing. 
On asking you what I should pay for the books, both together, you 
hurriedly looked at them and said, "Sixty-nine cents" ; then gave 
your boy my five-dollar bill, and I got my change. This morning, on 
untying the budget, I find that you did not take into account one of 
the books at all, which was worth 60 cts. Were you to suffer the 
full penalty of your anger you would lose the value of that book alto- 
gether. But I do not wish you should do so. I therefore inclose you 
the 60 cts. minus the value of the paper on which I write this letter, 
together with the stamp. Anger sometimes costs men more than 60 
cts. — yes, a great deal of unhappiness here and eternal misery here- 
after. I therefore hope your age will remind you that it is better 
to govern your spirit than take a city. Let the Christmas bring to 
your memory the value of redemption and the presence of Christ with 

all who seek him. I wish you, Mr. L , a Merry Christmas and 

a Happy New Year. 

Signed : An old customer and one who expects to continue his 

January 1, 1864. — Have accepted a proposition from Rev. Dr. Nadal 

At Elizabeth 137 

to unite with him in the translation of Hagenbach's Church History 
of 18th and 19th Centuries. But I can work on it before breakfast — 
must spend my time between breakfast and dinner at my sermons. 

6. — Joined the Union League this evening. Attended meeting of 
Sanitary Commission, having been made a member of the committee. 

9. — Rose regularly before six o'clock and translated a few pages 
before breakfast. 

25. — Had stewards' meeting. Was criticised. One thought I did 
not lead the prayer meetings right — I should read a chapter and 
explain like the Presbyterian preachers lecture. Of course, this would 
leave no time for prayers. Another thought I ought to leave the 
meeting open and call on some of the brethren to exhort. Of course, 
this would take a helmsman from a meeting, who is just as nec- 
essary in religious exercises as in a storm. Another thought I ought 
to preach on sanctification. Another thought I ought to preach right 
from the heart and use no paper to read my sermons from. I dis- 
solved the meeting by saying that I thought I had advice enough for 

29. — He records Dr. Arnold's prayer dated May 26, 1842 : 

"O Lord, keep thyself present to me always, and teach me to come 
to thee by the one and living Way, thy Son, Jesus Christ. Keep me 
humble and gentle, self-denying, firm, and patient, active, wise to know 
thy will and to discover the truth, loving that I may learn to resemble 
thee, my Saviour ! O Lord, forgive me for all my sins, and save me 
and guide me and strengthen me through Jesus Christ." 

31. — Wrote 160 pages of Hagenbach's History in this one month. 
The most work, with all my other duties, that I have accomplished 
in one month. 

February 8. — Had a good day yesterday, save last night when I 
made a blunder in giving out the benediction while choir sang dox- 

12. — After prayer meeting the church assembled at my house and 
left in my hands $150. A great help in hard times. 

20. — I have almost concluded a week of great, yea, of indescribable 
bitterness. I cannot attempt to depict my sorrow. 

Some of the causes of my anguish: (1) The intimations that Mr. 
J. W. S. and Mr. J. C. D. desire my removal from Elizabeth at 
the end of this my first year's ministry. (2) The contemplation of 
my comparative failure in the conversion of souls this year. (3) The 
failure of my first literary undertaking. I mean the translation of 
Hagenbach's History of the Church in the 18th and 19th Centuries. 
This week I received a letter from the Messrs. Clark of Edinburgh, 

138 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

that the work is already translated and is being put to print. Of 
course this will prostrate my continuation of the work in connection 
with Dr. Nadal. I have written him the intelligence. (4) The weak- 
ness of my own nature in the indulgence of my appetite. To-day 
I fast, hoping that God will bless me in so doing. I shall pray much 
and look to God for light. 

March 15. — Examined a class of candidates for deacons' orders. 

16. — Conference met at Paterson. I was on the Committee for 
publishing the Minutes. 

He made one of the two addresses at the anniversary of 
the Bible Society on the seventeenth, John Hanlon being the 
other speaker. 

March 21. — Walked about the Paterson Falls and attended Union 
meeting in Continental Hall. Conference resolved to meet in Eliz- 
abeth another year. 

22. — Conference closed. Was reappointed to Water Street, Eliz- 

24. — I have returned from Conference, always an exciting season, 
and in the present case but little less so than usual. I went there 
with strict determination to yield in no wise to the common tempta- 
tions that I had previously given way to. I went, I saw, I yielded. 
I shall endeavor this Conference year to live more holy before God 
than ever before. 

April 9. — I have been busily engaged in writing on my History 
of Rationalism. The theme gathers in interest as I proceed. I make 
it my rule to write on my History before breakfast, while other men 
are asleep. Breakfasted at 7 a. m. 

To Mrs. Hurst at "Bonnie Brook" : Ma y 2a 

I came home yesterday a. m. Found things all right. The spiders 
had been spanning the rooms with webs ; the black cat discovered my 
presence and came begging. I have found the ginger cakes come in 
well. I take lunch here at 12 m. I have eaten a piece of cake around 
which Miss Clara's teeth have been gnawing. How much I have 
been thinking of the dear little children. I could not bear to stay in 
Philadelphia after you had gone. 

June 6. — Never have been in greater doubt and perplexity since 
my entrance upon the ministry. I know not what to do save to call 
upon God. Several points of difficulty in my church: (1) A spirit 
of enmity and disunion. Two or three parties in the church. (2) The 

Tramping in Southern New York 139 

nonattendance of children upon the Sabbath service. (3) The second 
Sabbath service seems almost an impossibility for me to arrange 
to suit the members. (4) A lack of sympathy between the people 
and myself. (5) The meager congregations. In addition to this is 
my own weak health. Sometimes I feel so weak in the morning that 
I have to recline and sleep so as to recover strength. These points 
I will pray for daily, God being my helper. I have read Midler's 
Life of Trust and am convinced from that, in addition to the promises 
of God, that he will grant me health. 

7. — Started from Elizabeth for Maryland. 

August 5. — Cruel. I am amazed at my work down to this evening. 
Last Sunday I preached three times; since which time I have had 
two business meetings, been present and taken part in three evening- 
services, conducted a class meeting, had one funeral service several 
miles in the country, occupying a whole afternoon, made several calls 
and been terribly bored myself, and yet have written two full chapters 
in my History of Rationalism, numbering forty-nine and one third 
foolscap pages. 

August 22. — Left home for a foot tour through the romantic parts 
of the New York and Erie Railroad, intending to walk the most of 
the way from Suffern to Deposit. Stopped my first night at Paterson. 

23. — Took cars for Suffern. Walked to Ramapo, except a short 
ride w r ith a substitute broker. Took bath in the Ramapo just above 
the falls. Stopped all night at Southfields. Walked about nine miles 
with pack on my back. 

Southfields, Orange County, X. Y., August 23, 1864. 
To Mrs. Hurst: 

I am now sitting down in my plain room in Mr. Hoag's Hotel, 
within sound of the cowbells, and the thousand and one varieties of 
beetles that one ever hears in the country toward evening. I am in 
stocking feet, blue shirt, and shirt-sleeves. I have been alone. Though 
alone, I have been very much pleased with my undertaking, and I 
think my health will be greatly benefited. I got out at Suffern 
Station. Then I had some talks with the natives, and put on my 
knapsack, with my velvet vest inside. I find I have taken just the 
right things with me. I suppose I have walked about ten miles, 
ridden one mile in a buggy, at the driver's invitation, and about two 
miles in an iron-ore cart at my own invitation. I have already been 
taken as a member of three professions. I was asked by a long- 
whiskered mountaineer if I was not a doctor; by a stout boy if I 
hadn't some jewelry for sale; and I heard a boy shout out to his 

140 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

mother, "There goes a soldier !" I have heard no one say, "There 
goes the dominie !" I have been walking through a most charming 
country, not hurrying, but taking my time. I have had quite a variety 
of incident. I was delighted with the beautiful falls of the Ramapo 
River, the only drawback being an unpleasant proximity to a big 
blacksnake who seemed as much afraid of me as I was of him. 
The beautiful stream grew so attractive that I stripped off and took 
a delightful and refreshing bath in it. 

24. — Breakfast at 6M2 a. m. Was off with the early morning and 
while the dew was fresh. Passed through Greenwood, Turner's, 
Monroe, Oxford, and Chester ; stopped all night at Thompson's Hotel 
in Goshen. Walked about sixteen miles. Walked to Middletown and 
went around the town a little. Rode thence to Howell's Station and 
then walked to Otisville. Stopped at the house of Rev. George T. 
Jackson. Best bed I have had since I left home. Am one day ahead 
of time. 

Middletown, August 25. 
To Mrs. Hurst : 

I make much faster time than I anticipated. The country is very 
beautiful. I drink milk altogether ; I stop at a farmhouse, take a bowl, 
and press on. I find myself very much benefited. I hope that by 
God's blessing I shall be fully recruited and be home at the end of 
week after next. 

26. — Rode over to Finchville and the creamery a. m. P. M. rode 
over to New Vernon and Green Village. Also went with some ladies 
to top of a hill overlooking Otisville. 

2J. — Walked to Cuddebackville and over the Xeversink River. 
Then was overtaken by a wagon load of friends with whom I rode to 
Port Jervis. We took dinner at the hotel, and in evening met some 
friends, Rev. Messrs. Coit, and found they had made good and kindly 
arrangements for my accommodation at Rev. Mr. Dutcher's. 

28. — Made speech in Port Jervis Sunday school. Afternoon at- 
tended a very pleasant class meeting. In evening heard Rev. Charles 
Coit preach and exhorted afterward. Walked to the top of Point 
Peter and Mount William, overlooking the surrounding country. 

A story that Dr. Charles S. Coit was always fond of telling- 
hinges on the exhortation given in the evening by our pedes- 
trian preacher in his traveling suit. It is to the effect that a 

Two Days at Monticello 141 

wealthy layman who was summering there and was present 
handed ten dollars to the pastor, saying, "This is for the 
stranger who spoke. It was a good exhortation, and he looks 
as if he needed it." 

29. — Took a walk over to Carpenter's Point through the country — 
the junction of three states. After 10 a. m. commenced my foot jour- 
ney for Monticello. Walked through a lonely and dense forest, pass- 
ing Forestburg. Met a thunder shower and was detained. Arrived at 
Rev. Thomas La Monte's at 8J-4 p. m. Walked to-day 27 miles and 
rode not a foot of the way. 

30. — Took walk over to the hills opposite the M. E. Church. Felt 
very sore from my previous day's labor. Ate very much more than 
I should have done. 

Monticello, N. Y., August 30. 
To Mrs. Hurst: 

I walked twenty-seven miles yesterday, and was not so tired as after 
my 16 miles of last week. Still, I would not have walked the 27, but 
I could get no good stopping place short of Monticello. I reached 
here last night and expect to remain 2 days. Then I will be off 
by the Cochecton turnpike back again to the Delaware. Thomas and 
his wife received me very cordially. I am very much pleased with 
her. She is extremely pleasant and entertaining. This a. m. we 
had for breakfast cornbread, good hash, fresh pork, honey, coffee, and 
other things in accordance. I went out with Thomas to a high hill 
overlooking the town. It was beautiful. On one side you could see 
the mountains of Pennsylvania, and on the other the old Catskills. 
Then I could see beautiful lakes that nestled between the hills, and 
the little valley where Liberty is situated. How it brought you to 
mind ! You and the dear children are very much in my mind. How 
I would like to see you now ! 

The journey is doing me a great deal of good. I can't tell you how 
much better I feel. My long-standing headache is gone. This a. m. 
I read your and Clara's sweet letters all over again. I like them so 
much because they tell me of the love with which you cherish me. 
It is reciprocated, my dear Kate, for I love you with all the love of 
which I am capable. 

September 1. — Started early for Cochecton by the old direct turn- 
pike — distance 22 miles. The country very beautiful and wild. 
Stopped at White Lake a half-hour. Took cars at Cochecton for 
Deposit, and, arriving there, I received two letters from home. 

142 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

2. — Took walk high up on the hills overlooking Deposit, but the 
fog was so thick that I saw nothing. After breakfast took train for 
Narrowsburg. Was kindly entertained at the house of Mr. C. C. 
Murray, the proprietor of the hotel. Had a good rest. Walked over 
to the little cascade beyond the river. 

3. — Had an excellent night's rest. Took another walk up the river 
and over the hills beyond. Invited to the house of Mr. W. S. Cor- 
win, where I remained the rest of my stay in Narrowsburg. He has 
a good library where I delight. 

4. — Went over to the church and heard Rev. Mr. Cramp, a young 
Englishman, preach. Led class myself. 

To Mrs Hurst- Narrowsburg, N. Y., September 4, 1864. 

I would not have stayed these two weeks if I had not found the 
tour very beneficial to me. I have lost my headache altogether, and 
I think I shall be able to weather through the winter very well. Kiss 
the dear children for me. I would give almost anything if I could 
only have a romp with them. 

5. — Started at 6 a. m. for home. Had no breakfast. Was delighted 
to get home once more. My health is very much improved. Had a 
pleasant time in writing on my experience during vacation under the 
title of Two Weeks on Foot. 

September. — Books which I hope to write: 1. Life Pictures from 
the History of the Church. 2. Christ at Jacob's Well. 3. Seneca. 
4. History of Pietism. 5. History of English Deism. 6. Christ at 
the Grave of Lazarus. 7. Hours of Devotion. 

November 12. — I have been writing a History of Rationalism, and 
have completed it except the last two chapters. 

December 4. — This is a bright, beautiful Sabbath. I have finished 
my History of Rationalism and committed the MS. to Dr. Crooks for 
examination. This off my mind, I shall give myself more exclusively 
to the work of the Watchman of Zion. 

17. — Have just been calculating my expenses for books during the 
year 1864, and found the amount to be over $150. 

January 6, 1865. This afternoon at a quarter before five o'clock 
I put my last word upon my History of Rationalism. Have been 
thanking God at times almost ever since that he has enabled me to 
finish my task. 

12. — Rose at 4 l A o'clock and reconsecrated myself to God's service. 

March 13. — Went to Boston to-night with my brother-in-law, Mr. 
Elmore. My first visit there. 

At West New Brighton 143 

14. — Visited Harvard College, Mount Auburn Cemetery, Faneuil 
Hall, the Athenaeum. 

April 1. — Conference met in Water Street Church. Had all I could 
do to entertain the preachers. It was like keeping a hotel. Was 
appointed by the Bishop to Trinity Church, Staten Island. 


At West New Brighton, Trinity Church 

The culmination of his career as a pastor was reached 
during the eighteen and a half months in Trinity Church at 
West New Brighton, then known as Factoryville, Staten 
Island. Strong in his faith in God, chastened but not dis- 
couraged by the criticisms and misrepresentations which had 
hindered the full fruits for which he had prayed and labored at 
Water Street, he went from the series of four churches which 
he had served in northern New Jersey to his new island ap- 
pointment in New York harbor — a happy presage of his en- 
trance a little later into the great world currents of religious 
thought and life. A few precious records — the ejaculations 
of his heart — remain from his pen : 

May 7, 1865. — While in prayer to-day, alone in my study, I had 
a singular and almost supernatural impression of the power of energy 
— will — resolution. By God's help I will act in accordance with that 
impression in future. 

September 7. — This afternoon at Va before 5 o'clock I gave the 
last copy of my History of Rationalism to the printer. It was the 
title-page. Thus, after two months of almost constant labor, I have 
finished the arduous labor of seeing this work through the press, 
besides attention to all my pastoral work. Thank God for preserving 
life and health ! 

12. — Went up to Albany in the Dean Richmond. Reached Char- 
lotteville on the 13th in the afternoon. Found my family well. 

20. — Started by horse and carriage with my wife and little boy 
for a ride down to Tunkhannock, where my wife's brother lives. 

144 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

24. — The ride lasted four days. The scenery was enchanting. The 
distance was over a hundred miles, eighty of which lay along the bank 
of the upper Susquehanna. 

25. — Was taken suddenly ill with bilious fever. Fell on the floor 
with faintness and blindness. Had to go to bed and have a physician. 

October 17. — Returned home after my long sickness of three weeks. 
Took the cars at Factoryville, having previously ridden in rough 
stage a distance of nine miles from Tunkhannock. Reached home 
about eight o'clock p. m. 

20. — Am mending very rapidly every day. I feel deeply the great 
goodness of God in restoring me to health again. 
November 10, General Work on Hand. 

The Methodist: Three stories per month. 

Advocate and Journal : One article every three weeks. 

Ladies' Repository: One article every three months. 

Writing Sermons: One fully written sermon every week. 

He was actively interested in the live question of lay repre- 
sentation in the General Conference, and sought to promote it 
wherever he could. Rev. Dr. J. T. Crane, of Morristown, 
wrote him on January 20, 1866: 

I am gratified to know that my friends approve my mode of set- 
ting forth the Lay Representation question, and I am especially 
pleased to learn that the "coming men" of the Conference approve. 
I am obliged to you for your compliment ; and now in regard to your 
proposition of some Conference action, I had not got so far in my 
ideas as that ; and yet I am inclined to believe that a series of reso- 
lutions, judiciously framed, would be accepted by the brethren, and 
pass without difficulty. 

On March 4 he received, as the fruits of a revival, forty- 
nine probationers into the church, which number was increased 
to about ninety the following month. 

June 6. — Have been appointed by the authorities of our church 
to become Professor in our Theological School in Bremen. Dr. W. 
F. Warren has just left the position and it is pressed upon me by 
the bishops. I have declined it. My work seems to be at home. 

28. — Received the degree of Doctor of Divinity from Dickinson 

At West New Brighton 145 

August 1. — In the afternoon we went to see an aged sick man, 
Father Braisted. He is a setting sun. Never have I seen, more 
than in his case, the triumph of Christianity so beautifully exemplified. 

3. — Am getting ready for my departure on my vacation. 

4. — Received a letter from Dr. Warren urging me to accept the 
appointment to Germany. I do not yet know whether I will accept. 

6. — Started with wife and babies on the Albany evening boat. Met 
my friend, Rev. S. H. Opdyke, who is to take a foot journey with 
me through the White Mountains. 

15. — If anything ever comes from this subject (our thought of 
Christ) it may be attributed to the good Spirit of God and to the 
rainy day I spent in the Profile House, White Mountains. 

September 20. — Made agreement to go to Germany in Mission 

24. — Am getting ready to leave the country, having accepted a 
position in Bremen. My poor dear sister is almost broken-hearted 
at the thought of it. 

From those who enjoyed his ministrations during this last 
of his five pastorates have come many loving testimonials. A 
thoughtful young man, who then sat under his ministry and 
has long been a successful pastor, has been called by the 
church to episcopal honors and duties. The Rev. Dr. (now 
Bishop) Henry Spellmeyer says: 

He was pastor of our family at Trinity Church during the time 
when he was preparing his History of Rationalism. I remember 
going to New York with him the day he took his proof copy to 
the publishers. He and his wife were present when I graduated 
from New York University, and I remember their congratulations 
and the fact that a beautiful bouquet came from the hand of Mrs. 
Hurst to my feet. But these are purely personal matters, and. while 
I cherish them as a fragrant memory, they would have no interest 
to the readers of a Biography. 

These facts, which the modest preacher thought to "have no 

interest to the reader/' belong to all. The fragrance of that 

friendship, a type of many similar ones, perishes not with the 

fading flowers of a college commencement, nor can it be hid 

among the personal and sacred treasures of one man's memory.- 

146 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

It breathes perennial sweetness among all the churches. Mr. 
J. S. Hillyer of West New Brighton writes : 

I remember Mr. Hurst as a very studious and scholarly man, an 
easy and pleasant speaker, one to whom you could not help listening, 
as he never failed to obtain and hold the attention of his hearers. 

Mrs. Mary S. Steers, of the same place, says : 

All my recollections of Mr. Hurst are very pleasant : he was a man 
one would remember, if ever having had the slightest acquaintance 
with him. A very sincere Christian gentleman. 

A very pleasing memorial of this pastorate is the name, 
"Ravenhurst," given to the beautiful home of one of his most 
ardent admirers, Mr. Read Benedict, of Port Richmond, who 
writes : 

The church greatly prospered under his administration, and his 
ability as a preacher became widely known. His active work espe- 
cially with young people, with whom he was very popular, soon began 
to tell greatly to the spiritual advantage of the church. His Sunday 
school addresses were models of excellence. The first year he had 
one of the largest revivals the church ever experienced, about two 
hundred conversions. I recall his invitation to visit the parsonage, 
where he read to me much of the manuscript of his History of 
Rationalism. I remember predicting at that time that the work would 
make him a bishop of our much-loved church. This scholarly man, 
while having great determination and fixity of purpose, had a manner 
as gentle as that of the most refined woman. 

On the last Sunday with his people of Trinity, October 14, 
1866, he received about fifty new members into the church, 
and an engrossed testimonial was presented to him by Mr. 
G. P. Disosway on behalf of the congregation. It rings with 
true friendship and loyal devotion : 

The people of your charge desire to unite with you in thanks to 
our heavenly Father for having enjoyed a successful and profitable 
ministry among them. They gratefully acknowledge the faithful- 
ness of your services to themselves and others, in preaching the 

At West New Brighton 147 

gospel of the Lord Jesus Christ with singleness of purpose and sin- 
cerity, with prayer and zeal, not having, the fear or favor of man, 
but the honor and glory of God in advocating the kingdom of his 

They cannot, and believe they ougbt not, forbear to express to 
you their sincere thanks and love for your sympathies in their joys 
and prosperity, as well as in their afflictions and bereavements. Nor 
can they fail to acknowledge you as the tender Christian friend as 
well as their counselor to sacred duties and the minister of heavenly 
consolations, especially to this congregation. 

They, with many of our land, now look upon you as one having an 
honorable place in its sacred literature, whose printed works will 
continue to advance the objects of true religion and your own min- 
istry, after you shall have entered into the promised rest of the 
faithful servant. It has been the crowning glory of your life among 
us to witness a gracious outpouring of the Spirit of God, such as 
we and many others have seen in this congregation ; and in Germany, 
the far-distant land where, in the wise providence of our Lord, you 
are going, may you too teach Christ, gather many more precious 
souls into the Redeemer's fold, and present them to him before you 
yourself shall ascend on high to receive the promised crown of glory ! 
We pray God that you may be spared many years for this holy service. 

We have a glimpse of how he touched men in other con- 
fessions and in the higher walks of literature, and secured 
recognition for his message and work, in this belated note 
from George William Curtis, the famous editor of Harper's 
Easy Chair, who lived near and had given several lectures in 
the church. It was penned when the ex-pastor was two days 
out from Sandy Hook on his way to his new work in Germany : 

October 22. — I have only just returned to the island with my family 
after a long absence, and I find the very kind remembrance from 
your hands in the form of the Centenary documents. I am truly sorry 
that I was not able to join in the celebration at your church, for 
I know not how any serious man, of whatever denomination, can 
fail to rejoice in commemorating the Christian fervor and sweet 
inspiration of John and Charles Wesley. 

148 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

The Teacher-Elect 

The Call to Germany 

To the mind and heart of Trinity's pastor, who had during 
his first year drawn his people into the most affectionate re- 
lations with himself and had garnered the fruits of an ex- 
tensive revival, there came early in the second year a new 
question : "Shall I leave this prosperous and happy field and 
enter that of teaching young preachers in the Fatherland?" 
The correspondence of that summer throws light upon the 
successive stages by which he traveled from doubt to convic- 
tion and decision on the step which was to separate him for a 
series of years from the dear associations of the homeland. 

From Dr. L. S. Jacoby, Bremen, May 3, 1866: 

Would you be willing to come to our Institute as Theological 
Tutor in the place of Brother Warren, who has served his five years 
and now has received a call from the new Theological School in 
Boston? If you would be willing to come, you would have to agree 
to remain at least five years with us. You will have to give Dogmatik 
1st and 2d Class, Exegesis, Church History, Logic, and also English 
Instruction to the 1st Class. You will have an opportunity to preach. 
You will find a nice cottage with three rooms and two bedrooms fur- 
nished, and your salary paid by the Missionary Society will be $1,000 
in gold. Will you be so kind and write to Bishop Janes and to myself 
your answer after due reflection? Our next semester commences 
with the first of August, when we would expect you to be here. Dr. 
Warren sends his love to you. 

From Bishop E. S. Janes, New York, June 19 : 

Having learned that Rev. Dr. Warren, the teacher in the Mission 
Institute at Bremen, Germany, expects to return to this country next 
month, I have applied to the Mission Board for an appropriation to 

The Call to Germany 149 

send out a successor. Such appropriation has been made by the Board 
this afternoon. I have also consulted my associate in the superintend- 
ency of that Mission, Bishop Ames, who concurs in my so doing, and 
I now proffer you that appointment, Theological Tutor in the Mission 
Institute. I hope it will be consistent with your views to accept this 
appointment and to enter upon it early in August next. Please let 
me hear from you immediately. If you accept the appointment, please 
notify your Presiding Elder promptly. For all details of duty and 
sailing, you will correspond with Rev. Dr. Harris, Corresponding 

July 13. — Your second letter was received by due course. I never 
advise anyone to leave the strictly pastoral work. I am of the 
opinion that the appointment to Bremen is one of great importance 
and usefulness. We cannot obtain ministers in those countries in 
the same way we do here. If we have them we must train them. 
The progress of the church there depends very much on our success 
in that school. It has been eminently successful. I do not see that 
five years there in training young men for the ministry should lessen 
your pastoral adaptation afterward. I do not think Dr. Butler was 
injured by his seven years of missionary service in India. His work 
was much more secular than teaching in Bremen would be. What 
was the design of Providence in inclining you to learn German? Is 
not your knowledge of that language a talent? Is not this appoint- 
ment the place to use it for the Master? I shall be glad to hear from 
you again. I have not tendered the appointment to anyone else. May 
God guide you by his counsel ! 

August 24. — I repeat, I never urge a brother to leave the pastoral 
work for any other service. If you see it right to leave the pastoral 
work for any other appointment, I know of none which I would 
think so spiritual and so near pastoral as that I have proposed to 
you in Germany. I prefer appointing you to it to either of the other 
candidates: (1) Because Brother Jacoby and other parties concerned 
desire you. (2) Because you are older and more experienced in the 
ministry than either of them. (3) Because I have good reason to 
believe you understand our doctrines thoroughly and believe and 
teach them as Wesley and Watson and Hedding did. I am unwilling 
to put anyone in that important mission appointment until I am 
satisfied of his orthodoxy. I am convinced, if, after the manner in 
which you have been led to prepare yourself for the appointment 
and been called to it by the authorities of the church, you hesitate 
to accept it for any other reason than a conviction that it is your 
duty to continue in the pastoral office, you will greatly mistake your 

150 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

duty before God. It is not religious to stop to ask, Is it a pleasant 
appointment? What will be the salary? What will be the effects 
upon my standing in the Conference? The one question is, What 
is the will of God? What is Christian duty? In my judgment the 
appointment will prove an exceedingly pleasant one. 

From Ff. B. Ridgaway, New York, September 28 : 

I have heard without surprise, but not without regret, that your 
determination is settled to go to Germany. It is, I trust, the direction 
of Providence ; and I doubt not that God will watch over you and 
your dear family and abundantly prosper you in your new and respon- 
sible field. My selfishness rebels against this decision. I feel that 
your departure will subtract very much from my own personal already 
too limited happiness. Yet I will submit. At the throne of grace — 
in the sweet fellowship of faith and love — of work in our beloved 
church we may still and will be close together. 

From Frank N. Barrett, October 18: 

Dear Pastor: I would be doing an injustice to my own feelings 
if I failed in giving some expression to the sorrow I feel at your 
leaving us. Not only have I found in you a true and loving pastor, 
but a good and useful friend, one from whom I have been taught to 
take nobler, purer, higher thoughts of life, its aims, its objects. 
Though a year ago ambition urged me on to strive for fortune and 
worldly honors, I think that now I can truly say that the influence of 
your life on mine has been such as to lead me to devote my time, 
my energy, to the improvement of my "talent," so that it shall be 
useful in my Master's vineyard, and to say, "Thy will, not mine, be 

On the departure of the teacher-elect with his wife and two 
children Mrs. Hurst made a few notes : 

Left America October 20, 1866, steamer America. I can never 
forget that day or the feelings I then experienced. Over seventy 
of our particular friends came to the steamer to see us off. Among 
them were Rev. Drs. Carlton, Harris, Sewall, Rev. Brothers Watkins. 
Ridgaway, Roche, Hilliard, Freeman, Whitney, Van Sant, and Simp- 
son ; Philip Phillips, the sweet singer, played and sang a parting 
song; Mr. and Mrs. Bailey and daughter, Mr. and Mrs. John Hurst 
from Baltimore; Mr. Wilde's family from Newark; Mrs. Norton 

Second Farewell to America 151 

and Mr. Adams ; Mr. Barrett and wife, Staten Island ; Mr. and Mrs. 
Benedict and children (the kindness of the latter in our preparation 
to leave America can never be forgotten), and other very dear 
friends. It was a delightful day and the parting salute was given at 
1 :30 after the anchor was loosed. For ten minutes we could see the 
waving of handkerchiefs, and then all was lost. I tried to distinguish 
the face of one, my sweet sister Jennie, who traveled one day and 
night to be present at our parting, the only one of my relatives who 
could come. 

While the worker with his family is afloat on the Atlantic 
it will be of interest to take note of his first book, the History 
of Rationalism, embracing a survey of the Present State of 
Protestant Theology, and of the general impress made by him 
upon the ministers and people of the Newark Conference. 

152 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

The Author 

His First Book, History of Rationalism 

Hurst's History of Rationalism was a growth of about nine 
years from observation, reading, and study, both in Germany 
and America, after his entrance upon university life at Halle. 
The germ of this intellectual polemic and spiritual apologetic 
was a deep conviction that nothing was so much needed in 
the world of theological thought as a clear and articulated 
statement of the fundamental features of that modern phase 
of skepticism known as rationalism. To this labor of love and 
helpfulness he assiduously clung from the time when he began 
to write on Rationalism for the church papers while still 
preaching on Carlisle Circuit. The entries in his Journal for 
March 2, 11, and 12, 1858, show the beginnings of his writing 
on the theme. His own statement of his desire to write more 
at length for publication was in this language, found in his 
Journal of January 3, i860, while in his first year at Passaic: 

I would like to commence authorship in earnest with a faithful and 
earnest description of Rationalism. To many minds this is a subject 
which possesses not the slightest interest. They look on it as fanatic 
infidelity. For my own part, I think the subject bears a most serious 
appearance and demands a Christian heart and a good judgment to 
write its history. Soon after Conference I hope to commence this 
pleasure. I know pretty well what materials I shall employ. I 
thought at first that this design was fanciful and would not last. But 
the subject has been dwelling in my mind ever since I was in Ger- 
many and bore witness to the terrible ravages of Rationalism in the 
native land of Luther. Time has rather deepened my desire to write 
on the subject than erased it. I feel, too, as if I could make a read- 
able work. I may never finish my task. I may die with the plan in 

History of Rationalism 153 

mind ; but as well that plan, perhaps, as any other. I hope always 
to have some noble project in view. 

The detailed progress of the composition of the work and 
of the broadening of its scope from a treatment of some of the 
Phases of Rationalism to a History will appear from Journal 
entries already noted for the following dates: September 19, 
1861 ; November 12, 1862; February 24 and 25, May 13, 
July 14 and 25, August 1, October 25, and December 3, 1863; 
April 9, August 5, November 12, and December 4, 1864; 
January 6 and September 7, 1865. The initial step toward 
putting the work in the hands of his publisher, and the char- 
acteristic caution of that discriminating man, may be seen in 
the letter from Charles Scribner, written December 30, 1864: 

Some days since I received a note from the Rev. Robert Aikman, 
of your place (Elizabeth), inclosing a synopsis of a work, History 
of Rationalism, written by you and which he proposed to me in your 
behalf for publication, requesting that I would communicate with 
you. I have looked over the headings of the chapters with much 
interest, and, were the time more favorable, I should be disposed to 
look at it with a view of publication. The subject is certainly one 
of deep and increasing interest to every thoughtful mind, though 
from its nature the work, I fear, would have a limited circulation. 
It would, however, depend much on the manner of its execution, 
whether you have been able to treat it so as to interest the popular 
mind — I mean intelligent readers outside of the clergy. 

I am really at loss what to say as to entertaining your work. When 
you come in town I would be pleased to have a personal interview 
with you respecting it ; or if you choose, under the circumstances, to 
send me the manuscript any time after the first week in January, I 
will engage to give it attention. 

It was published by Scribner in the fall of 1865. About a 
year after its publication in America an enlarged edition was 
published in London. In preparation for this he noted in his 
Journal on July 14, 1866: 

Having finished my additions to History of Rationalism, and 
Triibner & Co. having engaged to bring out an English edition, I to- 

154 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

day sent out the copy, being about ioo fresh pages added to the 
American edition. 

The welcome extended to this first child of his brain and 
heart and the measure of its mission for good may be learned 
in part from some of the greetings it received from the press 
and from the testimony of a few of the multitude who profited 
by its reading and study : 

You have rendered the Christian public of America a noble service. 
Many of our young preachers will learn more from your pages re- 
specting the history and present state of theology throughout the 
world than they would do could they make the old-fashioned pere- 
grinatio scholastica through all the countries described. The work 
does honor to the rising scholarship of our church, and will prove, I 
trust, the first fruits of new harvests. — Dr. William F. Warren. 

Our scholarly brother of the Newark Conference has boiled down 
the post-Lutheran rationalism into what, despite its ingredients, is a 
very savory dish. "There is death in the pot." In fact, there is 
nothing but death in it. And yet this "man of God" casts into it here 
and there little handfuls of healthful meal ground from good seed 
of the kingdom, and so makes it safe as well as palatable. — Gilbert 
Haven, in Christian Advocate. 

It evinces much learning and discrimination on the part of the 
author, and is thoroughly fair and dispassionate in tone. In nearly 
all cases the views of men whose works are commented upon are 
given in their own language, thus rendering it evident that they are 
in no respect misrepresented. It is much more compactly and closely 
written than is Lecky's recently published work on the same subject: 
and, though less pretentious in its style, is really an abler book. — 
The Independent. 

Mr. Lecky's object is to trace the operation of the spirit of Ration- 
alism in the details of actual life, public and private. Mr. Hurst goes 
deeper down, and searches out the causes of the changes and pro- 
gressions that the other writer recognizes without attempting to 
account for. There is consequently much in each book that supple- 
ments the other, and the two may well be studied together with profit. 
— New York Times. 

Here is found the clearest view of Theodore Parker and his in- 
fluence which we have ever seen. — Boston Recorder. 

The spirit of his book, as befits an historian, is beautifully calm. 

History of Rationalism 155 

Even the most mischievous errorists are not called hard names; 
their motives are not impeached, and their work is shown to have 
been the occasion of good, in pointing out the weak spots in the 
church's defenses, and in calling out heroes able both to ward off 
assaults and to fortify on surer principles. — The Methodist. 

Never before has an Arminian written of Holland, its struggles, 
its achievements, its literature, its learning, and its theology, under 
the control of a more candid and truth-loving spirit, than this his- 
torian has shown. He has indeed done what few in this country 
have been willing to do — ascribe to Holland the glory she earned in 
the early struggles of Europe to break the papal yoke. — The Chris- 
tian Intelligencer. 

It sets out to set in order the rise, progress, and present position 
of the scholastic infidelity of modern Germany, and it accomplishes 
what it undertakes. We like its straightforward narrative style, its 
lucid arrangement of facts, and its plain and obviously natural con- 
secution of events. — Daniel Curry, in Christian Advocate. 

Confident in the power of his faith to ultimately rise triumphant 
from attack, he exhorts his brethren not to offer opposition to the 
progress of science, not to scout all theories, but wait the full devel- 
opment of science. In a word, he contends for the refutation of 
error, not for its unreasoning suppression. — American and Oriental 
Literary Record. 

He shows much skill in tracing the progress and spread of false 
views from often small commencements. His spirit is thoroughly 
evangelical, and his qualifications for his task are amply certified in 
these pages. — Boston Review. 

It treats the history of Rationalism with a fullness and complete- 
ness rivaled by no other English writer, and evinces industrious and 
extended research and copious learning. It gives a map of the field 
of free thought in the present age, showing fairly its length and 
breadth, where it trenches on the domain of faith, and where it reaches 
into the dark territory of unbelief. For ordinary readers it contains 
all the information on the subject they will be likely to need; and for 
theological students it is an excellent introduction and guide to the 
study of modern aberrations. — Dr. John McClintock, in Methodist 
Quarterly Review. 

We cannot easily conceive a better mental or spiritual discipline for 
young men than to study and master these subjects. — Dr. Joseph 

It will be found an exceedingly useful manual of information. The 
literary and controversial history of Rationalism from the time im- 

156 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

mediately succeeding the Reformation to the present day is well and 
fairly described. The English reader will find abundant notices of 
continental authors who have played and are playing an important 
part in theological discussions, which are not brought together any- 
where in an equally convenient form. — Westminster Review. 

Mr. Hurst has confined himself to the literary department and the- 
ological aspects of Rationalism, which, while it is not regarded by 
him as an unmixed evil, yet, being born under the eclipse of con- 
science, has often been the offspring of pride and self-indulgence, 
has been coincident with stagnation of the religious life, and, in spite 
of appearances to the contrary, has outwitted itself and is staggering 
to its doom. The author skillfully shows the filiation of the rational- 
istic school, which took its rise under Semler. — British Quarterly 

I have, been familiar with his books from the first issues and have 
found them profitable, and his History of Rationalism in particular 
I found to be very useful as well as interesting. — Dr. C. W . Gallagher. 

I had just entered the ministry and was fresh from college, did not 
know how to read a strong book like a man of riper years ; but I was 
then strong enough to derive great benefit from this plain, brief, 
scholarly, and vigorous presentation of rationalism. No one but a 
scholar could go through the literature quoted. — Dr. W . H. Hickman. 

I knew John Fletcher Hurst first through his work on German 
Rationalism, which was very helpful to me, as to many others, as a 
preparation for understanding the religious attitude of German 
scholars. — Dr. Wesley C. Sazvycr. 

I read with great pleasure and profit his History of Rationalism, 
which enlightened me more upon the subject of which it treated than 
any I have ever read. — Dr. A. H. Ames. 

Your style is lucid, and particularly so for the metaphysical sub- 
tleties you have to deal with. You crystallize into a small mass the 
immense systems of speculation — and they are clear crystals, too. 
You contrive to give in a few short, sharp sentences the peculiarities 
of each. You enliven what might otherwise be sometimes heavy and 
laborious to read, by an easy and natural introduction of similes, and 
your general deductions are philosophical and (have I the hardihood 
to say it?) to me seem correct! I wish I had written it! I think it 
a capital book to put into the hands of some of our youthful skeptics. 
Poor fellows — their speculations strike them as new, and they wonder 
the world never thought of them before! — Dr. Denis Wortman. 

Your portly and pregnant volume came to hand. I am delighted 
at your success as a bookmaker. I have read much of it and am 

History of Rationalism 157 

struck with the richness of the matter and the felicitousness of the 
diction. You have made a valuable contribution to us lazier preachers 
and permitted us to enter into the fruits of your labors. — Dr. IV. A. 

I am more than pleased; such beauty of language, clearness of ex- 
pression that a child might understand, will be one of its great sources 
of influence and benefit to the rising generation. — Mrs. Lydia A. 

While this work was in progress we were frequently together in 
his study, and I had the privilege of seeing the evolution of the book. 
It met a felt want in the church. It was possibly the most influential 
of all his writings. — President H. A. Butt2. 

It was one of my inspirations when it first appeared. It stands to- 
day as a valuable authority on that subject. It was very popular, not 
only to the scholar, but the layman has read it. In the bibliological 
notes written by the Nestor of Calvinism, Dr. Charles Hodge, he 
says that it is the best book yet produced in the English language on 
that subject. — Bishop Cyrus D. Foss. 

His History of Rationalism, on account of its style and little preach- 
ments, is as interesting as a novel. — Dr. C. B. Spencer. 

158 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

The Brother Beloved 

The Hearts of His Brethren 

His relations with the preachers of Newark Conference were 
those of warm and sincere brotherliness, and the departure to 
his new post of duty by one who had so endeared himself to 
his fellow preachers evoked many expressions of tender and 
genuine affection. The strength of the esteem and love in 
which he was held by the Conference after eight years of 
association is but partially expressed in these tokens from his 
closest associates in the ministry. The language of the 
Methodist Episcopal Preachers' Association of the city of 
Newark on October 8, 1866, was : 

We, as members of the Newark Conference, hereby express the 
regret we feel in losing the society and fellowship of our beloved 
brother. Our best wishes and prayers go with him to his newly ap- 
pointed field of labor ; and we will cordially welcome him to a place 
among us on his return. 

Also resolved that a committee of two be appointed to represent 
this meeting on the occasion of the departure of Dr. Hurst from 

R. B. Lockwood, of Stony Point, New York, says : 

Brother Hurst was a close observer of the work of the Conference, 
but seldom speaking on the floor. He was highly esteemed for his 
brotherly sympathy, loving consideration, and interest in the general 
work. In his several appointments he was assiduous and painstaking. 
A faithful, kind pastor, he showed a profound conviction for the truth 
in his public utterances. Uncomplaining in his disposition, ruling his 
spirit well, he was highly esteemed by the brethren of the ministry 
and laity, and his integrity was above suspicion. He had no fads 
nor twists, and was a reliable all-round man. 




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The Hearts of His Brethren 159 

George H. Whitney wrote him two days before sailing : 

Plainfield, N. J., October 18. 
Many kind and earnest words of farewell and well-wishing are 
spoken to you by the titled and the great. Suffer one of your hum- 
blest friends to add his hearty good-bye. Hurst, your friendship has 
always been a joy to me. Your kind words have ever blessed me. 
Knowing as I do your strong desire to be useful, you ought to be 
made glad when I tell you that your words, your companionship, your 
counsel, have been invaluable to me. I am a better, a stronger man 
for having had your fellowship and love. Many will miss you ; but, 
it seems to me, none so much as I. There is so much of acquaintance- 
ship that is merely external, so much friendship tainted with envy, 
jealousy, or indifference, that it is indeed a blessed experience to find 
a friend who is all over and over a friend. I had counted on many a 
pleasant and profitable hour with you in the coming years. My heart 
is very sad as I write. Memory of other days comes up — joys, sor- 
rows, friendships, separations, all remind me of the blessedness of that 
bright world where we shall all have time to know one another, and 
where graves and seas can never separate bodies nor hearts. 

George F. Dickinson says : 

His was an attractive nature. In every appointment to which he 
was assigned success marked his administrations. In Trinity a great 
religious awakening came upon his congregations, spreading through 
the community and bringing into the church many converts. The 
work had the gospel mark of permanency. Its fruits remain. He was 
an example to his people of the truths he taught. His devotion to his 
companion and to his family was marked for its simplicity and reality. 
He was a favorite among the youth of his church, always ready to 
give counsel, encouragement, and sympathy. 

George W. Treat says : 

He filled a place in the hearts of his brethren of the Conference, 
and his influence was both an inspiration and a benediction. 

Especially near to his heart were the members of his own 
class of 1858. The affectionate playfulness of a classmate 
who, after a life of exceeding usefulness at home and abroad, 
preceded him but by a little to the final home was treasured 

160 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

in this postscript to a letter on a weighty matter connected 
with the mission in China, from Stephen L. Baldwin : 

P. S. — The shaking of this train, on the West Shore Road, makes 
my chirography almost as bad as yours. If you consider that an im- 
pudent remark, inasmuch as I am about 400 miles out of your reach, 
just take that "Last-of-the-Hamilton- Amendment" gavel, and whack 
this letter, instead of the author. The letter will not feel the rap ; 
the author might. 

Hurrah for the class of '58 — 

The ever true, and always straight ! 

When it shall pass beyond the flood, 

'Twill leave no other half as good ! 

From the heart and lips of another of his class, the one most 
intimately and continuously in personal association with him. 
President Henry A. Buttz, came these words at the memorial 
service of the Conference in 1904 : 

But some of us will recall Bishop Hurst as his classmates who were 
admitted to the Newark Conference at its first session, ten of whom 
stood side by side to be ordained to the office of deacon and after- 
ward to the office of elder. Their names, in the order in which they 
appeared in the first Minutes of this Conference, are : Samuel J. Morris, 
Gilbert H. Winans, John F. Hurst, Solomon Parsons, Henry A. Buttz, 
John F. Dodd, Alexander Craig, William E. Blakeslee, Stephen L. 
Baldwin, Sylvester H. Opdyke. Four of that number, Opdyke, Par- 
sons, Baldwin, and Hurst, are not, for God has taken them. Six of 
that number still remain to mourn his loss and honor his memory. 
We were ten then. Are we not still ten ? 

At Bremen 161 

The Teacher-Traveler 

At Bremen and at Large 

We had a most delightful voyage, the sea being almost as calm as 
New York Bay nearly the whole distance. We were ten days in 
reaching Southampton and three more Bremen. We were very kindly 
received by Dr. Jacoby and family, and after remaining there two 
days and nights we went into our house, which was partially fur- 
nished. We purchased our own carpets, china, and kitchen utensils. 

Such is the brief account by Mrs. Hurst of the transfer from 
Staten Island to the teeming city on the Weser. Of the man 
who was Director of the Mission Institute and of the work 
out of which and for the development of which the school had 
grown, let Dr. Hurst tell in his own fascinating way : 

In 1846 in a little mission hall in Cincinnati an undersized but keen- 
eyed German Methodist minister was preaching the gospel. On the 
very front seat was another young German, busily taking notes from 
the announcement of the text. After a time this young man couldn't 
guide his pencil, for it danced up and down the paper irregularly. 
He couldn't see the page, for his eyes had a strange dimness over 
them. He knew not why it was so, but he was weeping profusely. 
At the close of the sermon he went to the preacher, and told him that 
something was troubling him exceedingly, and it seemed to him that 
he was under the control of an unknown power. The preacher knew 
at once what it was. With tenderness he said, "I think God's Spirit 
is striving with you." Again and again the young inquirer came, and 
for him and with him the preacher prayed, till finally he came out 
into "the glorious liberty of the children of God." The preacher was 
Rev. William Nast, the founder of German Methodism in America. 
The young man was the secretary of an infidel club who had come 
to take down the sermon, and then, going back to his fellows, make 
merry as he riddled it to pieces. But God had other plans for him. 
Three years later we see him before the Missionary Committee in 

1 62 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

New York, pleading with the brethren to send him to Germany. Only 
authorize him and he would go. So he went. His name is Ludwig 
S. Jacoby, the immortal founder of Methodism on the continent of 
Europe, and the first one to establish Sunday schools of any kind in 

Wise advice came to him from his friend Dr. Agnew, who 
wrote him on December I, 1866: 

You must not forget to take sufficient outdoor exercise or to break 
your tasks of indoor study by occasional recreation. 

His published letters in the Methodist, the Christian Ad- 
vocate, and Zion's Herald, and his private correspondence 
kept him in vital and informing touch with affairs social and 
ecclesiastic in America. George H. Whitney wrote him on 
December 1 8 : 

Elder Hilliard says your Methodist letter is even better than the 
one in the Advocate. Next Sunday I go to Newton to help them 
raise $1,000 on parsonage; and I've got your "69 No-Yes" as one 
of my best illustrations. [His graphic reference to Signor Tecchio's 
diplomatic oral report of the result of the vote in Venetia on the 
union of that state with the kingdom of Italy and its removal from 
Austrian rule, only 69 negatives against 641,758 yeas.] So you see 
you'll speak in Newton next Sunday ! Speak on, my dear brother ! 
From across the broad Atlantic send your tropes and figures, your Yes, 
your No, your eloquence and zeal, send your soul, your burning 
truths; stir the church. Thirty thousand eyes are upon your printed 
thoughts; and, though thousands of miles away in old Bremen, yet 
are you present in the cis-Atlantic churches. 

From H. B. Ridgaway, December 27 : 

With the time at your command you cannot fail to acquire rapidly 
and to be able to furnish not only interesting letters, but contributions 
to our permanent literature. Your letters strike the right note. We 
need facts — accounts of men, principles, things, movements; these 
will take and profit. 

William Nast, whose interest in the mission was intense, 
greets him on January 22, 1867: 

Nast, McClintock, Childs 163 

I am rejoiced to hear that you are so well pleased with your new 
and important field of labor, and that the prospects of the work in 
Germany are so bright. It is truly amazing, how exceeding abun- 
dantly God has blessed the labors of Brother Jacoby. Whatever he 
undertook, from the beginning, the Lord prospered. The founda- 
tions of the work seem to be as firm as the everlasting rocks, and 
the dimensions into which it is growing are indescribably grand. 
Truly, this is God's work. It seems as if our work in America was 
only preparatory to the greater one in Germany. 

When it looked as if the new theological seminary which 

Daniel Drew had proposed to build and endow would be 

located at Carmel, New York, its president. Dr. McClintock, 

wrote Dr. Hurst on March 21, 1867: 

The Drew Seminary is to begin in September. Faculty not yet 
chosen. I wish you were here to be one of them, but that must wait 
for a while. In the meantime I wish to get the fundamental books 
for the library. You can help in this. Tell me, (1) Can your 
Bremen House collect the books we may order, from all Germany, 
and pack and ship them to us, as cheaply or more so than an agent 
here can do it? (2) Can our periodicals (we shall get all that are 
worth taking) come in the same way, or better through agents here? 
(3) Can we secure any extra discounts by buying a larger order at 
once ? Please answer me on these points, or any other you may think 
of for the library. In your Methodist correspondence put in abstracts 
of new books, when you can. We commence at Carmel in the build- 
ing already erected, which will accommodate sixty students and is 
beautifully fitted up. Do you know any young preacher who has 
graduated at college, and gone through a theological course, who 
would be fit to work in Hebrew and Greek, and has good stuff in 
him? We shall all have work enough to do in preparing the ministry 
of the next generation. God help us to do it well ! I heartily wish 
Warren could be with us at Carmel, but he seems to be a fixture at 
the new school to be built at Boston. 

From George W. Childs, May 6 : 

I should be happy to receive from you. as frequently as you can 
supply them for the American Literary Gazette, notices of new and 
important literary matters and publications, which may happen to fall 
under your notice, and which would probably interest American 
readers or students. 

164 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

To Dr. Nast, whom he loved and trusted as a father, he 
wrote on May 25 : 

I hope to make some headway soon on a History of Protestant 
Theology. I have many authorities already; some preliminary labors 
begun — outline. If I had room I could give you the synopsis and 
ask you for your judgment. I am as much pleased as ever with my 
position here. I think it is God's work that he makes me labor in 

The position of theological tutor at the Missions-Anstalt 
involved his teaching candidates for the ministry in the first 
and second year classes in systematic theology, and those of 
the first class in exegesis, church history, logic, and English. 
His familiarity with both written and spoken German, his 
college and Conference studies, his broad reading and travel, 
and his ceaseless application to the work in hand made him 
from the first the easy master of the situation. He won his 
way into the hearts of his colleagues and fastened to himself 
the young Germans who in succession came under his 
stimulating tuition. 

The quiet routine of the first year in Bremen was enlivened 
by a trip with Mrs. Hurst in middle April to the Exposition 
in Paris, taking in a brief visit to Cologne, with its growing 
cathedral and the house of Rubens, to Mainz, Strassburg, 
Bingen, and Bonn. 

Mrs. Hurst writes April 20 to her sister, Mrs. Snow : 

Mr. Hurst seems to enjoy it as much as if he had never been here 
in Paris before. He gets along nicely speaking French, and is under- 
stood very well indeed. 

For about six weeks after their return to Bremen, April 27. 
he says : 

Not much work done from this time until June. Suffered from eyes 
and a burning brain. 

In Switzerland 165 

The leading question that came before the session of the 

Conference held in Zurich in June was that of the proposed 

removal of the Institute to a more central and southern city. 

He greatly favored such change of location, while Dr. Jacoby 

opposed. His letters throw light on the journey to the seat of 

Conference, the discussions there, and his travels after its 

close : 

Basel, Switzerland, June 19. 
To Mrs. Hurst : 

How I would love to see the dear little children ! Johnny might 
pull me off the sofa, and Clara might wear my spectacles all she 
pleases. I went to see my old rooms of ten years ago at Heidelberg. 

Zurich, June 23. 
To Mrs. Hurst: 

The Mission-House will certainly go south, if things go as they 
look. Bishop Kingsley told me privately last night that Dr. Durbin 
wishes the Mission-House to go south by all means, if the brethren 
wish it. I think the Bishop wants it south. The debate will come 
up in a day or two. 

Zurich, June 26. 
To Mrs. Hurst : 

Conference closed last night about 10 o'clock. The Institute goes 
to Frankfort. I am one of the committee to select a site. Only three 
preachers voted for Bremen, but a number for Heilbronn, though 
there was a large majority for Frankfort. But there will be some 
time before we can find out whether we can build there. The new 
building will not be commenced immediately, though I suppose we 
shall move to Frankfort in a year. Dr. Jacoby's son-in-law, Achard, 
is as independent as a wood-chopper. He was chairman of the com- 
mittee that reported Frankfort, and he defended it the strongest of 
all. He doesn't let anybody do his thinking. The Conference has 
been very kind to me. Brother Jacoby proposed resolutions of wel- 
come, and the Conference adopted them enthusiastically. 

Dr. Wesley C. Sawyer says : 

At Zurich his speeches in German on the Conference floor mani- 
fested at once his scholarship and his business discretion. I accom- 
panied him to the museum of relics of the Lake Dwellers of the Swiss 
lakes. The curator of this collection was quite thoroughly informed 

166 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

upon the probable character and history of the tribes that in early 
times fashioned the curious objects of domestic utility which are 
credited to the Lake Dwellers. I was struck by the eagerness with 
which all this information was gathered up and filed away for con- 
venient reference by Dr. Hurst. 

Samaden, Switz., June 30. 
To Mrs. Hurst : 

I left Zurich on Wednesday p. m. and, after a ride of four hours 
past beautiful lakes and grand mountains, I reached Ragatz, where I 
joined Rev. Mr. Wortman. I went to the Baths of Pfeffers, where a 
broad stream cuts its way through a mountain range. The mountains 
close over the chasm in some places, and only in the middle of the day 
does the sun come down. I walked through this narrow way about 
three hundred yards. Next morning we went to Chur ; then by stage 
to Thusis, and up to see the Via Mala, or Bad Way, where the Rhine 
cuts its way through the Alps. It is grand beyond description. At 
Thusis we got our long Alpine sticks, and on Friday morning started 
on our tramp. We went through the Schyn Pass, where we saw his- 
torical old castles and had a miserable dinner. We walked about 
5^2 hours that day, slept at night in a hotel at Miihlen on the bank of 
a stream, the Albula, which at that spot is a waterfall. It was pretty 
noisy, but we slept splendidly. Yesterday we ascended the Julier 
Pass, walking up many thousand feet. We were above the region of 
trees. All was rock, scarce grass, but abundance of wild flowers — 
violets and many others. By and by we reached the snow and we 
had a little snowball scuffling — strange enough for the last of June. 
In ascending we saw the celebrated Engadine Valley, with beautiful 
green lakes stretching down it and neat villages, and the bathing place 
of Saint Moritz ; we drank some of the water, and it was very much 
like Saratoga water. We stopped at Samaden at night, and each of us 
has a double room, well furnished and in every way very comfort- 
able. We start to-morrow morning up a high mountain, the Piz 
(pronounced Pitts) Languard. No guides have yet become necessary, 
but whenever they do we shall employ them. You need not be afraid 
of my running any risk — I have long ago passed that business. 

Trafoi, Tyrol, July 4. 
To Mrs. Hurst : 

We slept at night amid snow and ice, on top of the Bernina Pass. 
Of course, we had to wrap up warm. It freezes at night there. We 
had a splendid day altogether. Next morning we started down the 
Bernina Pass, passing some great glaciers and stopping to take some 

Gilbert Haven 167 

milk at a little village. An old woman gave us a big loaf of hard 
bread. I saw an ax near by, and when I struck the bread with it and 
it did not crack the crust, it caused great merriment among the vil- 
lagers. I got another ax, and it did not break then. So one man 
ran to his house and got another loaf which we managed to eat. 

Munich, Germany, July 17. 
To Mrs. Hurst : 

I never uttered half my fears about my own health for many 
months before I left home. Now I have completely recovered, and 
owe it all to the goodness of my heavenly Father in so disposing my 
matters at home that I could get the mountain air and freedom from 
restraint which I needed. The vacation has done more for my eyes 
and my whole body than six months of inactivity at home could have 
done. I thank you much for your self-sacrificing willingness that I 
should stay so long from home. I finished up my vacation in the 
Tyrol very pleasantly, and yesterday p. m. got here. 

The arrival in the cottage home at 3 Steffensweg of their 
second son, Carl Bailey, on August 16, 1867, one day prior to 
his father's own anniversary, was a joy to the happy family. 
From Philip Schaff came this bit of news written on June 29 : 

The Drew Seminary is to be located near Madison and Morris- 
town, N. J. A splendid mansion with over one hundred acres of 
ground has just been bought for the purpose. I suppose you will be 
connected with this institution yet. They need just such men as you 
to build it up. 

Gilbert Haven, from his editorial chair, wrote him spicily, 
July 17: 

I ought to have acknowledged your very cordial and very accept- 
able note before, but somehow it seems more of a job to send a note 
across the Atlantic Ferry than it does Fulton; and so while I would 
have said "Thank you" long ago had you written from Staten Island, 
I have kept delaying it since the salutation came from the flats of 
Bremen. I know how refreshing to your far-off eyes are these Ameri- 
can bonbons. I remember how the Advocate and Herald looked after 
I had crossed the Mediterranean and spent months without a sight of 
a Methodist face in flesh or type. The ocean affects papers as it does 
persons — gives them perhaps a flavor and a quality above their nature. 

i68 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

I trust you find the Herald thus improved and made acceptable above 
its real merit. We are trying to do something with it by the way of 
contributions and other outlays. I should be glad to see your face 
occasionally, I would say oftener, but that I have only six European 
Americans on its staff; yet there is always room for first-class things, 
and they will get the preference. When anything of especial note 
meets your eye or ear, you may let the Herald share it with the 
Advocate and Methodist. 

Methodism is beginning a career of wealthy endowments. May it 
still be humble and faithful. The infidel hosts are upon us and we 
have many battles yet to fight for the Lord. May you be strengthened 
for your share in this service ! 

From H. B. Ridgaway, August 14: 

So you have seen Fox and the Fosses. I suppose they will soon be 
home, when I hope to hear and touch somebody that has talked with 
and touched you. 

He preached the dedicatory sermon of the new Methodist 
Episcopal chapel in Berlin on November 3. from Rom. 1. 16, 
of which a report was made by Fales H. Newhall in Zion's 
Herald of December 12. On this trip to Berlin he visited the 
celebrated Professor Hengstenberg, to whom he bore a letter 
of introduction from Dr. Philip Schaff. Many in America and 
Germany had supposed that Dr. Schaff would be elected to 
the chair of Church History at the University of Berlin. 
Hengstenberg had been opposed to his election. Dr. Hurst 
says : 

What reason do you suppose he gave me for opposing Dr. Schaff? 
"Dr. Schaff had been born in free Switzerland and had lived in the 
United States !" He regarded these facts sufficient of themselves to 
unfit any man to be professor of theology in Berlin. 

From his uncle, John Hurst, April 15, 1868: 

Bishop Simpson stayed with us during our Conference. We en- 
joyed his company very much. He spoke of you frequently in the 
highest terms. I showed him your letter in which you alluded to him 
very kindly, and which he appreciated. 

In Heligoland 169 

From G. H. Whitney, May 12: 

Dr. Mattison has just written an article on "Decline of Romanism" 
for the Quarterly. He showed me MS. wherein he had made use of 
something from one of your letters, and he said to me, "By the way, 
that Hurst is a man." 

From H. B. Ridgaway, August 4 : 

Dear Hurst, it sickens me to hear you complain of the little you 
accomplish. No man in the church is working harder and doing more. 
My fear is you are overworking and cutting short that better end of 
your life, when you could work with the grandest results. My sweet, 
precious brother, do let up; ease off, take care of yourself. The church 
and the world need too greatly just such men as you, for your days 
to be prematurely cut off. 

From John A. Roche, August 10: 

My dear Hurst, I can't tell how much social satisfaction you impart 
to the people about you in Germany, but your absence has proven the 
end of the meetings of P. D.'s. We have not had one since you and I 
had that good time with Fox at Carmel. He is still there. Ridgaway 
is back at Saint Paul's, Watkins is at Hanson Place, Sewali is at 
Pacific Street, and I am at First Place. But the meetings are nowhere. 
They have not been resumed since we bade you "Good-bye." From 
the amount and merit of your writing in our periodicals, you will 
not, if 'out of sight, be out of mind." I read your letters in the 
Methodist with pleasure and profit, and wonder at your ability to keep 
yourself, amid your professional duties, so well posted in relation to 
matcers that I should deem it difficult to reach. 

In the summer of 1868, having nearly completed his prep- 
arations for removal of both family and school to Frankfort, 
Dr. Hurst in company with Dr. Abel Stevens took a trip to 
Heligoland for needed recuperation. From this place he 
writes Mrs. Hurst July 29 : 

I suppose you will be off for Frankfort on Thursday (to-morrow 
evening). Well, I hope and believe you will have a very good time, 
and that nothing will happen to you. I think we shall leave here next 
Monday, as we shall have by that time had all the advantages of bath- 

170 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

ing and the fresh air. The Dr. is a splendid man, and is in every way 
companionable and delightful. We sleep half of the time. We take 
breakfast and then a nap. Then we sail over to the adjoining island 
(about a mile off), where we bathe. The surf is splendid. Then we 
sail back and take a good nap. Dinner comes at 3 p. m. and then we 
lounge about, read a little, and sleep until 7 p. m. I think we sleep 
about 10 hours in the day. 

I am glad to know that the packing is getting on so splendidly ; I 
shall have no care whatever. I shall write you next at Frankfort, 
though I shall not know any other address except Martin Mission 
Institute. If there is no need of my going to Frankfort to get the 
things delivered, perhaps we shall stay a few days in the Harz. 


At Frankfort-on-the-Main 

The school reopened about October 1, 1868, in rented rooms 
in Frankfort-on-the-Main under its new name of the Martin 
Mission Institute. To Dr. Nast on September 25 he wrote of 
their temporary quarters : 

The house in which we live stands in the rear and, though small, 
it is large enough and very neat in appearance. The Frankforters 
have a saw, "When you have built your house, first send your enemy 
to occupy it; then your friend; and then go yourself!" We have 
acted on this principle, for the new Institute is hardly far enough 
advanced to occupy yourself. So we have had to rent humble quarters 
elsewhere for the students, for a few months, and no doubt they w.'ll 
be just as comfortable, though in smaller rooms, as if they were 
already in the Institute proper. 

Dr. Hurst, in the Missionary Advocate for February, 1873, 
says : 

In the year 1866 John T. Martin, Esq., of Brooklyn, determined 
to direct his centennial benefaction to the reestablishment of the 
Institute, and for that purpose gave $25,000, with the provision that 
the new school should commence without anv debt. Frankfort is 

Martin Mission Institute 171 

the very center of German Methodism, and just then was passing 
from its traditional status as a free city, a member of the old 
Hanseatic League, into Prussian hands, this being one of the pen- 
alties resulting from the victory of Prussia over Austria at Sadowa. 
Frankfort had sympathized with Austria, and she was immediately 
absorbed. Property was cheap, many of the old families hastening 
off to find homes farther south. A beautiful site was found on what 
was called the Roederberg, an elevated suburb at the eastern end 
of the city, overlooking the Main, the historic and lovely valley, 
the Bavarian Mountains, and the Taunus Range, while the entire 
city of Frankfort lay below. The property was cheap and most de- 
sirable ; yet it would not have been known that it was for sale but 
for an old gardener, who saw the committee on the street, asked 
them what they were after, and then why they did not buy that 
place, meaning the spot where he was standing and which he had 
cultivated for fifty years. It was bought. 

The corner stone was laid March 15, 1868, and the institu- 
tion was formally opened on January 17, 1869, when the Rev. 
E. Riemenschneider (father of the doctor) preached from 
Psa. 137. 5. The Rev. L. Nippert, the new Director, gave an 
historical account of the school. Addresses were made by 
Revs. C. H. Doering, G. F. Kettell, H. Nuelsen, Consul- 
General Murphy, G. P. Davies (of the English Congrega- 
tional Church), Dr. Hurst, and others. 

Rev. H. A. Buttz, his classmate, pastor at Morristown, 
writes on September 23, 1868: 

Drew Seminary has opened very favorably. We have about fifty 
students, some of them very superior young men. I am engaged 
there part of three days each week, which, in connection with my 
home work, keeps me very busy. I cannot, of course, be worked 
any harder than you are, with your literary and professorial duties. 

William F. Warren, his predecessor at Bremen, sends him 
on October 17 this greeting: 

Many hearty congratulations on your transit to the new Institute. 
I have thought of you and of your enjoyment of the new unfold- 
ment of your institution hundreds of times. Believe me, when I 

172 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

say that I have been with you in spirit much, sharing your toils, 
discouragements, and triumphs. God bless the Martin Mission 
Institute ! 

Abel Stevens thus appreciates his contributions to the press : 

November 21. 
Your letters [in the Methodist] are read with eagerness by us 
all— no other paper in New York is kept so an fait in German affairs, 
literary and ecclesiastic. 

In writing to her sister Airs. Hurst says of the toast to 
which Dr. Hurst responded at the Thanksgiving dinner for 
Americans in Frankfort : 

Mr. Hurst was cheered very much. Mrs. Abraham Lincoln had 
a headache and could not come, but "Tad" was there. He was very 

Mrs. Lincoln and Airs. Anson Burlingame with other 
distinguished Americans temporarily in Frankfort gave fre- 
quent evidence of friendly feeling and social recognition to 
Dr. Hurst and his family. Dr. Hurst continued his teaching 
in Frankfort until the spring of 187 1, though Airs. Hurst 
taught his classes in English for several weeks while he was 
on his trip to the Holy Land. He thus rounded out his full 
five years in a work that has ever since been a blessing to the 
Methodists of Germany and Switzerland. The Rev, G. 
Hausser. who was a close observer of his developing career in 
its relation to the young Germans who came under his training, 
says : 

From the very first he made a favorable impression on me, not 
only as a scholar, but especially as a Christian. His great aim in 
life seemed to be to acquire knowledge and to educate the young 
men intrusted to his care. Some of the most efficient and influential 
workers in our German Conference were his pupils. He used his 
talents and the knowledge he had acquired wholly in the service of 
his Master and for the benefit of his scholars. 

At Frankfort-on-the-Main 173 

He was a true friend ; for even after he had become Chancellor 
and Bishop he did not forget his old friends, and at our last Con- 
ference in Rochester I found him to be the same modest, sincere, 
affectionate friend and brother he had been thirty years before. 

Bishop Simpson writing to the Christian Advocate in July, 
1870, says of the Institute: 

It is ably managed by Rev. Dr. Hurst, who labors assiduously 
for the education of the young men. 

In June, 1869, the darling daughter Clara, who had brought 
so much peace and joy to the home in Elizabeth, passed from 
their loving embrace. This shadow with its enswathement of 
light demands a special place in the story of the home now 
first broken, and, with the account of his journeys and trans- 
lations of important treatises from the German during the first 
three years of his teaching in Europe, will be treated in 
specific form separate from the general narrative. 

In addition to his other labors, Dr. Hurst for the most of 
the period of his residence in Frankfort preached on the first 
and third Sundays of each month at the American service in 
the chapel at No. 1 Grosser Hirschgraben, near the house 
where Goethe was born ; and during the Franco-Prussian War 
he quartered German soldiers for a time at his house, while 
often the evening employment of his family was making lint 
for the wounded and he himself visited the great military 
hospital and ministered Christian consolation to the sick and 

174 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 


Trips in Europe and the East. — Escape from a Bomb in Rome 

Of his Easter vacation (1867), spent with Mrs. Hurst on a 
visit to the Paris Exposition, and other cities, brief mention 
has already been made. His trip to Zurich in June of the 
same year to attend Conference included a half day at Hanover 
with walk to Herrenhausen and return; a few hours at 
Gottingen, where a woman sold him some fruit and nuts and 
wrapped them in leaves of a Latin life of Saint Jerome: a 
night and a half day at Hesse-Cassel, taking in its world of art 
treasures; a half day at Wilhelmshohe, with its palace and 
grottoes and chapel ; two nights and a day in Marburg, giving 
him a view of the castle with its Knights' Hall, of Saint Eliza- 
beth's Church, and of the University; a day and night in 
Frankfort, where Gutenberg's statue and the houses where 
Goethe and Rothschild were born were his chief attractions ; 
a half day at Heidelberg, taking a run through the market and 
a peep at his old quarters of ten years previous ; a few hours 
at Karlsruhe; two nights and a Sunday at Baden-Baden, at- 
tending Roman Catholic services in Cathedral and the Greek 
service, and getting an abhorrent view of the gambling there 
prevalent even on the Sabbath ; four hours in Freiburg with 
walk to the Schlossberg; and two nights and a day and a half 
at Basel, including a visit to the haunts of Erasmus, a call 
upon Professor Riggenbach. a little while at the museum, and 
attendance at a lecture by Hagenbach on Zwingli. 

Upon adjournment of Conference he hurries away from 
Zurich, and before he reaches home again he has added to his 
trophies of travel Bad Pfaffers, a night at Ragatz, on through 
Chur, to Thusis by stage and the Via Mala of Splugen Pass ; 
over Schyn Pass along the Albula, through Alvaschein, to 
Tiefenkastel ; thence by carriage to Miihlen, where he stayed 


On Foot in Switzerland 175 

a night; a walk through Julier Pass to Silvaplana, to the 
Baths of Saint Moritz, and to Samaden in the lovely En- 
gadine valley, where he spent a Sunday ; up the Piz Languard, 
through Pontresina, and taking in the Morteratsch Glacier and 
Waterfall ; by carriage to Bernina House and then on foot to 
Bernina Hospice at the top of Bernina Pass, where he stayed 
all night, having walked twenty-two miles that day, passing 
Palii Glacier to Poschiavo, Preso, and Tirano, one night ; on 
foot through Boladore to Bormio, twenty-eight miles (night) ; 
over the Bormio, dining at Santa Maria ; and down to Trafoi ; 
a walk to Sponding, through Schlanders, and to Meran by 
omnibus; a walk to Botzen and ride back to Meran, where a 
Sunday was passed, his entry being: "Mr. Wortman and my- 
self had a prayer meeting with reading of the Bible. God 
blessed us much ;" a walk to Staben and to Unser Frau ; across 
the Hoch Joch to Vent (night) ; walk of ten hours to Um- 
hausen (night) ; to Roppen, ride to Landeck, stopping at Ried 
(night); to Finstermunz Pass; ride to Innsbruck (a Sun- 
day) ; by cars to Jenbach ; on foot to Lake Achen and Scholas- 
tica; by stage to Baths of Kreuth and village of same name 
(night) ; walk to Holzkirchen by Tegern Lake, and then to 
Munich, three days ; thence to Augsburg, Nuremberg, and 
Bremen by rail. 1 

Another trip along the Neckar in April, 1868, gives him 
one of his favorite runs to Heilbronn, thence up the river to 
Tubingen, where for two days he revels in such sights as the 
house and tomb of the poet Uhland, the antiquarian bookstores, 
the prison, the castles, the great parish church, with the tombs 
of the dukes of Wiirttemberg. the University, and an interview 
with Professor Wildermuth and his wife, Mrs. Ortillie Wilder- 
muth, the writer. 

1 For a fascinating account of this excursion see his Life and Literature in the Father - 
and, pp. 309, ff. 

176 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

On his trip to Heligoland and the Harz Mountains in June 
following he wrote to Dr. Nast from Frankfort-on-the-Main, 
September 25 : 

Immediately after Conference I went with Dr. Stevens to Heligo- 
land, and had a pleasant week there ; afterward, I went to Harz ; 
these little excursions helped me up again, for I was almost down. 
In fact, I had long been working too hard, but did not or would not 
know it. 

In the summer of 1869, after dear Clara's death, he took a 
trip to the north. He writes to his son. John, from Copen- 
hagen, August 1 : 

Yesterday a. m. at 8 o'clock we got here, and the custom house 
officers looked all through our baggage. There was one bundle they 
seemed to be suspicious of, and so I unrolled it very slowly for them. 
What do you think it was ? Why, nothing but two or three poor 
little sandwiches that I had fixed at Lubeck. How the man laughed, 
and he was a little provoked to boot. 

And again on steamboat Dagmar August 20 : 

I have a room with another man, or I should say three, for I have 
had a new chum every landing place we have made. My present 
roommate is a Russian officer, who used my toothbrush as if it had 
been his own. I did not know it until I heard one Englishman say 
a Russian had used his, and when I came down to my room I found 
mine had been used too. 

Of this trip Airs. Hurst writes a letter to her sister, Mrs. 
Snow, September 1 5 : 

Johnnie and I made the welcome wreath and put it over his pic- 
ture with "Willkommen" written under it. Mr. Hurst came home 
ten days ago when everything was in readiness and we were so glad 
to see him. He was absent nearly six weeks. He saw thoroughly 
Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Russia, and Poland. There will be an 
account of each country in his letters to the Methodist, one from 
Copenhagen, Stockholm, Christiania, Saint Petersburg, Moscow, and 

Germany, Austria, Belgium 177 

An Easter excursion in April, 1870, from Frankfort to the 
Taunus Mountains regales the tired teacher with a sight of 
Soden-Hochst, a large laboratory, from Konigstein Hill ; the 
castle ; a walk to Falkenstein ; the ascent of Alt Konig ; all 
night at the top of Feldberg, and descent the next day "on a 
brisk trot," with bath in the brooks, "one piece of Colgate's 
soap for us all," and walk to Homburg. 

In May we find him in company of General Clinton B. Fisk, 
of whom he writes to Mrs. Hurst from Munich, May 7 : 

The General is one of the most delightful men I ever traveled 
with, well informed, agreeable, not self-willed, religious, and has 
all the qualities of a Christian gentleman. 

And again from Vienna, May 1 1 : 

The General is perfectly prodigal of money, and will let me buy 
nothing, pictures or anything else. I attempted at first several times 
to pay for several little things myself, but he would not allow 
it, and I saw he would become offended if I did. He will have 
everything in the best style. 

On this journey he visited Nuremberg, Munich, Salzburg, 
Vienna, Linz, Pardubitz, Koniggratz, Sadowa, Prague, and 

On July 4 with Airs. Hurst and little John he left Frankfort 
for a two-months' tour through Holland and Belgium and a 
sojourn of several weeks by the seashore at Heyst, Belgium. 
This included a stop in Diisseldorf and at Utrecht, where they 
had an interview and took supper with Dr. and Mrs. Van 
Oosterzee. While he was at Heyst he says : 

Some men were knitting nets. I helped them, aided by early ex- 
perience. Threaded a seine knitting needle. This pleased them. 

The most extensive of these journeys was the one he took 
to Egypt and the Holy Land in 1871. He says : 

178 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

On February 1 I started from Frankfort for a tour in the East. 
Had taken great pains with my money belt, having given a special 
older for it. But it grew so uncomfortable that I took it off before 
reaching the second station. At Munich met Mrs. Lincoln. She 
asked me to help her, which I did. her baggage being checked to 
Innsbruck and she wishing to go to Verona. Bade Mrs. Lincoln 
"Bon Voyage" on her Italian tour and then started on my way to 

He visited at Cairo the citadel, tombs of the Caliphs, Island 

of Roda. the Nilometer and the English burial ground ; then 

to the Pyramids, Gizeh, and the palace of Ibrahim Pasha. On 

February 18 he is at the tombs of Ben Hassan and spends a 

night at Minieh with its sugar mills; on the 19th at Assiut, 

where he met Dr. Hogg, the successful Scotch missionary 

to the Copts. On the 23d we see him at Karnak and Luxor; 

and the 28th at Philae. On March 6 he visits the governor 

of Minieh and returns to Cairo, and on the 7th the Gizeh 

Gardens. The 9th he visits Miss Whately's school, and on 

the 10th starts for Suez and Ismailia; and on the nth goes 

from Port Said by steamer to Jaffa, where he lands the 12th 

and visits house of Simon the tanner and, being Sunday, 

attends service at American consulate. On the 13th he goes 

to Jerusalem. He makes an excursion to Hebron where, he 

says, "I was seized by the throat because I was simply going 

up the outer stairway of the inclosure of Abraham's cave of 

Machpelah, and I was ordered off at every door of the harem 

when I had paid five francs to see it." He made a side trip 

also to Jericho, the Jordan, and the Dead Sea of five days, 

and left Jerusalem on March 24. 

At Shiloh went off the road, neither dragoman nor muleteer knew 
the way ; got a man from the field. Murray's warning might have 
deterred me, but fortunately had not read it. Met a shepherd boy 
with his reed pipe and looked at it; David's, perhaps, just like it. 

On March 25 and 26 at Nablus, Sychar, Jacob's well, 

ix Palestine 179 

Mount Gerizim, and Joseph's tomb. He saw the Samaritan 
copy of the Pentateuch in the sanctuary. Visited the high 
priest Amon — who gave him his autograph in Samaritan and 
Arabic. Passed Sebustieh (Sebaste), a ruin; Dothan and 
Jenin (night). On to Jezreel; past Xain, Shunem, Endor, to 
Nazareth (night) ; Tiberias (night) ; around Sea of Galilee, 
sleeping in a rush tent with fleas at Mellahah ; to Banias ; and 
Kefr Hawer. On April 1 he writes to Mrs. Hurst from Kefr 
Hawer : 

On this journey I have been in considerable danger at times, but 
a show of fearlessness, and the appearance of having weapons 
belted around me, have brought me out all right. Esau, my drago- 
man, picked up a huge knife on the way, which he has on him. Then 
he got a big-headed club, which he swings now and then in great 
heroism. By my taking my lorgnette out of the case and unscrew- 
ing it fully, and belting it on, it looks very much, when partially 
concealed, like a double-barreled pistol. This inspires no little fear, 
as soon as seen, and that is all I want. Then my lunch knife, which 
I have at hand, does its part of keeping up appearances. My drago- 
man was to furnish me with eating and do the cooking. But what 
cooking ! He gives me the towel that I have used and used again 
till it ought to be washed, for my tablecloth. He ties up some of my 
food in his dirty handkerchief, gives me fish in my rice, which he 
stirs with so many different dirty sticks that it has acquired a black 
look ; my soup has no definite taste ; he seems to be shedding his 
black hair all the time, from the quantity I find in everything. He 
picks and cooks the chickens himself, and how black ! The cheese 
I peel fresh every time I use it. I beg for eggs and oranges, and 
get them. The tea I make myself, and the coffee I intrust to him. 
But I am so hungry I take anything, and am thankful ! I have not 
seen him use a knife or fork in cooking yet — all by fingers ! Neither 
have I seen him wash his hands but once since we left, and that was 
to-day. I begged him last night to jump in the headwaters of the 
Jordan with me ; but no, it was bad for his eyes, and so he held my 
clothes. He gets mad sometimes and then beats his head. But he 
is getting sobered now, declares he is a Protestant, and is going to 
pray the Lord all the time that I may be President of the United 
States. I notice he turns his back toward me when he cooks. I sleep 
in about as good a room as can be found. But they are mud huts, 

i8o John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

filth of all kinds in abundance around the doorway, and inside stenches 

indescribable ! Fleas and will not even let me get to sleep 

before they begin. In one place, Banias, the Csesarea Philippi of 
Scripture, Esau took me to such a filthy place to spend my night, 
and dream of you and the children, that my instinct of self-preserva- 
tion rebelled, and I put off for the governor of the place. I dragged 
him with me and made him translate, though I am now picking up 
enough Arabic to tell what people are generally talking about. (Just 
here I must tell you that a tribe of little children are crowding around 
me and running their dirty fingers under my nose, and begging for 

I am no longer on the housetop, but down in the yard, near Esau, 
who is promising an early dinner. There are 3 horses, 3 cows, dogs, 
goats, saddles, babies, men, women, a flock of sheep, and Esau at his 
stove, all before me, and much else that I can't stop to enumerate. I 
simply asked the governor, who was holding audience, for the use of 
the government room for the night. Esau was so dumfounded by 
such impudence toward a high functionary that he refused at first 
to translate. But he had to come to it. At first a refusal — then con- 
sent — then coffee — then cigarette — then invitation to dinner — then 
cigarette and coffee — all this followed. Even Esau was invited to 
dinner after. The dinner was splendid — clean, savory, and unique. 
There was a whole young goat in the middle, with even its head on, 
from which each pulled as he wished — no forks — no knives — but 
wooden spoons, which were little used. The thin bread lay at our 
feet. I was the only one who occupied a seat (a low stool), the rest 
sitting on the floor. After this the sheik gave me a letter to the sheik 
of this place, for comfortable reception and hospitality, but the sheik 
is from home and my luck is poor. 

Damascus, April 2. 

Here I am, you see. To-day I could not endure staying in such 
a hole, and rode through the desert, with glorious old Mount Hermon 
in view. I stopped my horse and made a big snowball for my dry 
lips, and wrote your initials — baby, John, Carl, and you in the snow, 
and trotted on. How glad I am to get here ! I met at the very 
first at the hotel some delightful people (English), who were fellow 
passengers up the Nile. They think I have done grandly — came 
through in one day less than Cook's party and saw more too. One 
gentleman in it envied my success — and it has been a great success. 
My horse gave out, and I rode one of the mules into Damascus. 

After three days in Damascus he goes on to Beirut. Of his 

A Bomb in Rome 181 

visit to Bishop Kingsley's grave, in a letter to Mrs. Hurst 
written on steamer Juno, off the Island of Patmos, April 15, 
he says : 

I received your letter after my visit to Bishop Kingsley's grave 
and could not well have planted the seeds anyhow, for all around 
his grave people walk, and the grave itself is covered with brick 
masonry on which it is supposed there will be placed a slab if the 
remains are not sent to America. A Methodist preacher from the 
West (Dr. Fairall), the American consul, and one American, Mr. 
Hallock, and I visited the grave together, and I was charmed with 
its delightful situation. The lovely Lebanon Mountains look right 
down upon it. The graveyard belongs to the German Protestants, 
is in a retired but well-chosen place, and well cared for. You look 
out from it upon the bright blue Mediterranean. I hope his remains 
will stay just where they are. I plucked many flowers from about 
his grave, to press. 

He landed at Cyprus, at Rhodes, and Smyrna, and pro- 
ceeded to Constantinople, and thence homeward by Athens and 
Rome. A stop at Rome included a Sunday in early May when 
he attended in the evening a preaching and communion service 
conducted by the British Wesleyans in a large hall of an old 
palace. The pastor, Rev. Mr. Sciarelli, had been a soldier in 
Garibaldi's army. Just before the benediction was to be pro- 
nounced there was a loud, irregular hissing noise in the left- 
hand corner of the front entrance to the hall. The Bishop 

I was sitting on the front seat just before the altar, and in turning 
around to look at the place whence this alarming noise emanated 
I saw a large oval-shaped vessel bounding up and down, caused by 
the partial but successful igniting of the fuse. So violent was the 
concussion that the gaslights were immediately extinguished, and we 
were left in total darkness. The people were wild with excitement. 
They sprang for their lives over one another, and over the seats — 
all hastening toward the doors. There seemed to be no ventilation, 
and the fumes of the gas, mingled with the odor of gunpowder, made 
the atmosphere intolerable. I saw that my best chance for escape 
was in sitting still until the doors and windows were opened and 

182 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

the people went outside. This was a dangerous position, for I was 
nearly overcome by the wretched gases, and barely had strength 
enough to get near the fresh air. Lights were brought in; the pastor 
found me, and told me he would give me an attendant to my hotel, 
which he did, saying at the same time that there was danger of 
assassination, as the bomb indicated a plan to destroy the congrega- 
tion. The bomb did not explode, the fuse failing to do its work. 

The next day I called on our American painter, poet, and sculptor, 
T. Buchanan Read, and as I was still nervous it was but natural 
that I should describe the scene of the previous evening. He seemed 
to take full memoranda of the information, and as nearly as I can 
remember expressed a desire to make use of it. 

I heard nothing more about the scene for several weeks, when I 
met in Frankfort a person who had just left Rome. He told me 
the attempt to destroy the congregation had been discussed by the 
Parliament; that the bomb had been examined and found to contain 
all manner of destructive objects, such as pieces of iron, glass, and 
what not; that a discussion had taken place, and that the result 
was the passage of the now historic act — the opening of all Italy 
to perfect freedom of worship for all confessions. 

Clara's Sickxess and Death 183 

The Father Bereft 

The Discipline of Sorrow 

He who had been the messenger of comfort to hundreds in 
their hours of bereavement himself with his devoted wife 
passed into the clouds of affliction. Only a few weeks after 
their settlement in the new home in Frankfort little Clara 
suffered an attack of typhoid fever, from the first effects of 
which she partially recovered, but then gradually failed and 
after eight months of lingering sickness on June 20, 1869, she 
slept sweetly in Jesus. Writing in his own notebook a few 
weeks later he says : 

A great blow has come upon me. My dear daughter Clara has 
been borne from me by angel hands — herself an angel. God help me 
to preach and work aright, that I may meet her in heaven. I fully 
expect she will welcome me home at last. Heavenly recognition 
has been to me ever before a belief — now it is beyond that, a 

The story of that household in its united ministrations 
to the little sufferer, prolonged with its anxieties and vigils 
through the late autumn into and through the winter, with the 
alternations of fear and hope, far into the early spring, and 
the gradual predominance of the doubt and dread as the year 
grew green and bright with April showers and the flowers of 
May, cannot be told. On May 17 he made this record : 

Second consultation of physicians held on Clara ; they pronounce 
that there is very little hope for her life. But she and her mamma 
believe that she will be spared — which God grant, but to his name's 
glory and honor. 

Her condition was such in the middle of June as to warrant 

184 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

hope that she would survive perhaps for many weeks, and Dr. 
Hurst, bearing a heavy heart, set out for Berlin to attend the 
annual session of the Conference. On Friday, June 18, Mrs. 
Hurst writes him : 

My own precious Husband: Darling Clara is sleeping a little. 
She is gradually failing, more rapidly, I fear, than the doctor thinks. 
She certainly will be with us but a very short time. She takes very 
little notice of things — does not seem to hear; yet, by getting very 
near, she will look up. About five o'clock this afternoon she kissed 
me and this morning early asked, "Where is papa?" That is the 
most rational sentence she has said to-day. She takes short naps 
and then lies looking at something very quietly, sometimes grasps 
after something in the air. 

Amelia will stay with me to-night and every night until you come. 
O, my precious husband, how it pains me to write this to you. I 
had hoped her life would be spared, but God orders otherwise, and 
now I find I have not that strength of mind to bear the stroke 
as I thought I would have. I am praying constantly for resignation. 
I can hardly wait for you to come. I feel like telegraphing, but fear 
I may be in too much haste ; for I wish you to have a little rest after 
such a long journey. I cannot bear to leave her a moment, even 
when she is sleeping. She lies on our bed and I sit on the bed 
by her side. I think she knows I am there, although she has not 
said "Mamma" to-day. This morning about 10 o'clock she recognized 
some roses that Mrs. Petri brought her. 

To the above Mrs. Hurst's own hand added the sad partic- 
ulars of the last days: 

June 23. — The above was written last Friday, but, as Clara grew 
worse, I was obliged to telegraph to her papa, who was in Berlin 
attending Conference. Late Friday evening she kissed me four 
times and patted me with her little slender hand, which was becoming 
stiff, upon my cheek, as much as to say, "Mamma, don't grieve for 
me." Saturday morning at 3 o'clock she kissed me again and at 
6 o'clock. This was the last, I think, that she had conscious moments 
during Saturday. Dr. Andrea came in Saturday evening, she looked 
at him and her eyes followed him around, and he said he was sure 
that she was conscious and that she knew him. Her eyes were con- 
stantly directed to the door as if she were expecting every moment 
to see her papa. 

Buried amid Flowers 185 

Mrs. Murphy, wife of the consul-general, and a kind neighbor, 
Mrs. Petri, sat up with her Saturday night. Her papa arrived at 
gyi Sunday morning and she died about five minutes before 10 o'clock. 
He was with her a half an hour, but we doubt whether she was 
sensible of it. 

The funeral was held on June 23, and the burial was made 
in the Friedhof of Frankfort, amid a great profusion of 
flowers brought both to the house and to the cemetery by- 
Clara's schoolmates. Mr. John P. Jackson in the Evening 
Post, New York, of July 21, says: 

This thought of being buried among flowers is a very pleasant 
one, even to matured persons, and we were not surprised on learning 
that the little one had become enchanted with it. She had thus 
obtained an almost poetic idea of death. A few months previously 
her mind had been busily engaged in planning excursions and picnics 
with her schoolmates to the beautiful summer-clad woods, but toward 
the end she forgot these, and began to talk, young as she was, about 
death, and to say how she would like to be buried. She had already 
seen a German burial. It had been the wish of her parents, in 
case of death, that her body should be taken back to America ; but 
the little one, who knew of some persons being thus removed, had 
said that she would not like to cross the rough sea again, but, 
imbued with the beautiful idea of being buried amid flowers, asked 
that she might be left in Germany, and requested that her head 
might be surrounded by a beautiful wreath, with beautiful rosebuds 
in her hair, a flower-cross upon her breast; the coffin was to be 
filled up with flowers, and some real ones were to be planted on her 
grave. The idea of such a flowery resting place appeared to take 
away all fear of death. 

The mother heart grieved deeply and long over the departure 
of their only daughter, and the father heart strove manfully 
and successfully to bring both to her and to himself the sol- 
aces of the Christian faith. During his trip made in August 
to the Scandinavian peninsula and Russia he poured out his 
heart in strong and yearning messages of comfort to his wife : 

186 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 


How much I thought of dear angel Clara yesterday, Sunday ! She 
seems a little guardian spirit to me, and sometimes we can almost talk 
together. What a joy, with all our grief, that she has no grief, no 
tears, nothing but joy! and is waiting for us, whom she loved so 
dearly ! 

Stockholm, August 14. 

My dear Kate: I am afraid you are grieving too much for our 
dear angel Clara. I have seen so much wickedness since I have been 
gone that I have a peaceful satisfaction in knowing that our sweet 
angel is an angel and can never sin, and never know a pain. Now, 
have we not a great comfort? And why should you wish to have 
Clara by our side when she would not, if she had her choice, not- 
withstanding all her almost idolatry of us, leave her Saviour's side 
for ten thousand worlds? Let us love our sweet Clara's precious 
memory, and cherish her sweet, pure spirit, so as to imitate it, and 
love the Saviour more for her sake; for she loved him. Let us be 
happy in spite of all our sorrow, and remember that to mourn an 
erring child living is ten thousand times worse than a blest, immortal 
one. Do not, for the sake of dear John and Carl, who are left us, 
mourn longer over Clara's loss. We know her future, but we don't 
know John's or Carl's. Therefore spend the time in praying for and 
instructing them in the right way, instead of weeping selfishly over 
our angel spirit. If she knew that we ever shed a tear over her, 
what would her language be? — "Don't, dear papa and mamma, cry 
for me ! You don't know how happy I am here, and what nice 
things the Saviour tells me and gives me all the time. Try and 
bear my absence just as you ought, and then come up here where 
I am!" 

In a letter to her own sympathizing father and mother Airs. 

Hurst partly discloses the deeps through which each sought to 

aid the other : 

August 6. — Mr. Hurst bears it better than I do, but sometimes 
he feels like giving up entirely. She became such a pet of his through 
her sickness. . . . Nothing but time can soften this grief. 

Again he writes to Mrs. Hurst : 

Ox Steamer Dagmar, August 20. 
I know you still grieve for our precious angel Clara. I feel that 
heaven is doubly attractive to us. and that we should rather rejoice 

Christian Consolation 187 

to know that no power can take her from her high estate, and that 
our meeting her again, if we are faithful to Christ, is certain, when 
that would not have been the case if we had gone and left her to 
fight life's battle alone. I have seen so many tombs of children, and 
of princes, since I left home, that I feel that our lot has been the 
lot of parents ever since the world began ; only we have the hope 
that multitudes of parents have not — of knowing that our dear one 
is with her Saviour. 

Saint Petersburg, x\ugust 23. 
No grave was so touching as that of a little daughter of the 
present Emperor Alexander II, who was but six months younger 
than our angel in heaven. How her image stands before me ! I gaze 
on little girls in the streets until I lose sight of them, and think of 
Clara, and that she is happy. Let us not weep, hard as it is to desist. 
She is above all suffering. Dr. Stevens's letter comes right home to 
me more than any we have received. He says our dear Clara hovers 
over us, and is a ministering spirit. It seems to me sometimes that 
I can almost hear our sweet Clara talking to me as she used to do. 
When we come to die we shall not have to be anxious about her 
future; it will sweeten our own death to know that we shall soon 
be with her. 

1 88 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

The Translator 

The German Exegete. — The Swiss Historian. — The Dutch Defender 

Parallel with and helpful to his work as teacher during his 
two years in Bremen and his first year in Frankfort was the 
congenial yet often difficult task of translating three important 
works from the German into English. These were the Com- 
mentary of Lange on the Epistle to the Romans, Hagenbach's 
History of the Christian Church in the Eighteenth and Nine- 
teenth Centuries, and Van Oosterzee's Apologetical Lectures 
on John's Gospel. 

While still pastor at Staten Island he had agreed with Dr. 
Philip Schaff, the editor in chief of the translation of Lange's 
Commentary, to translate the Epistle to the Romans and to 
furnish the homiletical notes to be drawn from various sources. 
Soon after making this arrangement in the spring of 1866 he 
jotted down a comparative forecast for this new undertaking : 

From April 1 to August 1 I must translate 200 pages of Lange. 
There are 17 weeks and 85 working days. This would be 2V2 pages 
for every working day. May God help me to complete my task ! 

More than three years later he added to the above : 

This enterprise was not finished until 1869. So much for plans. 

He wrote at intervals, using the latest available editions of 
Lange's work and sending installments from time to time as 
they accumulated to the hand of the learned and able general 
editor. Dr. Schaff wrote him frequently on points where 
consultation became necessary and desirable. On November 
20, 1867, he says: 

Philip Schaff 189 

I do not wonder that you call it the hardest work of your life. 
I find it very difficult myself to translate Lange. But I am sure 
we shall never regret the labor spent upon it. It will be a standard 
Commentary for a long time. 

And again on September 12, 1868: 

If I get through Romans and John (which has been thrown upon 
me by the sudden death of my friend Dr. Yeomans — a severe shock 
to me !) safe and sound, it will be almost a miracle. If I had nothing 
else to do, I might manage Lange, but I have to labor besides for 
the support of a large family. The printer is now working on the 
first chapter of Romans and complains dreadfully of the copy. But 
I cannot help it. It is a terrible job all around, which requires special 
grace to carry through. 

On October 26 he says : 

Your translation improves greatly as it goes on. You evidently 
have grown into the work. I find now little to correct, but much 
to add to Lange and occasionally by the way of dissent. If we 
carry the volume through as commenced, I think we will give to the 
public a Commentary full of valuable matter and not easily to be 
superseded. You may go on with your additions to the Homiletical 
Department, which I think are very valuable. Cull the richest fruits 
from the English and American fields of labor and make it exhaustive. 

Dr. Hurst, with a sigh of relief that can almost be heard 
from the written lines, reaches the end of this work on Satur- 
day, February 13, 1869: 

At 12 minutes before 12 m. this day, I finished the last word 
of Lange's Commentary (Romans), on which I had been engaged 
just three years. 

It came from Scribners' press late in 1869. From Dr. 
Schaff came in 1870 these words of comment and commen- 
dation : 

The Commentary has been well received by the press except the 
Methodist Quarterly Review. You were no doubt as much surprised 
as I at the fierce attack of Dr. Whedon, which is as unfair as it is 

190 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

unkind. I am sure my dear friend Dr. McClintock was grieved at 
it. I attended his funeral yesterday at Saint Paul's Church and was 
moved to tears. He was a loyal and true Methodist, and yet in hearty 
.sympathy with all other hranches and interests of Christ's kingdom. 
That is the style of man I admire and love. I deeply mourn over 
his departure, but God's holy will be done. 

Romans is doing well, though none of the Epistles sell so ex- 
tensively as the Gospels. Dr. Whedon's criticism may have interfered 
with its sale in the Methodist Church, but I trust not permanently. 
All the other reviewers spoke in high praise about it as being upon 
the whole the most valuable Commentary on Romans in existence. 
If you are anxious for more work, I am quite willing to let you 
take some Old Testament book not yet disposed of, which are I and 
2 Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, and six of the Minor Prophets. 
None of these have appeared yet in German. 

His translation of Hagenbach's extensive and popular 
Church History dates for its inception as far back as January 
1, 1864, when he consented to undertake it in joint labor with 
Dr. Bernard H. Nadal, then preaching in Philadelphia. Sub- 
sequently, after going to Europe and in view of Dr. Xadal's 
inability to fulfill his purpose of so large devotion of time 
to literary labor while engrossed in the cares of a large church. 
Dr. Hurst by a mutually satisfactory arrangement assumed 
the completion of the work. Dr. Nadal's portion of the work 
appears in Chapters I to VII inclusive, IX and a part of X in 
the first volume, and parts of XVI and XVII of the second. 
This long labor was finished in June, 1868, and the two 
octavo volumes appeared in 1869. 

For several items of progress in this work his Journal can 
be consulted for 1864, January 1, 4, 9, 31 and February 20, 
the last-named entry announcing his discontinuance of the 
translating, because the Clarks of Edinburgh were printing 
another translation made by W. L. Gage and J. H. W. Stuck- 
enberg under the title of German Rationalism. After his 
removal to Bremen he resumed the work of translation in 
harmony with the wishes of the distinguished author and 

Hagenbach and Van Oosterzee 191 

professor at Basel and under agreement for its publication 
by Charles Scribner. He wrote to Dr. William Nast, May 25, 

I can have Hagenbach ready for the press in two months, if 

This work of a thousand pages is rounded out by a chapter 
from the hand of the translator called "Most Recent History 
and Present State of the Church in Europe," giving in the 
space of twenty pages a condensed view of the ten preceding 
years of European church life. 

His translation of the Apologetical Lectures of J. J. Van 
Oosterzee on the Gospel of John from the German edition 
brought before the English and American public four of the 
strong and popular lectures of the scholarly and progressive, 
yet evangelical and conservative Professor of Utrecht in his 
masterly defense of the fourth gospel, delivered in the Odeon 
at Amsterdam in 1866. He completed this work in December, 
1868, added some notes of his own, and it was published by 
the Clarks of Edinburgh in 1869. He had the pleasure of 
acquaintance with Dr. Van Oosterzee, with whom he carried 
on for several years an interesting correspondence. 

A letter from Mrs. Hurst to her sister, Mrs. Snow, on 
November 9, 1869. refers to these three works of the busy 
man, her husband: 

I suppose you see by the papers that Romans of Lange's Com- 
mentary is out, and that Hagenbach's Church History is now being 
printed. You have no idea what a relief it is to have three large 
books, or the manuscript, out of the house. When I think it over 
I don't see how Mr. Hurst ever got through with it, and then 
that book, too, on John's Gospel, all crowded into three years. I don't 
believe he will ever undertake such an amount of work again. 
Romans was so very difficult, and also the homiletical additions 
which he made, but the New York papers are giving due credit 
and great praise for the scholarly manner in which he carried it 

192 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

out. Hagenbach's Church History was stereotyped over here, and 
the plates sent to Mr. Scribner. 

The History of Rationalism had been his passport into the 
world of letters. These three translations brought him into 
intimate relations with three leading theological minds of the 
Continent in exegesis, in history, and in biblical criticism, and 
bound him in the ties of lifelong affection to Dr. Philip Schaff. 
This long and wearing grapple with the German language, 
especially with the knotty type of Professor Lange's Romans, 
gave him a firm hold and an easy conquest in all his later fre- 
quent use of the literature of the Fatherland and in his con- 
versation, his preaching, and presiding in their own tongue, 
among the Germans, who loved him as one of their own. 

Death of McClintock and Nadal 193 

The Professor 

At Drew 

On December 13, 1869, John H. Vincent, then Secretary of 
the Sunday School Union, wrote Dr. Hurst: 

Will you come home at the close of the five years in Germany? 
To what will you come — a presidency? a professorship? an editor- 
ship? a pastorship? I think we must make you editor of the Quar- 
terly Review. But God has led you and he still leads you. 

The path which, upon the call of the church, he had entered 
when he left the local pastorate to engage in the broader 
pastorate of training young ministers in Germany for their 
lifework, was a straight one to a similar but higher and longer 
service in the Drew Theological Seminary at Madison, New 
Jersey. This institution was in its infancy, having first opened 
in the fall of 1867. The cultured, eloquent, mighty McClin- 
tock, with the help of a few strong associates, had given the 
young Seminary a worthy prestige, when on March 4, 1870, 
he dropped earth's toil and entered into rest, to be followed 
two months later by Professor Bernard H. Nadal. Midway 
between McClintock's crowning and his own, on April 2, Dr. 
Nadal wrote to Dr. Hurst : 

My dear Friend and Brother: Before this letter reaches you, 

you will have heard of the death of our dear friend, Dr. McClintock. 

Indeed, you must know it while I write. We who are left in the 

Faculty of "Drew" are concerned as to who shall be our colleague 

in Dr. McClintock's place, not as president, but as professor. I 

have proposed you to the other members of the Faculty, and I think 

it quite probable they may agree with me; at least as probable as 

the contrary. Now, in confidence, how do you feel? What would 

194 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

you do if the place were offered you? Would you be willing to take 
the chair of Practical Theology? 

My plan is to have Foster made president. He has more influence 
with Mr. Drew than any other man in the church and can secure 
farther endowment as no one else could. Perhaps to accomplish 
certain ends it might be needful for me to take Foster's chair of 
Dogmatics, let him take the Practical, and give you my place (His- 
tory). If need were, would that suit you? Of course, these things 
pledge nothing. 

While pondering the question of duty as to the acceptance 
of a chair at Drew if it should be tendered him by the trustees, 
he received a message from one who had with keen and 
practiced eye taken the measure of his future service, General 
Fisk, at Paris, saying : 

I cannot think it best for you to go to Drew just yet. You are 
No. I at Capua now. Rome will come in time. 

His election to the chair of Historical Theology, for which 
he had named his friend, Charles W. Bennett, took place 
November 15, 1870, at a meeting of the trustees held in Jersey 
City, and was accepted six weeks later in a letter to Bishop 
Simpson. After finishing his fifth year in the German work 
and having made his trip to the Holy Land, he closed his rela- 
tions to the school in Frankfort, packed his books and other 
earthly goods, and with his wife, his two sons and infant 
daughter Helen, crossed the Atlantic, leaving Bremen August 
12, arriving in New York the 25th. On September 3 he 
preached at the corner stone laying of the new church in 
dear Passaic. In the early fall he was settled in his new home 
on the beautiful campus at Madison and on opening day spoke 
to the assembled friends and patrons of the Seminary. Here 
for nine years he directed and stimulated the students of Drew 
in their efforts to gain such a view of the development of the 
Christian church as should be a perpetual inspiration to patient 

Professor at Drew 195 

and successful labor and a safeguard from the errors which 
here and there have marred its record. His colaborer in the 
Faculty, and successor in the Presidency, Dr. Buttz, says : 

His work in this important department was marked with great 
success. His professorial life was one of joy to him and of profit 
to all his students. There are those who will recall him with ten- 
derness as their professor and president at Drew, unfolding to them 
in vivid language the story of the Christian church and stimulating 
them to higher ideals of scholarship and usefulness. They will 
acknowledge that the touch of Professor Hurst is still upon them and 
that his influence upon them for good is still abiding. 

Hundreds of preachers felt his personal touch and cherish 
fond memories of his class room and more private talks and 
helps. A few expressions will show in some degree the spirit 
and method of his teaching and intercourse with his students. 
William McKendree Hammack, of the Baltimore Conference, 
who was at Drew when Dr. Hurst first came, says : 

We found in him a kind and sympathizing friend, ever ready to 
listen and offer wise and kind counsel. His pleasant smile, genial 
spirit, and kind words have ever been a pleasant memory to me. 

Dr. Daniel Halleron, of the Newark Conference, writes : 

In May, 1872, I came to Madison for the purpose of entering Drew 
Seminary. A perfect and bewildered stranger, I left my wife at the 
hotel, where we did not wish to stay long, for financial reasons. 
I entered the campus not knowing whom to see. A man with spade 
in his hand, cowhide boots, trousers tucked in, an old coat and an 
older hat, approached and inquired whom I wanted. I told him 
my errand. I suppose I looked out of sorts. He smiled and patiently 
listened, then in a singularly sympathetic manner said, "Brother, 
don't be disturbed, matters will come out all right." What was my 
amazement in a few days to discover that the man was Dr. Hurst. 
He was patient, sympathetic, genial, scholarly, but could be as firm 
as Gibraltar. 

Dr. John A. Gutteridge, of 77, says : 

196 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

He was always ready to preach for the smallest congregations. 
The Sunday evenings he spent in our little home in Livingston after 
he had preached will never be forgotten. I can see him now take 
his shoes off on a cold winter's night and put his feet in the 
oven on a log of wood we had put there to warm for that purpose. 
He was so simple in his ways, so like one of the family, that I 
fear we shall never see his like again. 

Dr. W. H. Rider, of Southern California Conference, tells 
of a walk with him, a habit which marked the beloved Tholuck 
in the days at old Halle : 

He was to me one of the greatest helpers of my life. One day, 
after his lecture to the class in history, he invited me to take a walk 
with him. We started toward Morristown. Say what you will about 
distances and strides ! We talked about specializing in study. He 
said he believed in it and mentioned exegesis as most inviting. In 
this connection he said, "I like language and history, but I do not 
believe the Lord ever intended that I should study mathematics." 

Another similar incident is related by Professor W. W. 
Martin, of the New York East Conference : 

My custom was to walk around the Triangle, one side of which 
was bordered by the Morristown Road. On this evening I was 
walking slowly and heard a kind voice say, "Good evening. Brother 
Martin !" Turning, I saw Dr. Hurst stepping up by my side. We 
walked on together, he going with me around the Triangle. I seemed 
to be talking a great deal to him all the way; but the fact was, 
for every word I uttered he spoke sentences. He made me companion 
with the great thinkers of the past, with the leading spirits of the 
German universities. They were made to appear very near to me, 
older friends pointing out the deeds of those who had among men, 
with fidelity and sacrifice, served our Lord the Christ. I have often 
thought how in that walk Bishop Hurst completely blotted out his 
own personality that he might surround me with the mighty workers 
of the past and present. The memory of the walk lives to-day. 

He kept himself in constant touch with current thought 
bearing on his special themes, and in place of a regular lecture 
he would sometimes spring a pleasant surprise upon his class 

His Gentleness and Strength 197 

by treating them to a delightful talk on some topic or book or 
author. Professor Faulkner, of Drew, speaks in the Methodist 
Review for May and June, 1904, of his "interesting lectures 
in the old northeast room in Mead Hall and the still more 
interesting excursions into the paths of history, biography, 
and literature." Dr. John D. Hammond, of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. South, says : 

He was one of the most popular and beloved teachers I have ever 
known. His gentleness and strength combined not only to win to 
him all hearts, but also to give him dominion over all minds. 

198 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

The President 

At Drew 

The election of President Randolph S. Foster to the office of 
bishop at the General Conference of 1872 took away from 
"Drew" its official head. Six months later, on November 29, 
Bishop Foster resigned both his professorship and the presi- 
dency. The trustees, already knowing his power as a teacher 
and confident also of his administrative ability, on May 14, 
1873, elected Dr. Hurst president of the Seminary. The ac- 
ceptance of this office added greatly to his labors, for he 
retained his professorship and performed the duties belonging 
to it to the full, save during the period when imminent financial 
peril, threatening the life of the institution, midway in his 
administration drove him to frequent and long journeys, and 
some one of his colleagues, usually Dr. Kidder, would act as 
his substitute. 

Differing in temperament and method from the two presi- 
dents, the scholarly McClintock and the philosophical Foster, 
who had laid strong, broad, and deep foundations in the first 
six years of "Drew." he admirably united with his scholarly 
labors in this office for seven years the practical sagacity of 
the man of affairs coping successfully with each rising emer- 
gency ; secured the preservation and perfecting of the harmony 
existing between the members of the Faculty; the steady ad- 
vancement in the grade of scholarship among the ever-increas- 
ing body of students, both for entrance and during the courses ; 
an effective junction of the interests of the school with the 
mind and heart of the adjacent Conferences of its patronizing 

From photograph by Garber. 


While President of Drew Theological Seminary. 

An Encounter with Bishop Ames 


territory, intensified and extended to the whole church by his 
heroic restoration of the lost endowment; and a constant 
pastoral watchfulness over the physical, social, moral, and 
spiritual well-being of the young men who came from every 
part of the country and from lands beyond the seas. His rep- 
resentations of the Seminary before the Annual Conferences 
were invariably well received. In 1874 he said to the Newark 
Conference : 

Brethren, we earnestly ask your prayers. It may seem an easy 
task. Not so. I envy you your fields of labor. You are welcome 
to our homes at any time. Search out young men. Don't let them 
go out until they are fully ready. We want earnest men, converted 
men, called men, serious men — men who know what they are pro- 

Supplemental to his public addresses in behalf of the school 
he wrote and published a telling circular of sixteen pages en- 
titled "Should a College Alumnus attend a Theological Semi- 
nary?" In this he gives five reasons why he should, and 
answers six fallacious objections. An incident which oc- 
curred while he was visiting the Baltimore Conference in 1874 
is vividly described by Dr. George V. Leech : 

Bishop Ames occupied the chair. As the admission of a young 
man, even on trial, was always regarded as a vital matter, all the 
information possible was sought. Hence a custom had grown up 
of informally calling on the professors or presidents of the institu- 
tions in which the candidate had studied, if such were at hand. 
Such testimony, when accessible, was not only sought, but was a 
very dominant factor in the decision of the case. A young man, 
whose name was before the Conference, had been a student at Drew. 
Dr. Hurst, who happened to be present, had duly represented him. 
Bishop Ames, perhaps unaware of the custom prevailing in this 
Conference, and well known as insistent on exact regularity of 
procedure, as soon as Dr. Hurst had finished, made some remarks 
that seemed to reflect on such outside interference, as out of place 
in affairs that belonged to the Conference alone. He had scarcely 
finished when the Doctor rose again. I shall never forget his appear- 
ance. A man of medium stature, of usually gentle and benevolent 

200 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

countenance, his eyelids drooping heavily over eyes that were pale 
blue, I anticipated a mild-mannered apology for his action as well 
intended, though thus publicly and officially disapproved. I heard 
nothing of the kind. He seemed to rise to a higher stature than 
before; those languid-looking eyes seemed to have a new and wide- 
awake expression. First came a few well-chosen words of explana- 
tion of his course, as suggested by others and as justified by the 
custom of the Conference as well as by the proprieties of the case; 
then those eyelids were lifted, a very fire seemed to blaze, and the 
speaker finished by informing the massive and dignified presiding 
officer that he understood his rights in such matters and that he 
allowed neither bishop nor anyone else to reflect on him for such 
action ; he followed duty alone and was content. He then quietly 
took his seat. It was the end of the matter. A thrill of admiration 
for the mild-mannered man who had thus courageously confronted 
a bishop, who was rather feared by many ministers, ran through the 
Conference. Bishop Ames, though at times abrupt and combative, 
as is well known, looked quietly round as though the incident was 
satisfactorily closed, and proceeded to put the vote. The young man. 
if memory serves me aright, was unanimously admitted. It was a 
very easy matter, for one who did not know the real John F. Hurst, 
to misjudge his character for courage. He was utterly unassuming. 
His appearance and general manner of address gave no special 
indication of either great intellectual power and learning or of unusual 
courage. In reality he was the very embodiment of all of these. 

On the last day of 1875 he served as one of the bearers at 
the funeral of the centenarian preacher, Henry Boehm, at 
Woodrow, Staten Island, and in September, 1876, he assisted 
at the funeral services of Bishop Janes, to whom he was de- 
votedly attached. 

His fraternal address, as the representative of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, at the Triennial National Council of the 
Congregational Church at Detroit in 1877, was a m ost happy 
combination of good feeling with a scholarly and appreciative 
tracing of Congregational antecedents and history, and of 
parallels as well as contrasts in the honorable and successful 
growth of both Calvinistic and Arminian churches. Beginning 
with a blandness that bordered well on pleasantry, it closes 

The Preacher's Study 201 

with an eloquent appeal of a clarion note for a solid union of 
forces for the battle to preserve the Sabbath, to defeat intem- 
perance, to resist infidelity, and to check the political aggres- 
sion of Roman Catholicism. He preached frequently during 
his entire connection with "Drew," visiting the camp meetings 
at seashore, in the forest, and in the mountains. Of the 
Wyoming, Pennsylvania, camp meeting of 1878 an eyewitness, 
Rev. E. W. Caswell, reports : 

Bishop Hurst and Bishop McCabe mingled among the multitude. 
The face of Bishop Hurst shone with the light of heaven. All 
who saw him on that occasion knew that his scholarly mind was 
illumined with the love of a great heart. 

On December 18, 1878, he delivered a powerful address at 
the Educational Convention held in Syracuse. He found time 
to write and deliver an address on "Pastoral Habits" before 
the Newark District Conference, full of meaty suggestions 
and of fundamental principles for sermon-making. Here are 
two or three of its gems : 

The study should be as undisturbed by an intruder as was Galileo's 
tower in the moment of the discovery of a new planet, or the studio 
of Michelangelo when at work on his Moses. ... A mechanical 
division of the hours, such as we sometimes find in the books on 
ministerial study, has about as much common sense in it as a man's 
laying down rules for the smiling of a child, the singing of a 
bird, the enjoyment of Niagara, or the absorbed looking at the 
Sistine Madonna. . . . We must remember that we are creatures of 
inspiration as well as habit, and when the fire is on one, or rather, 
in him, the timing of himself, the fixing an exact limit to his 
work, is like a Wellington ordering a halt in the hot midst of 
Waterloo, or Isaac Newton laying aside his calculation of the law 
of gravitation because, forsooth, his watch is telling him he is already 
four minutes beyond his allotted time. 

From the impressions made on those who came near to him 
during his career as president of this school of the prophets we 
cull a few. Professor Faulkner writes : 

202 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

When I came here [Drew] as a student and bashful boy, in 1878, 
I was told that I might find him somewhat severe and reserved, but, 
on the contrary, the first time I called on him I found him pleasant 
and friendly. . . . One time he made a great speech in the chapel 
on Ministerial Devotion. He said, "Bury yourselves in your work, 
and earthly honors will take care of themselves." 

The Rev. X. L. Heroy, of y j"/, says: 

Undecided what step next to take after my graduation from col- 
lege, I wrote to Dr. Hurst for advice as to taking a course at 
Drew, suggesting that I was without means. His prompt reply was, 
"Come right on ; the Lord will provide for all whom he calls to 
the ministry." I found out subsequently that this was the spirit in 
which he invited one and all of the impecunious candidates for the 

The Rev. E. F. Barlow, of New York Conference, says : 

The trait in Bishop Hurst which impressed me most was his 
attention to the individual. The few times I met him he gave me his 
thought as though I was the only man. So, it seemed to me, he did 
with any subject or matter. During the time of its consideration 
it absorbed all his thought — his soul. 

From Dr. S. O. Royal, of the Cincinnati Conference: 

As a young man, already consecrated to the work of the ministry, 
but undecided as yet whether I should dare to enter a theological 
seminary, to continue there the principle of self-support by which 
I had put myself through college, these words were an inspiration 
to my faith, and ended my inward debatings. In his first letter to 
me he said: "Do not remain away from here in order to teach. 
Come right along without any work in view, and trust in the Lord 
to open your way. I will see that you get the aid of a loan or 
an outright gift of enough to meet your board the first year. But 
leave all these things. Provide as well as you can, and leave the 
rest for the Lord and vour friends here to manage." In a few weeks 
another letter from him announced that the aid suggested above had 
been secured, and I decided at once upon the path wmich changed the 
direction of my entire life. On another occasion at chapel exercise, 
when a peculiar temptation was haunting me, his words drove away 
the tempter, the air cleared, and courage came back. It was on this 

J. L. Gilder's Description 203 

wise. He said: "Some of you are here by the charities of strangers 
whose interest is in the cause, and not in you personally. Think none 
the less of yourselves on that account. Your Father in heaven has 
many children, and different ways of caring for them. Some are 
provided with abundant supplies for earning their own support, and 
others are for the time assisted by the generosities of those whom 
the Lord has made the stewards of his bounty. By whatever means 
our bread comes,, it is from him." Such a spirit as those words 
manifested exerted an influence for which earthly measurements 
are utterly insufficient. Eternity alone can reveal and reward them. 

The Rev. J. L. Gilder's description in 1877 is: 

To the uninitiated President Hurst, from his very youthful appear- 
ance, would be the least likely to be regarded as at the head of the 
institution. We opine he is really older than his appearance indi- 
cates. He is rather under the medium size, but well proportioned 
and compacted. The face is oval, with symmetrical features; the 
countenance serene and placid — the very index of culture, piety, and 
benevolence. In manner Dr. Hurst is calm and undemonstrative: 
in speech, unimpassioned and deliberate, but perspicuous and im- 
pressive. He is a good organizer, exhibits executive ability of a 
high order, is free from all taint of egotism or dogmatism, and 
admirably well supports the dignity of his position. 

A Crisis, A Stand, A Victory 

From the opening of the Seminary in November, 1867, 
until December, 1875, the salaries of the professors and other 
current expenses were quite amply provided for by the annual 
payment of $17,500, the interest on Mr. Daniel Drew's per- 
sonal bond for $250,000. The purchase of the Gibbons estate, 
with its mansion and beautifully wooded ninety acres, the 
transformation of the buildings for the new purposes of the 
school, the erection of four houses for the homes of the pro- 

204 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

fessors, and other improvements of the realty, were the gift 
of Mr. Drew, whose cash paid for all these, involving the 
outlay of about $250,000. In March, 1876, while the life at 
"Drew" was at the flood, the professors working with enthu- 
siasm, the classes larger than at any previous time, and the 
prospect fair for steady growth in every department, suddenly 
Mr. Drew's securities or investments shrank to merely nominal 
values. The failure was complete and hopeless. President 
Hurst promptly visited the aged capitalist and generous giver. 
The pathos of that personal meeting between the strong and 
hopeful man and the tremulous, crushed, despairing financier 
can be easily imagined. 

The result of his report of the situation to the Faculty and 
conference with them, and the resolute courage shared with 
him by every professor, formed the theme of his talk to the 
students one of those dark mornings in chapel. The Rev. W. 
H. York, of the Central New York Conference, reports the 
president on this occasion : 

I have recently had an interview with Mr. Drew. He told me 
he could no longer pay the interest on the bonds he had made for 
the endowment of Drew Theological Seminary. I looked him straight 
in the eye and said, "Mr. Drew, the report of such a failure as 
this will go around the world." "I know it, I have thought of it, 
but I can't help it." Now, I am glad to say that not one member 
of the Faculty is going to leave his post, though not one of us 
knows where his salary is coming from. 

Early and most helpfully in this campaign for money came 
a princely gift from the president of the National Shoe and 
Leather Bank of New York, Mr. Andrew V. Stout, who en- 
dowed the Chair of Church History with $40,000. The 
writer remembers the gleam of joy that overspread the face 
of the president as one evening, in the midst of a busy hour of 
dictation and taking of notes for correspondence, he paused 
to tell some particulars of that banker's heart-cheering act: 

Hope, Humor, and Work 205 

I had made no direct personal appeal to Brother Stout. He knew 
the situation and our need. I was his guest for the night in my 
canvass for funds, and knew I was among friends. While we 
sat in his home, each quietly reading and resting, he turned toward 
me and taking his pencil wrote on the margin of the paper he had 
been reading the bare figures with the significant mark before them 
— $40,000. 

It is doubtful whether the weary president slept as well or 
as long as usual that night, but it is absolutely sure that his 
rest was sweeter. While in the straits for money the pro- 
fessors for a time resorted to the plan of exchanging with 
one another their own promissory notes, which with some 
collateral security were honored by advances at the local banks. 

Another professorship was secured through the agency of 
Professor Buttz from the heirs of the Honorable George T. 
Cobb, of Morristown, who endowed the Chair of Xew Testa- 
ment Exegesis, by the gift of land in New York city on Tenth 
Avenue between Xinetv-second and Ninetv-third Streets, 
valued at $40,000. This was not immediately productive. 
On July 8, 1877. Dr. Hurst made this note on the back of the 
stubs of his bank-check book : 

My salary due by the Seminary is chiefly paid up for the quarter 
ending June I. Professor Buttz has $100 paid on his to that time. 
This week I propose to pay one or two hundred around to the pro- 
fessors. My salary is the only one warranted by an endowment, 
though I have intended to distribute it equally. 

At the General Conference of 1876, where he led the delega- 
tion from Newark Conference, he let no time or opportunity 
pass without making it tell for his cause. To Mrs. Hurst he 
sent among many others these messages of hope, of humor, 

and of work : 

Baltimore. April 30. 
Mine is to be the immortality, if any, of making good the money 
that Wall Street has swallowed up. 

206 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

May 8, Monday. — I preached yesterday in the Westminster Pres- 
byterian Church in the A. M. and Goodsell there at night. That is the 
church where Poe is buried. There are many very old graves in 
the yard, and a man lives under the church among the old tombstones. 
I should not wonder if his table is a marble slab. He says he has 
a more quiet audience than the preacher in the church. 

This relates to a banquet at the Carrollton given by Mr. 
John B. Cornell : 

May 13. — Well, the good supper is gone. One hundred and thirteen 
guests present. Speeches by Bishop Simpson, General Fisk, Buckley, 
Bishop Peck, Dr. A. C. George, Professor Wells, and myself. A 
great and good time. No money was asked for. but I know it will 
come — at least one professorship — in the time to come. 

Dr. Hurst's visitations and addresses to the Conferences 
took on a wider circle of travel and a more appealing tone as 
he strove to lav his burden on sympathizing hearts and helpful 
hands. In 1877 he said : 

Ten years ago the Seminary was established. It did seem that if 
ever an institution was established to move on with ease and com- 
fort and uniform success, this was one. But it was not so to be. 
God had wiser thoughts. The magnetic hand of McClintock was 
soon to be palsied in death : his ringing voice soon to be hushed in 
the silence of the past and the grave. Nadal, the earnest, the pure, 
the chaste, was soon to stand beside his brother in the ranks of the 
bloodwashed and redeemed. Thus the institution, in the early breath 
of its springtime, was compelled to pay the penalty of its rich and 
wealthy endowment of intellect by following its first princes to the 
grave, and to depend upon more moderate capacities for its subse- 
quent development. But it had other penalties to pay. Mr. Drew 
gave his bond for the endowment fund, on which he paid interest, 
until December, 1875. From that time the Seminary has been the 
child of the whole Methodist Church. 

On May 18, 1877, Professors Strong. Kidder, Buttz, and 
Miley sent him this written message of brotherly congratula- 
tion : 

The Story of Drew 207 

We, the Professors of Drew Theological Seminary, desire to 
express to you as its President, in this frank and simple manner, 
our high appreciation of your skill and perseverance in the task 
of securing the current support and the reendowment of this insti- 
tution. We hereby assure you of our best wishes and prayers for 
your success in the farther prosecution of the work that lies before 
you. and also of our hearty cooperation in your plans and efforts for 
placing this school for ministerial education on a solid financial 

A year later the story of "Drew's" birth and work, of its 
brief and almost tragic past, and of its possible future, was 
told in varying phrase but with unfailing faith and unflagging 
zeal ; and this was the picture he drew : 

There runs by Madison the old colonial road leading from New 
York to Morristown. Over the snows of this historical highway 
Washington's invincible little army passed with bare and bleeding 
feet many times. About forty-five years ago a gentleman and lady 
of large wealth and high social position, originally from Georgia, 
were riding over this road, and came to a magnificent forest of stately 
trees and winding roads of rare beauty. The lady, his wife, greatly 
admired the trees. Afterward she expressed her admiration many 
times, and her husband resolved to build a house upon it. He remem- 
bered a baronial estate in England, which he believed extremely 
tasteful and beautiful. That became his model. He erected a mag- 
nificent mansion. The work was all done by hand. The locks and 
hinges on the doors were of the most superb and lasting workman- 
ship. The basement was so arranged as to be, one part a vast wine 
cellar, and the other rooms for his troop of servants. The floors 
were covered with the best carpets that Persian and French looms 
could produce. The walls were ornamented with the best pictures 
that wealth could gather from the Continental artists. The grounds 
were laid out with exquisite taste, and ornamented with rare flowers. 
He had two great buildings, additionally, erected — one for his full- 
blood horses, the other for his carriages. He finished his work and 
walked his marble halls, and could say. as he looked through the 
vistas of his beautiful grove, "Is not this great Babylon which I 
have builded?" 

He was a skeptic, and had builded much more wisely than he knew. 
He had no sympathy with any church, and would not give for great 

2o8 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

charitable purposes. One day a plain Christian woman climbed up 
his palace steps and asked him for a subscription for the new Meth- 
odist church in the town. He refused. As she descended his palace 
steps she turned to him and said, "This house you have built will 
some day belong to our church and preachers of the gospel." She 
was as true a prophetess as Miriam, sister of Moses. In a few years 
the owner died; his wife died; no one lived in the place. All the 
furniture remained, but the spiders spun their webs and the bats 
began to seek shelter in its stately halls. In 1866 Bishop Janes 
visited it; went through it from cellar to garret; and on his recom- 
mendation, one May morning in 1867, at about 8 o'clock, it was 
bought by Mr. Drew, and was paid for in cash on the spot. 

The building and grounds proved a perfect adaptation to their 
uses. The wine cellar is our storehouse for coal. The suite of 
bedrooms, some twelve in number, stretching from wing to wing, 
are the perfect alcoves of our magnificent library. The parlor hap- 
pens to be my lecture room in Church History; the dancing hall is 
now the place where young men study the doctrines of our church; 
the dining hall, whose rich carpet required six men to pull it from 
the room, is now our chapel. The two outbuildings, once the stables 
and the carriage houses, were pulled down, all save the walls, and 
are now the beautiful and comfortable rooms where young Methodist 
full-bloods sleep, eat, and get ready for the work of spreading scrip- 
tural holiness over all these lands. 

Precisely two years ago our endowment failed us. All pledges were 
broken because of the failure of Mr. Drew. It was a bitter hour. 
I have heard of vessels springing a leak, but I have never heard 
of one where the entire hull dropped apart and let the sea in and 
the cargo out, at the mandate of a single cruel wave like this. I 
was brought up on an old-fashioned Maryland farm. The dinner 
was cooked in what we called a Dutch oven. I have known the 
oven to get cracked, but I never had the experience of the whole 
bottom dropping out and letting the dinner into the fire. But, Mr. 
President, we were determined that Drew Seminary should not die. 
We had been placed in charge of that interest, and we felt that the 
church would hold us responsible. For one, I had no share in my 
connection with that interest. I was in Germany at the time, and 
no one knew less of my going than I did. It was no part of my 
plan. I went there ; I believed in it ; I loved its work ; I believe in it 
now. I know its future. So when the crisis came we did not flinch. 

An adaptation from Tennyson closes the story: 

The Victory 209 

"Was there a man dismayed? 
Not though the soldier knew 
Someone had blundered: 
Theirs not to make reply, 
Theirs not to reason why, 
Theirs but to do and die: 
Into the Valley of" — 

Bankruptcy rode that Faculty and 120 students. They are coming out 
again. We have asked the church, not through the prints, but 
privately, for $300,000. We have succeeded in securing $170,000. 
There remains to be subscribed $130,000. For this we are making an 
appeal to the church. 

Of this address, at the West Virginia Conference, Dr. 
George C. Wilding says : 

He profoundly moved the Conference and made a host of new 
friends for Drew Seminary as well as for himself. All of us caught 
a new conception of the right and wrong uses of wealth. 

As the new school year was beginning he sends this mes- 
sage to his loved and revered friend, Dr. William Nast : 

September 17. — I have been very busy with the endowment plan. 
It is growing all the time, and I have little time for study. But the 
better day is coming. 

He skillfully organized and wisely conducted a movement 
in Philadelphia in which Charles Scott was of great assistance 
and by which another professorship was more than amply 
endowed, although it cost him, as he afterward told the 
Preachers' Meeting, many a midnight walk on the streets of 
that city and a broken rest on his return trip to Madison. By 
letters numbering many hundreds and by appeals to the 
preachers at the Conferences he secured another professorship 
as a memorial to Bishop Edmund S. Janes. His large-minded 
and kind-hearted trustees subscribed and gave another pro- 
fessorship, and when other contributions from the Ladies' 


210 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

Endowment Association, the alumni, and many other indi- 
vidual donors had been gathered in, and the president had 
been made bishop, this same Board, who had stood bravely 
with him through the four years of effort for the reendowment, 
did this beautiful act at its meeting in the fall of 1880: 

The Finance Committee reported an endowment of more than 
$310,000 secured, and with simple justice gave the credit of raising 
this vast sum, in a time of unprecedented business depression, chiefly 
to Dr. John F. Hurst. The endowment is a fact, and Dr. Hurst was 
the chief factor in its accumulation. The trustees, however, had not 
failed in their duty, and he would be the last to claim any credit 
due to others. The culmination of interest was reached when, on 
motion of General Fisk, the name of the Trustees' Professorship, 
founded by their gifts, was changed to the "Hurst Professorship." 
If Bishop Hurst had nothing to say, his genial smile was reinforced 
by a tear as he saw that the trustees added personal love to honor 
and respect. 

Professor George R. Crooks, in his address at the twenty- 
fifth anniversary of "Drew," in 1892, said: 

I think that everyone will admit that the President, John F. 
Hurst, was fully equal to the emergency. If other men were dis- 
mayed, he was not. It was proposed to mortgage the property to 
meet immediate expenses ; to this he interposed a very decided nega- 
tive. He believed it to be possible to reendow the school, and to 
that devoted all his strength during a series of years, which, though 
not many when counted, must have seemed to him interminably 
long. It was pathetic to follow President Hurst in his journey from 
Conference to Conference, pleading wherever he went for a cause 
that had been lost but was to be won again. He was pleading with 
a church not too quick to respond to calls for help to maintain 
theological training. He was pleading for an institution which in 
all these years had been regarded as the creation of one man, in a 
certain sense as his property, and not, therefore, an object of church 
sympathy. A little slowly, but quite surely, the transfer of feeling 
was made. The church took Drew Seminary to its heart, adopted 
the school as its own child, and has ever since watched over it 
with a parent's solicitude. By that divine alchemy in which God 
never fails evil has been turned into good; the church has taken the 

Heroic Energy Wins 21 r 

place of a single benefactor; and, while we gratefully cherish Mr. 
Drew's memory, we are satisfied that God has ordered these events 
for the best. The triumph of the heroic President was, however, 
followed by his separation from the Seminary. For as Saul, who 
went out to search for his father's lost property, found a kingdom, 
so he, traveling in much sorrow to recover a lost endowment, found 
a bishopric. 

At the memorial service held at Meadville during the 
Bishops' meeting in May, 1903, Bishop Foss said of this 
achievement and of his presidency : 

The forceful and persistent young president leaped at once into 
the arena to retrieve this great loss and to endow the institution. He 
first of all assumed the payment of all bills, and also the salaries of 
the professors in the Faculty, and went out and begged for money 
with these burdens on his back, and secured more by way of solid 
endowment than had been lost. In this office Bishop Hurst executed 
the various functions with conspicuous success and great intelligence. 

His confrere. Dr. Buttz. who knows more of this period of 
his life than anyone else, bears this testimony : 

His great work at Madison was as president of the institution and 
as the restorer of its endowment. He threw himself into the work 
of restoring the endowment with a heroism and energy that can 
scarcely be overestimated. Drew Theological Seminary was without 
funds. The trustees were to be informed and stimulated, the church 
was to be reached, private benefactions to be secured, and all these 
things were done by him with a master hand. It has been said by 
some, and not, I think, unwisely, that his work in the restoration 
of the endowment of Drew Theological Seminary was the great 
achievement of his life, and the success of that work his greatest 

Bishop McCabe says : 

He did his work so deftly, so swiftly, so thoroughly, that the church 
scarcely felt the jar of that lost endowment, and many thousands of 
our members do not realize to this day that that grand institution 
of sacred learning was ever in peril at all. 

2i2 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 


The President-Professor 

Vacation Glimpses 

The summer months during his term at Drew were usually 
passed in quiet either at home in the lovely grove at Madison, 
or at some retreat like Martha's Vineyard, with his family ; 
but always with some serious work on hand, either a new 
book about to be published or a series of contributions to the 
press, usually both. In 1873 he took charge of the pulpit of 
Pacific Street Church in Brooklyn for the summer, while its 
pastor, Dr. W. S. Studley, was in Europe, but managed in 
July to take one of his favorite pedestrian tours for a few 
weeks in the mountains of Virginia. His company were Dr. 
Edward Eggleston and Dr. James M. Buckley, then pastor of 
Hanson Place Church, Brooklyn, who says : 

The tour included a large part of Virginia. Cholera was raging 
in Greenville, Tennessee. Refugees from there came up to Glade 
Springs. Unfortunately I was attacked by it, and was nursed by 
Dr. Hurst and Dr. Eggleston for about two weeks. Subsequently, 
after Dr. Eggleston's engagements had required him to depart, Presi- 
dent Hurst and myself continued our tour. 

Dr. Eggleston wrote in semi-humorous vein : 

The pedestrian and mountain-climber par excellence of our com- 
pany is Dr. Buckley. He is small, light, firmly built, and vigorous. 
Look at his shoes. They are almost large enough for a six-footer, 
broad- so aled, like himself, loose on the feet, firm on the heel, heavy-bot- 
tomed, low-heeled, and lacing tight across the instep. Ornamental ? 
Well, no. But handsome is that handsome does. These shoes have a 
piece of rubber in the shank, an English device to give them elasticity 
under the hollow of the foot. Dr. Hurst has quite a different pair of 
"shoemaker's ponies." Made in Germany, they are short, stout, heavy- 

Vacations in Virginia and Maine 213 

soled, and remarkable for the hobnails on the bottom. These homely 
hobnailed things have trodden the soil of every European country. 
My own shoes would make delicate music in an Irish shindy. For 
company, seek men congenial, unselfish, and with legs that fail not. 
And for country you want a mountainous one. "White Top," six 
thousand feet high, at the junction of Virginia, North Carolina, and 
Tennessee, and commanding a wonderful landscape, is only fifteen 
miles away. It is time to lace our shoes and strap our knapsacks on 
our backs. I wish the admiring readers of that learned and stout 
octavo known as Hurst's History of Rationalism could have seen the 
illustrious author of it as he bade farewell to civilization, and, clad 
in brown shirt and pantaloons, with hob-nailed shoes and knapsack, 
plunged into the wilderness of Iron Mountain range. 

The trio of tired travelers, including the temporary "in- 
valid," who showed his usual marvelous powers of recupera- 
tion, rested that night in the mountain home of Bird Dinkens, 
their host for two days and guide to the summit of old White 

In the spring and early summer, 1874, he supplied with 
Professor Buttz the pulpit of Saint Paul's, New York, during 
the illness of Dr. Chapman, the pastor, and in July he took a 
brief respite at Mount Desert Island, Maine, in company again 
with Dr. Buckley and J. B. Faulks, of Newark Conference. 
From headquarters at Deacon Clark's, Southwest Harbor, he 
thus writes to Mrs. Hurst : 

July 9. — I have about given up going toward Mount Katahdin. 
I would be five or six days away from telegraph, and I can't do 
that. You may expect this to be my address all the time. Here are 
walks and sails in abundance with great fishing. Buckley and Faulks 
don't want to give me up, but I fear you may be sick, or something 
may happen, while here I can get a telegram in an hour's time. 
This cool sea air is grand for my tired head. To-day we start on 
foot (three of us) for a fourteen miles' walk to the summit of the 
highest mountain. 

12. — I am doing well, getting sea air and bathing every day, and 
am within telegraphic communication with you all the time. You 
have been kind to wish me to take a vacation, and I know I never 

214 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

needed rest more in all my life. How much I love you, as I think 
over your sweet nature and beautiful character, and always devel- 
oping mind. You are always growing more lovely and attractive 
to me. There are many days of joy before us here, and an eternity 
of happiness beyond them. Well, this is poetical, and yet it is the 
language of my heart. I know it is just as much that of yours. The 
morning I wrote you last, Faulks, Buckley, and I started off to visit 
the highest mountain (Green Mountain) on the Island, which we 
reached nearly at night, and where we slept that night. The mountain 
lies on the other side of the Island, so we made half the circuit. 
On the next day we completed the circuit of the Island, making in 
all about 35 miles in the two days. On this day we visited the 
overhanging cliffs above the sea. where the sea birds build their 
nests; the caves which the sea makes in the rocks, and other points 
of interest, with the finale of a rain and fog, and a sail home of 
five miles, with a young man as captain who was courting a farmer's 
daughter and was willing to interrupt his love tryst for a $5 bill. 

The family group in the Madison home gave a glad welcome 
to the third daughter, Blanche, who was born in September, 
1874, and to their third son, Paul, about a year later. 

A common practice with him was to visit the colleges and 
universities during the Commencement season, making ad- 
dresses and preaching baccalaureate sermons. Invitations for 
this service were far more numerous than his time and 
strength would permit him to accept. One of these was to 
the Ohio Wesleyan University in 1876, of which he writes to 
Mrs. Hurst from Columbus, June 1 7 : 

Left Delaware this a. m. The place was wild with joy that Hayes 
is nominated. He was born there. Dr. McCabe married him and 
his wife, and says she is a devoted, open Methodist; and they always 
go to the Methodist church. Good ! I had a most delightful time 
at Dr. McCabe's. Talked three quarters of an hour with the students. 
Reached here at 8:30 and followed a little company to the capitol. 
where I was introduced to Governor Hayes, and congratulated him. 
He is a plain, genial man. I am much pleased with him. 

In 1879. in need of rest as usual from his toilsome year of 
professorial and literary work, and closing his triumphant 

An Outing in Europe 215 

canvass for reendowment, he spent about four months in 
Europe. With Edward S. Ferry and Olin B. Coit as com- 
panions, he sailed from New York on the Bothnia on May 21 
and landed at Queenstown the 31st. A trip through Ireland, 
Scotland, and England gave him a chance to see Cork, Blar- 
ney Castle, Killarney (three days), Muckross Abbey, Gap 
of Drenloe, the three Lakes, Innisfallen Abbey, the home 
of Spenser, Dublin, Londonderry, Giant's Causeway, Belfast, 
Glasgow, Ayr, Edinburgh, Lochs Lomond and Katrine, the 
Trossach valley, the Highlands, Abbotsford, Melrose Abbey, 
the Lake Country, Westmoreland, York, and London. He 
spent a few days in London from June 15 to the 25th. This 
absence from home gave opportunity for more letters to Mrs. 
Hurst, which tell of his summer's wanderings and breathe 
the spirit of this busy but helpful outing: 

June 20. — I have seen here the inside of the Bank of England, 
the Abbey, South Kensington Museum, the Tower, and the book- 
stores. To-day we go to the National Gallery. Yesterday we walked 
through Hyde Park, and saw the homely aristocracy in their gay 
equipages. The only good-looking people we saw were the coachmen. 

22. — This a. m. we went to hear Dean Stanley preach. Immense 
crowd. We got in and had excellent seats, right before him. The 
Dean preached about half an hour on the Prince Imperial's death. 

No. 3 Steffensweg, Bremen-, June 28. 
I had a tedious ride to Bremen from England. On a map you will 
see my course : Vlissingen, Breda, Yenlo, Crefeld, Osnabriick, Miin- 
ster, Bremen. I reached here up. m. and came to Hilmann's Hotel. 
It fairly drew tears to my eyes as I thought of the past. After I 
took breakfast I walked along the old Wall. It was just like Paradise 
itself. The Conference adopted very complimentary resolutions, 
resolved that I take part in their deliberations, and that I have a seat 
beside the Bishop, in the pulpit. All this is very pleasant, and makes 
me think I am not forgotten. Sulzberger said he had been long 
dreaming about me; and all the preachers were just as kind as they 
could be. I am assigned lodgings with Doering. 3 Steffensweg. 
We all take dinner in a Restauration in the Stadt, near Ansgar's 

216 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

church. As I came up for tea to Doering's, I knew every foot of 
the old way. I came through the Faulenstrasse, stopped at Wil- 
helmi's, where we bought the clock. He was out, but his wife remem- 
bered me. Vogt has the grocery store just the same; Stoecker has 
the same dry-goods store yet. Then I came out to the Wall again 
and walked up across the railroad to Steffensweg. How nice every- 
thing looks here ! Very different from what we were permitted to 
have. The sitting room is to the right as you go in. Our bedroom 
is now the dining room. On the left the front room is my sleeping 
room, and back, in the little Jackson room, is Bishop Wiley's room. 
He chose it, because it was away from the street and more quiet. 
I send you a leaf from one of the old five hollies. Two leaves from 
Sulzberger, from dear sweet Clara's grave. 

Roederberg 88, Fraxkfort-ox-Main, July 4. 

On reaching the Friedhof I went directly to the grave. I looked 
at it with such an interest as I have no language to express. Dear 
child ! She is far beyond us all as yet ! I bought the prettiest wreath 
I could find from one of the wreath women who sit on the benches 
to sell them, and laid it on the grave. It touched the rosebush and 
knocked off some fading roses, and I send you some of the leaves. 

July 6. — I am in Frankfort still, you see. I see so much that inter- 
ests me, catching up with all the books at Alt's that have appeared 
in the last eight years, and walking the streets and alleys, that I may 
stay here several days yet. I have consulted a physician here, and 
he recommends me to go to Schwalbach, where I shall go in a few 
days more, and spend two or three weeks. Then I shall go to Switzer- 
land, on my tramp there. I have been out to see the grave of Clara 
each of the three days I have been here, and taken a wreath. Yester- 
day I put on a beautiful basket of flowers. The monument is very 
pretty, and the inscription perfect still. Carl Schurz called on me, 
and I am going to dine with him to-day, with the consul, Mr. Lee. 

9. — I start this A. M. for Berlin, and will take Halle and Leipzig 
on the way. Last night the consul, Mr. Lee, President Hayes's par- 
ticular friend, gave a dinner party for me, at the new hotel, Frank- 
forter Hof, in the new Kaisersstrasse, which runs off from left of 
Hotel d'Angleterre to the depots. 

Leipzig, July 10. 

Here I am in Leipzig, having come on yesterday from Frankfort, 
and reached here at n 130 last night. I visited the Wartburg, where 
Luther translated the Bible and threw the inkstand at the devil's 
head. I shall call on Mr. Gregory here, and get some information 

In Germany and Switzerland 217 

about the University. He is an American from Princeton. Then I 
shall hear three or four of the lectures ; and to-morrow a. m. call at 
Halle and hear three or four more, and go to Berlin, getting there 
Saturday night. I shall stay in Berlin two days and then return to 
Frankfort, and go at once to Schwalbach, and take the Kur. . . . 
Night of July 10. — I have reveled in the old Bookstores. I write 
them in capital initial because of my reverence for them. But I 
buy few books. Don't give yourself much trouble on that score. 
I have heard some of the best lecturers here, and have had a real 
treat: Kahnis, Fricke, Lechler, Delitzsch (son), Luthardt, Delitzsch 
(father), and I have had a wonderful time hearing them. I called 
on Delitzsch, Sr., and had a delightful interview with him. I had 
some talk about the Samaritans, one of my hobbies. He gave me 
much information, and had many books I had not seen. In the A. M. 
I heard lectures and saw the library, and in the afternoon I went 
around among the Paradises (Bookstores). At Brockhaus's I saw a 
wonderful place, and went through their different departments. To- 
morrow I start for Halle, and maybe I shall get to Berlin by night, 
as I shall have less to hear and see than in dear old Halle. It will 
make me sad to be there without seeing Tholuck and Julius Miiller. 

During a short tarry in Berlin at Hotel Rome he met Mr. 

J. B. Cornell and Dr. Charles S. Harrower, of New York. 

After a three weeks' stay at Schwalbach, drinking its famous 

water and writing his Basel address, he writes Mrs. Hurst 

from Rigi, Switzerland : 

August 12. — Well, great changes here, a magnificent hotel, no com- 
petition, big prices, and much impudence. 

Meyringex, Switzerland, August 15. 
I am pretty tired to-night, having walked eight hours, with knap- 
sack. But I will not go to bed without dropping you a few lines. 
I am very well, and my journey is doing me a world of good. You 
can follow me with a map, from Zurich: Zug, Arth, Rigi, Waggis, 
Lucerne, Fliielen, Altorf, Amsteg, Andermatt, Furka, Rhone Glacier, 
Grimsel, Haudeck Falls, Guttannen, and here, in Meyringen. This 
place calls up our delightful visit. They lighted up the Reichenbach 
Falls to-night, and it was a very pretty sight from balcony of hotel. 
We crossed the Furka Pass yesterday, and slept last night at Grimsel 
Hospice, right among the snowdrifts. We snowballed each other 
yesterday, and ate snowballs, too. The inclosed flowers Olin asked 

2i 8 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

me to send to you. He pulled them from right alongside of the snow. 
To-morrow we start for the Grindelwald, and to Interlaken — just 
exactly our route over again. 

Martigny, August 24. 

I am now in Martigny, having reached here after a long 9 hours' 
walk. We came to the same hotel (de la Poste) where we once 
stopped. You remember how old and quaint-looking it was. It was 
an old convent three centuries ago. I think the same people have 
charge of it now as then. 

Geneva, August 29. 

Yesterday we saw the city well. Dr, Stevens was our cicerone. 
He is looking as well as I ever saw him, and has his book on Madame 
de Stael nearly ready. 

From Basel, after his able address in German at the Evan- 
gelical Alliance, he hastens to Clugny, spends a few days at 
Paris (Sorbonne), is at Rouen September 15, in London the 
1 6th, visits Windsor Castle, and the Chnbbs at Chislehurst, 
goes to Cambridge the 22d, and to Oxford and Stratford on 
the 26th. 

Rev. Edward S. Ferry says : 

He always had his plans thoroughly perfected. He knew where 
and how and when each step was to be taken. When we returned 
to London, after a pleasant evening at the home of our minister, 
Mr. Welch, of Philadelphia (an old companion of the Bishop on a 
Nile journey), we went for a night visit to Whitechapel, the work- 
house, the cheap lodging houses, a famous opium joint, and other 
scenes which gave us an idea of London wretchedness and wicked- 
ness. By Mr. Welch's kindness, we were provided with an official 
escort. An official investigation of conditions could not have been 
more searching than the Bishop's. He questioned anybody and every- 
body about all sorts of things. He knew about things, because he 
sought knowledge at first hand. In all our journeys he found time 
for extensive correspondence and reading. No matter how early the 
hour appointed for the day's start — he had already had an hour or 
more for writing. Much of his work was accomplished before others 

On his arrival in New York, October 6, he sent a telegram 
to Mrs. Hurst, stating that he would arrive at Madison that 

A Hearty Welcome Home 219 

morning by the 1 1 43 train. This information was immedi- 
ately conveyed to the students, who had appointed a committee 
to arrange for his reception. This committee requested the stu- 
dents to march to the station in a body. Eighty-two of the 
students complied with the request and took a position in the 
procession, according to the class to which they belonged. 
When they arrived at the depot they formed themselves in two 
columns extending from the car platform where the Doctor 
would get off the train, to his carriage. He passed between 
the columns, amid the waving of hats and great applause. 
Though the Doctor was greatly fatigued from his journey, 
he manifested his appreciation of the unexpected ovation by 
walking in front of the procession, with three of his colleagues, 
Drs. Strong, Miley, and Buttz, from the depot to his home, 
where he thanked the students for their attention, and they 
dispersed. At eight o'clock in the evening the committee 
called the students together again for the purpose of giving 
the President a surprise party. They repaired to his house and 
formed themselves into three columns, around the piazza and 
in front of the hall door. After the singing by the students of 

"Home again, home again, 
From a foreign shore," 

Dr. Hurst came to the door and invited them in to spend a 
social hour. 

220 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

The Delegate 

His Address at Basel 

Set like an apple of gold in a picture of silver is his address 
in German on Christian Union at the meeting of the Evan- 
gelical Alliance in Basel, Switzerland. Its composition and 
delivery furnish a fine illustration of his power of isolating 
himself from the easy-going environment of a much-needed 
vacation, and applying himself to the preparation of a special 
literary and oratorical endeavor on a vital theme to be pre- 
sented to the highest council of Protestant Christendom. To 
his wife he wrote from Frankfort on July 6, 1879: 

I must be somewhere where I can write my paper for the Alliance, 
and I could not do it here, for I would be interrupted by the neighbors. 

On the ninth he had reached his decision : 

I shall write up my Evangelical Alliance paper at Schwalbach. 

On the eighteenth he was at Schwalbach, and there on the 
twentieth he writes of his new workshop and how he steeled 
himself for the effort which as we shall see by no means lacked 
the knightly spirit : 

I am delightfully situated in the Hotel "Yier Jahreszeiten." I have 
a large front room, three windows, that let in the blaze of the sun 
all day. I have a good bed, a big table for writing, two nice rugs, a 
rustic armchair (not so big as the one at home), and always a good 
appetite. I can do my share of sleeping, too. My first p. m. nap 
stopped at tfA and to-day at 5 ; so you see I am doing well in 
that respect. I take my "coffee" in my room — which means a pot 
of chocolate, bread and butter, and two eggs. At dinner, which is 
at I, I have table d'hote at a hotel. In the evening I take anything 

Drinking Steel 221 

I please and where I please. I must get up at 6 and go to the Steel 
Spring and drink, then walk a half hour. At 11 I must drink more 
steel. Then at 12 I must take a fifteen-minute bath in steel water. 
So I am getting toned up. I think by this time I have swallowed 
and soaked up enough to make several knives and files. And this 
for nearly three weeks ! I shall be a whole cutlery by the time I get 

August 3. — I have finished my address, and copied it. It makes 
42 pages large letter size. I am going to reduce it very much, say 
10 pages, and Ferry and Coit will then copy it. 

Mr. Ferry says : 

As Dr. Coit and I were amanuenses we learned something about 
his methods of composition. His words were chosen with what 
seemed to me painful deliberation — but the sentence once formed 
needed no revision, and for simple and comprehensive expressiveness 
could hardly have been bettered. He walked through his address as 
he did through the mountain paths. He was an ideal pedestrian. 

Dr. Olin B. Coit, now of the Northern New York Confer- 
ence, writes : 

I heard his great speech, which all said was easily the master 
oration of the evening. He wrote it in English, translated it into 
German, had Sulzberger correct it, and then committed it to memory; 
spoke it easily and had faultless accent. 

His presence and address at Basel on September 6 are de- 
scribed by Rev. Marcus L. Taf t in the Christian Advocate : 

That genial American, with manly bearing, walking under the 
long avenue of trees, and greeted now and then by acquaintances, 
foreign and native, is Dr. Hurst, president of Drew Theological 
Seminary. On his recent pedestrian tour over the snowy Alps, the 
sun and the glaciers have tanned his features somewhat. He looks 
remarkably fresh and strong, as if he never knew pressure of work 
at Madison. Dr. Hurst's theme was concerning "True Christian 
Unity." His touching allusion to the sainted spirits — Tholuck, Krum- 
macher, Emile Cook, Hodge, and others — who had departed from 
earth since the last session of the Alliance in New York, and who 
are now celebrating true Christian Union on high, produced a marked 
effect upon the attentive audience. 

222 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

His full topic was Christian Union as a Necessary Factor 
for Religious Progress and Defense, the closing event of the 
session. Dr. Plitt, of Prussia, and Pastor Talbot, of France, 
were the preceding speakers on the general theme of Christian 
Union. He characterized the spiritual unity of the primitive 
or apostolic church as an ideal for modern effort. But this 
unity is compatible with great diversity of form. Attempts 
at enforced uniformity have always been failures. Denom- 
inational standards and independence need not be sacrificed. 
The growing spirit of Christian unity in our own time is 
showing itself in an irenic theology, in the approaches and 
reunions of the divided churches, the revision of our English 
Bible, the international Sunday school lessons, and the work 
of the Evangelical Alliance and Young Men's Christian Asso- 
ciation. The church has more in common — its Bible, its funda- 
mental doctrines, its hymnology, its heroes, its memories — 
than it has to sunder it. It has no time nor energy to lose 
in fruitless controversy. 

In writing to Dr. William Xast, October 16, Dr. Hurst says 
of his address : 

I took pains with it, and intended by it to do the best service 
I could to our German brethren in the Fatherland by showing the 
oneness of the church of Christ, and the claim of all believers to 
membership and work and recognition as members of the one church. 

Martyrs to the Tract Cause 223 

The Author 

Writing at Drew. — Life and Literature in the Fatherland. — Outlines of 

Bible and Church History. — Launching of the Biblical and 

Theological Library with George R. Crooks 

The heavy tasks and daily routine of the professor in the 
class room and lectures to the groups of young men, and the 
cares of administration of the president in superintending and 
executing all details involved in his relations to the Faculty, 
the trustees, the body of students, and the Conferences, did 
not seem to interfere with the constant production of books, 
and the entrance upon ever-broadening schemes for farther 
literary work. Even the extraordinary drafts upon his time 
and energies made by the loss and necessary retrievement 
of the endowment, though they retarded the rate of progress, 
did not stifle the execution of his plans. 

His first book after taking the chair at "Drew" was Martyrs 
to the Tract Cause : A Contribution to the History of the Ref- 
ormation, issued by the Methodist Book Concern in 1872, but 
prepared for the press partly during his last year in Frankfort 
and completed during his first year in Madison. While resting 
one day in 1870 from his work at the Institute by indulging 
in his favorite pastime — rummaging in a secondhand book- 
store — he purchased a copy of Otto Thielemann's Martyrer der 
Traktatsache, published in 1864 by the Wupperthal Tract 
Society, at the celebration of the Jubilee anniversary of its 
organization at Barmen in 1814. This work he translated and 
to it added important portions of his own. Dr. Faulkner's 
estimate of this book is a high one : 

One of our most interesting brief contributions to church history. 

224 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

From the same press and in the same year came the first of 
his series of most useful little compends on the Outline of 
Bible History, which in its circulation of upward of 30,000 
copies in English, and of many in Italian, has been to multi- 
tudes at once a guide and an incentive to the systematic and 
analytic study of the Scriptures. The Rev. J. C. Garritt, Pres- 
byterian, says : 

I used the work in the course of instructing two classes for the 
ministry, at Han-kau, China, and found it very useful. 

His next book was, more than any other he ever wrote, 
the outgrowth of his own personal experience and history 
and of a persuasion deeply felt that the German people de- 
served and the American people needed the mutual advantage 
which his Life and Literature in the Fatherland brought to 
both. It was brought out by Scribners in 1875 and immedi- 
ately captured the attention and favor of the public press and 
won its way to a fine distinction among works treating of our 
Teutonic cousins. The character of this volume and the 
warmth of its reception appear in the opinions which have been 
given by competent reviewers. Professor Faulkner says : 

Few books equal it in breadth of view and accuracy ; racy, interest- 
ing as a novel, full of keen and genial observations of one who had 
the true instincts of a traveler. 

Professor George Prentice says: 

The author attempts nothing like wit, yet he often attains the effect 
of it. When he has some marvelous legend to relate the tale slips 
from his pen with such entire gravity that one might easily suppose 
a Bollandist were reciting it for the edification of the faithful. 
Rarely does a careless word betray the smile that lurks around 
the author's lips as he narrates these wonders of tradition. Instances 
of this are the legend of the planting of Christianity at Heilbronn, 
and also that of the Chapel at Bottigen. The humorous effect is 
quiet, but irresistible. 

Praise from the Press 225 

The Chicago Inter Ocean says : 

When a man can take up a book of travel, read a few chapters, 
become absorbed, forget that the cuckoo-clock in the hall beyond has 
long since cooed the hour when honest folks, and they who value their 
immortal complexions, are abed, it is a pretty tolerable indication 
that that book has been written by a master hand, and that its con- 
tents are of no common order. It is pleasant to meet with a com- 
panion like Mr. Hurst, a man so observant, so sensible, so full of 
sympathy, so genial, and withal the possessor of so captivating a style, 
that one feels loath to part with him. From beginning to end Mr. 
Hurst's book is a model of descriptive power. 

The sober and solid Sunday School Times expresses its 
wonder : 

It seems almost incredible that any human being, naturally con- 
stituted, could throw himself so completely with German modes of 
thought and action, and at the same time exhibit such perfect ease 
and mastery in English composition. 

The Independent praises its usefulness,, but adds : 

We have read its pages, from the first to the last, with so much 
interest and pleasure that we are inclined first of all to commend the 
book for the innocent and enjoyable satisfaction it has in store for its 

It must have been with peculiar pleasure that the editor of 
the Ladies' Repository, Dr. Erastus Wentworth. his old pre- 
ceptor at Carlisle, penned this testimony to this new success 
of one of his pupils : 

His pictures of life in Germany, his descriptions of the universities, 

his characterization of learned professors, his accurate delineation 

of their manners, lives, and philosophies, his facts about university 

education, its value and usefulness to American students, his memories 

of the Franco-Germanic War, and his excursions into the Tyrol are 

all so intensely interesting that when we take up the volume we do 

not lay it down till we have devoured its contents as we would a 


226 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

The Christian at Work discriminates finely : 

His style, which is very pure, is characterized alike by simplicity 
and strength. He says what he wants to without putting on the 
airs of a fine writer. His pen does not separate him from the human- 
ities. His thoughts are linked with the moving and breathing world. 
With an inherited instinct he finds poetry in familiar objects, and epic 
power in the lowly and even vulgar botherations and trials one meets 
with in the jolting cars which carry him over rough places. 

His Outline of Church History followed in 1875, by Meth- 
odist Book Concern (revised edition, 1879), an d has had a 
circulation of more than 20,000 copies. Around this germinal 
brief, it may be said, clustered all his subsequent and larger 
works of church history, as in ever-enlarging form they came 
from either his producing or shaping hand. It has helped 
thousands to their initial grasp upon the progress of the church 
of Christ and to an harmonious view of the ecclesiastical de- 
velopment of the kingdom of God among men as an integral 
fact of supreme importance in human affairs. A Spanish 
translation was published in Mexico in 1878. Like its prede- 
cessor, Outline of Bible History, it was translated into Italian 
by Dr. (now Bishop) William Burt. The second edition of 
each came from the press at Rome in 1904. 

In the centennial year of the republic Randolph (Xew York, 
1876) published his Our Theological Century, a discourse 
suited to the time. Its delivery on a few public occasions, 
once in the Methodist Episcopal church of Madison, occupied 
ninety-five minutes, usually divided between two services. 
With some additions and annotations he put it in its published 
form, a neat duodecimo of 70 pages. Of it Dr. Faulkner says : 

The pivotal matters of our history are touched on with skill. 

While in the very vortex of travel and travail for reendow- 
ment there comes from the Harpers' press (New York, 1877) 
one of their Greek and Latin Texts, prepared conjointly with 

Seneca's Moral Essays 227 

Dr. Henry C. Whiting, his Seneca's Moral Essays, with Notes. 
In it may be found a learned disquisition on Seneca's personal 
history, his philosophy, his character, his works in their sev- 
eral editions, and his hypothetical relations with Saint Paul. 
Seneca's On Tranquillity of Mind was always a favorite theme 
of Dr. Hurst in dealing with difficult problems in practical life 
and one which he illustrated by his own great calmness of mind 
when in circumstances ordinarily most perturbing. The book 
has had wide use in schools and colleges and is still in steady 
demand, having reached its seventh thousand. It was the 
fulfillment of a desire and purpose which possessed him as 
early as 1858. when, in his first year's pastorate, he wrote in 
his Journal': 

October 4. — Bought a translation of Seneca at Reeves's Antiquarian 
Store, New York. 

and again : 

November 1. — Wrote to J. B. Paton. of Sheffield [an English Con- 
gregationalist minister and friend made in Italy]. Detailed to him 
plans of writing an edition of Seneca. 

Among several side strokes of his helpful pen were the 
introductions he wrote to Dr. James H. Rigg's The Living 
Wesley as He Was in His Youth and Prime (London and 
New York, 1875) ; Mrs. E. J. Knowles's Christmas Chimes 
(New York, 1877) ; and Dr. L. D. McCabe's Foreknowledge 
of God and Cognate Themes (Cincinnati, 1878). 

His address at Basel in its English form was prepared sep- 
arately and enlarged for the press and published by the Meth- 
odist Book Concern in 1880 under the title, Christian Union 
Necessary for Religious Progress and Defense; "a satisfying 
paper," says Professor Faulkner, "illuminated with lights from 
his wide reading and softened by the catholicity of his large 

228 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

During the first two years of his presidency he found time 
to enter into a dual alliance with Dr. George R. Crooks to 
create under a joint editorial supervision a Biblical and The- 
ological Library. Within a few months they had arranged 
for a schedule of books to be prepared which embraced nine 
treatises, and as early as June, 1874, ten names of Methodist 
scholars were announced to write them : Theological Ency- 
clopaedia and Methodology, Luther T. Townsend; Introduc- 
tion to the Study of the Scriptures, Henry M. Harman; Bib- 
lical Hermeneutics, Henry Bannister; Biblical and Christian 
Archaeology, Charles W. Bennett and George H. Whitney; 
Systematic Theology (two volumes), Randolph S. Foster; 
Evidences of Christianity, Henry B. Ridgaway; Christian 
Theism and Modern Science, Alexander Winchell ; History 
of Christian Doctrine (two volumes), George R. Crooks; His- 
tory of the Christian Church (two volumes), John F. Hurst. 

Such was the dream of two of the foremost scholars of 
American Methodism in 1874, and so early was the beginning 
of its fulfillment that Dr. Harman's Introduction was published 
in 1878. To trace the changes of plan made necessary by 
death, preoccupation, and other sufficient causes would furnish 
an interesting chapter in the history of Methodist literature; 
a paragraph here must suffice. The second of the series to 
appear was Hermeneutics, from the hand, not of Bannister 
the beloved and beatified, of Garrett, but of Dr. Milton S. 
Terry, then in the pastorate in New York, and later of the 
same institution, published in 1883 (revised edition, 1892). 
In the same year it was announced that the Systematic The- 
ology would be written by James E. Latimer instead of Bishop 
Foster ; that Christian Theism and Modern Thought would be 
prepared by Professor Charles J. Little ; and that the work on 
Encyclopedia and Methodology would be written by Drs. 
Crooks and Hurst. This last-named work appeared in 1884. 

Biblical and Theological Library 229 

and in a revised edition ten years later. Dean Latimer, of 
Boston School of Theology, having died, it was announced 
in January, 1886, that Bishop Foster would write the System- 
atic Theology, but in April a reconsideration left the name of 
the writer of this important work blank. In July of the same 
year Dr. Bennett's name appeared alone in connection with 
the announcement concerning Archaeology, which was pub- 
lished in 1888, and. in a new edition, revised by Professor 
Amos W. Patten, in 1898. Systematic Theology, which had 
been assigned to Professor John Miley, of Drew, came out in 
1892 (vol. i) and 1894 (vol. ii). The History of the Christian 
Church by Bishop Hurst appeared in 1897 (vol. i) and 1900 
(vol. ii). The Foundations of the Christian Faith, by Pro- 
fessor Charles W. Rishell, of Boston School of Theology, 
published in 1900, was substituted for the Evidences of Chris- 
tianity first planned for Dr. Ridgaway. The volume on Chris- 
tian Theism has not yet (1905) appeared, and, alas! the 
History of Christian Doctrine had never been written when 
the hand of the scholarly Crooks dropped the pen to grasp the 

One of his last friendly acts for young authors before leav- 
ing the dear oaks and cheery firesides of Drew for the new 
home in Des Moines, bearing date of December 10, 1880, w r as 
his four-page introduction to Mary Sparkes Wheeler's book, 
First Decade of the Woman's Foreign Missionary Society of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, with Sketches of Its Mis- 
sionaries (New York, 1881). It is a sprightly and cordial 
recognition of the noble work of God's elect women in sending 
and carrying the gospel to those who had never seen its light 
or heard its story of lcve. 

230 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 


The Delegate 

Two General Conferences. — Elected Bishop 

While the clouds of financial disaster hung heavy in their 
first gloom over his loved school of the prophets at Madison, 
his brethren of the Newark Conference, to which he had been 
transferred from Germany and Switzerland in 1873, placed 
him at the head of their clerical delegation to the General Con- 
ference of 1876, meeting in Baltimore. Note has already been 
made of his earnest private work there for putting the Sem- 
inary on a firm foundation. On the election of Secretary the 
first day he served as one of the four tellers; he was also a 
member of the standing Committees on Episcopacy and Edu- 
cation and of the special Committee on Pastoral Address. On 
the tenth day he presented the action of the Newark Confer- 
ence against the election of presiding elders, and the fourteenth 
day a resolution to exempt theological students from exam- 
ination in certain studies, and also his report on Drew 
Theological Seminary, announcing that the preparatory de- 
partment had been discontinued, and that vigorous measures 
were already in successful operation for reendowing the 

As the quadrennium from 1876 to 1880 advanced and the 
preparations for the next General Conference were in progress 
the opinion prevailed that several bishops would be elected. 
Bishops Janes, Ames, and Gilbert Haven had died. Among 
the names canvassed in a hundred circles of interested friends 
of the church frequent mention was made of President Hurst 
as one of the few who would receive the call to that exalted 

Elected Bishop 231 

office and station in the church. Many of his friends were not 
slow to make known to him their desire and expectation. In 
writing to his son, John La Monte Hurst, on March 9, 1880, 
he said : 

It is much better for me to remain where I am. If I am elected, 
I shall have nothing to say, but the chances are not favorable. 

He led the Newark Conference delegation again in 1880 
at the General Conference, held in Cincinnati. He was as 
before a member of the standing Committees on Episcopacy 
and on Education and presented two petitions from the New- 
ark Conference on Church Extension and on temperance. 
Writing to his son John from Cincinnati, May 3, he says: 

If I am defeated it will be all right, and you must not be disap- 
pointed. The Lord will take care of us just as well without it as 
with it, and perhaps it is best that there be no change in my work. 

And on May 7 to Mrs. Hurst : 

I shall take it very quietly, and believe all will be well in the end. 
I will telegraph you immediately after the election, let me be in or 
not. Pray that it may turn out best for us all. I shall be happy 
in any event, whatever that may be. 

On Wednesday, May 12, the tenth day of the Conference, 
he was on the first ballot elected one of three bishops — Henry 
W. Warren and Cyrus D. Foss being the other two. Dr. 
Hurst voted "nay" on a proposition to postpone indefinitely 
the election of another bishop, and on a third ballot Erastus 
O. Haven was elected. On May 18 he requested to be relieved 
from further duty as a delegate, and J. B. Faulks was admitted 
to his seat. On May 19 Dr. Hurst was consecrated Bishop 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church in Pike's Opera House, 
Cincinnati, Bishop Simpson presiding and conducting the 
examination of each bishop-elect. The house was filled to 

232 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

overflowing. He was presented by James N. FitzGerald and 
William Xast, who united with Bishops Wiley and Scott in 
the laving on of hands. He received the charge from Bishop 
Merrill, and with the three other bishops-elect his parchment 
from Bishop Harris. Mrs. Hurst and her two elder sons 
were present in the proscenium box of General Fisk. Wednes- 
day. May 26. Bishop Hurst presented his report on Drew 
Theological Seminary, in which he says : 

The Endowment Fund has been restored, and now amounts to 
$311,000. This has been brought to pass without the employment of 
a financial agent or the mortgaging of any of the property. All the 
five departments of instruction in the Seminary have been sustained 
during the financial reverses of the past four years. 

He presided over the General Conference for the first time 
on Thursday morning, May 27, and chose Des Moines as his 
residence for four years. Immediately after his election an 
observant reporter thus describes Bishop Hurst : 

The features of this gentleman are very marked. He has large, 
lustrous eyes, a Grecian nose, overarching eyebrows, a mouth which 
indicates lofty and well-established character, and a high, rounding 
forehead in which the reflective faculties preponderate over the per- 
ceptive. His hair is rather thin, inclined to be a little sandy in color, 
and generally looks as if the gentleman had run his hands through it. 
His only facial adornment is a small, sandy goatee. When Bishop 
Hurst smiles there is such an illumination of his countenance, espe- 
cially of his eyes, that he looks positively bewitching. Such a smile 
is better than a fortune of gold. In walking, Bishop Hurst stoops a 
little in the shoulders and holds his head forward, giving the chin a 
slight upward inclination. But he dresses immaculately — the regula- 
tion white cravat and Prince Albert dress-coat, closely buttoned, and 
looks in all respects like a man of distinction in the world. 

The alumni of Drew Theological Seminary held a reception 
a few 7 evenings after the election at the Hotel Emery in honor 
of the President, Dr. Hurst. Bishop Foster presided, and 
the Board of Trustees was represented by Dr. Curry, Dr. 

Receptions and Greetings 

Ridgaway, and Mr. George J. Ferry. Dr. Hurst spoke of 
his regret at the thought that his connection with the Seminary 
must now close. Dr. S. M. Vernon, on behalf of the alumni, ex- 
pressed the regret felt at losing Dr. Hurst from the presidency. 
Dr. Curry, on behalf of the Board of Trustees, said that he had 
felt it an honor and a pleasure, not unmingled with pain, to 
have an immediate interest in the Drew Seminary. The 
institution was now in excellent condition. It had seemed 
once that it was on the very brink of ruin, but it had proved 
otherwise. The munificence of Daniel Drew was not to be lost, 
though he was unable to perfect it. Mr. Ferry remarked that 
he had regretted the election of Bishop Foster to the Episco- 
pacy, and he now felt regret because Dr. Hurst was to leave 
the Seminary. The work which Dr. Hurst had performed in 
raising the endowment of Drew Seminary was of the greatest 
value, a work that would deserve gratitude through all future 
time. Bishop Foster said that he cherished very tenderly the 
memories of his life in connection with Drew Seminary; that 
Dr. Hurst had seen the happiest days of his life and would 
never be able to carry on anything like continuous literary 

The preachers and laity of the Newark Conference united 
on June 10 to give Bishop Hurst a very hearty and largely 
attended reception in the Central Church at Newark, under 
the general conduct of its pastor, William V. Kelley. Bishop 
Harris made the main address. Another popular reception 
was given him at the Arlington House, Ocean Grove, on July 
5. His alma mater conferred the degree of Doctor of Laws 
upon him in June. 1880, and De Pauw (Indiana Asbury) 
University in July conferred the same honor. 

At a meeting of the students of Drew Theological Sem- 
inary, held Wednesday evening, December 15, 1880, the fol- 
lowing resolutions were unanimously adopted : 

234 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

Whereas, Bishop Hurst, our former President, is about to leave us 
to assume the wider responsibilities of his present office; and, 

Whereas, During his presidency the Seminary suffered the loss 
of its entire income through the failure of Daniel Drew and thus 
reached a financial crisis unprecedented in the history of literary 
institutions ; and, 

Whereas, Relinquishing plans for literary labor which were dear 
to him and giving himself to the sole object of building up the 
financial interests of the Seminary, he has in conjunction with his 
colleagues succeeded so signally, and now leaves the Seminary on a 
firmer basis than it has possessed at any time during the past ; and. 

Whereas, His devotion to the personal interests of the students 
has been both warm and constant; therefore, 

Resolved, That we, the students of Drew Theological Seminary, 
do express our deep sense of our deprivation, by his departure, of the 
instruction and counsel of a faithful Professor and do thank him 
for those advantages which are due to his untiring efforts in restoring 
the institution to a prosperous condition, and do extend to him our 
heartiest Godspeed in his new and broader relations to the work of the 

At the following session of the Newark Conference a paper 

was adopted by his Conference class. It reads as found in 

this letter: 

Jersey City, April 6, 1881. 

Rev. Bishop J. F. Hurst — Dear Brother: At a meeting of the 
class of 1858, held at this city last evening, the following preamble 
and resolution were unanimously adopted: 

Whereas, Our beloved classmate, John F. Hurst, has been elected 
and ordained a bishop of our church ; therefore, 

Resolved, That our sincere and hearty congratulations are hereby 
presented to our esteemed classmate ; and that we assure him of a 
cheerful toleration on the part of his classmates whenever he comes 
to exercise episcopal authority over us. 

John F. Dodd, Class Secretary. 

A Welcome to Iowa 235 

The Bishop 

At Des Moines. — 1880-81. — Fifteen Conferences in Five Central States 

This prophecy was made in one of the local prints of New 
Jersey in the fall of 1880: 

Rev. Dr. Hurst is to move soon to Des Moines, Iowa. If any 
degree of arrogance is needed for a bishop, then Dr. Hurst will fail ; 
but if a man full of "sweetness and light," whose simple presence 
seems a benediction, is wanted, Dr. Hurst will be found to be the 
right man. 

A few weeks later his welcome to Iowa was reported : 

Des Moines Methodism extended her warm hand of greeting last 
evening (December 30) to Bishop John F. Hurst. The hand was as 
warmly received as it was warmly proffered. As the Bishop and his 
family had taken temporary quarters at the Kirkwood, and the pro- 
prietors of the excellent house had offered their parlors for the 
occasion, the reception was given there. The parlors were crowded 
with a bright, intelligent, joyous assemblage. If anyone came expect- 
ing cold ceremonies and restraint, he was happily disappointed. The 
genial faces of the Bishop and his good lady and their cordial manner 
won every heart to them. A short and hearty address of welcome 
was given by the Hon. George G. Wright. He referred to the 85,000 
Methodists standing back of him who welcomed the Bishop to their 
hearts and homes. The Bishop then followed with a most impressive 
and eloquent reply, touched up with occasional flashes of genuine 
humor and pathos. This address left all who heard it his friends, 
and proved that he will very amply cover the footprints of his illus- 
trious predecessor. 

In a letter from Centerville, September 8, 1880, the first 
day of his first Conference, the Iowa, he tells Mrs. Hurst about 
his experiences at Allerton, where he dedicated a church on 
his way to Conference : 

2 3^ John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

I had a great experience at Allerton. I was invited to a hotel 
to stop with a Mr. Meekins. He proved to have been a tailor boy 
in Cambridge, whom I used to like, and he never forgot me. White 
Hurst's name (a cousin, brother of John E.) was on the register. 
He had come 25 miles from Leon, where he lives, to be with me 
and hear me preach. I spent the night in two sleeping cars and 
one hotel — so I slept by sections. After breakfast came the dedication. 
Sam Hurst (another cousin) and his wife came into the church, 
and also Frank Swiggett, still another cousin, whom I had loved like 
a brother, and had not seen for 25 years. Here were children of 
three brothers and one sister ! Well, I begged and dedicated. All 
the cousins gave. As I went into the church the painters were at 
work ornamenting the spire. And what do you think they were paint- 
ing as the name of the church? The ''Hurst Methodist Episcopal 
Church." It just took my breath. We got all the money. The 
officers named it after me as their Iowa bishop and his first dedica- 
tion. I had a good time in my first session. How these preachers 
stared at me ! 

On the second night at the educational anniversary, after an 
excellent address by S. S. Murphy on the Iowa Wesleyan 
University, Bishop Hurst followed with what a correspondent 
describes as "one of the grandest addresses I ever listened 
to, keeping the whole audience in rapt attention, and inspiring 
all to a far deeper interest in the education of our youth." 
E. L. Schreiner, the youngest of the six presiding elders at 
that session, gives this interesting account of Bishop Hurst's 
first presidency : 

What impressed me first was his insight into the situation, and 
helpfulness in my ignorance, by permitting none of the older and 
more experienced members of the Cabinet to take advantage of my 
lack to the detriment of my district. His manner was affable and 
deferential to the older members of the Cabinet, but in a way that 
left no doubt that he was the Bishop. In several crises that arose 
in making the appointments, he showed that he had the courage of his 
convictions and took the responsibility of the situation. The most 
marked of these was his appointment of a man to one of the districts, 
against the protest and vote of five of the six presiding elders, the 
sixth being indifferent. Subsequent events justified his decision. As 

His First Conference j^y 

a presiding officer in the Conference he was firm and dignified, dis- 
patching business with promptness and method, making a favorable 
impression on the members, who eyed him critically at the beginning 
of the session, but at the close said, "He will do." "He is a Bishop." 
His Sunday sermon made a profound impression, not so much for 
its oratorical qualities as its depth of thought and breadth of scholar- 
ship. His address to the class for admission was fresh and inspiring. 
He talked to the young men like one accustomed to deal with them, 
and who knew what most they needed. 

From Wyandotte, Kansas, at his second Conference, the 
West German, he writes to Mrs. Hurst, September 16: 

I am getting along nicely with the Conference here. They ad- 
journed for 10 minutes this a. m. to shake hands mit dem Bischof. 

Rev. J. Tanner says : 

We were very glad to have him in 1880 and also in 1883 ; yes, proud, 
as he was able to preach to us in German, and the proceedings of the 
Conference were at his request mostly in German. In Cabinet work 
and also in open Conference he was kind and brotherly. We called 
him the German Bishop, and in reality he was. We would have been 
much pleased if we had been permitted to have him more as our 

Of his third Conference, the Central Illinois, at Fairbury, 
Rev. C. Springer says : 

He showed the deepest interest in every question pertaining to 
the church or the pastor. His sermon was a scholarly and able effort. 
All felt that he was a man with a message — a great message, a 
message which he profoundly believed. His style of delivery was 
easy and natural. Indeed, it seemed to be the simplicity of eloquence 
and the eloquence of simplicity. 

Of his fourth Conference, the Chicago German, at Water- 
town, Wisconsin, Jacob Bletsch says : 

As the Bishop understood and spoke the German language, he 
gave us the privilege to speak in German, and so we had the first 
German-speaking Conference. This gave the brethren present great 

238 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

pleasure. The sermon of the Bishop on Sunday was also in German, 
to the great joy of the preachers and people in general. The sermon 
was powerful and a great blessing to all. We were so pleased with 
Bishop Hurst that we expressed the desire that he would preside at 
all our sessions in future. 

On his way to the fifth Conference, Rock River, Rockford, 
Illinois, he stopped at Chicago, where he writes Mrs. Hurst: 

I had a pleasant time, but there is no fun going round among the 
bookstores here. 

At the Rock River, when presenting W. H. Smith in the 
name of the brethren of his district a silver service, he said : 

These are not to be put away in flannel bags, but are for everyday 

His second group of Conferences included the South Kan- 
sas, at Wellington, the Kansas at Concordia, the Missouri at 
Cameron, and the Saint Louis at Carthage. On his way to 
the first he stops at Pleasanton, and sends this message on 
February 28, 1881, to his wife: 

Had to sleep with Creager. He took up more than half of the bed, 
but did not snore. Your books are in the library at Pleasanton. and 
a lady, where I took dinner, had read them, and that was about all 
she knew of the Hurst family. Such is fame. 

The session at Wellington was a stormy one. C. R. Rice 


Charges had been preferred against two of the most prominent 
and active men in the Conference. They had been most intimate 
friends, but now they were arrayed against each other, and the 
preachers were divided. The young bishop groaned and travailed 
in pain over the condition. He was cautious, and gained the confi- 
dence of nearly every preacher by his transparent impartiality. He 
bravely and prayerfully faced the difficulties. I never met a better 
leader than Bishop Hurst. 

In Kansas and Missouri 239 

The third day of his stay at Concordia brought out this 
note of discomfort, if not of discord : 

March 12. 
To Mrs. Hurst: 

No fire in my room — have to sit in the family room, where I can't 
write, or even say my prayers. Misery ! 

But the day following matters had changed greatly to his 

My host has got a stove in the room, and now at last I have 
some heat and heart and comfort. 

P. T. Rhodes writes : 

The town was flooded with rain, mud prevailed on the streets. 
Without sidewalk or carriage the Bishop had to plunge and wade 
through as best he could. He lost one of his shoes in the mud. 
But he came into the Conference and Cabinet as calm and serene as 
though he had been brought by a coach and four. 

Richard Wake says: 

We were impressed chiefly by the modesty of his bearing, amount- 
ing almost to timidity at times. 

From Cameron he wrote to Mrs. Hurst, March 22 : 

I have for the first time a fire in my room. I wrote to the 
preacher here to provide me such a place, and but for that I should 
be freezing here. I have just finished an article for Advocate on 
"Our Kansas Field." the first I have written since leaving home, and 
because of my first fire. 

March 24. — This Bishop business is a wonderful thing — everybody 
wanting to do something for you, and some against you. But a queer 
business, after all — biggest man in a small town for a week, and then 
off to another ! 

O. M. Stewart says of him at the Saint Louis Conference: 

His spirit was kind and tender, but his purpose granite. I learned 
early in our session that he would appoint me presiding elder, and I 
resisted it with all the assistance I could command, but without avail 
— I now see he was correct. 

240 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

B. F. Thomas joined this Conference that year and dreaded 
to meet the Bishop ; but he says : 

I was really amazed at the fatherly, or, perhaps better, the brotherly, 
spirit he showed me. What had been painful suspense became admi- 
ration, reverence, and almost devotion. My trepidation had been 
much intensified by days of waiting, but Bishop Hurst's gentle hand 
and kindly smile dissipated all my fears and I felt I had found a 

F. S. Beggs says : 

He was greatly admired for his urbanity and gentlemanly bearing 
toward the humblest preacher as well as those of greater prominence. 

He was elected president of the trustees of Cornell College, 
Mount Vernon, in 1881. 

On August 28 he preached in the evening at First Church, 
Des Moines, at the union of Fifth Street and Centenary 

His fall Conferences in 1881 were the Southern Illinois at 
Greenville, Saint Louis German at Burlington, Iowa, Des 
Moines at Indianola, Upper Iowa at Waterloo, Northwest 
Iowa at Algona, and the Dakota Mission at Sioux Falls. His 
sermon on Sunday at Greenville, one of great power and 
beauty, was preached in a grove to an immense congregation. 
Of his work at the Upper Iowa, J. T. Crippen says : 

He seemed to know everything in history, philosophy, and current 

Of his dedication of the First Church in Ottawa, Iowa, in 
December, 1881, C. R. Rice says: 

At the close he made an extemporary prayer that will never be 
forgotten. He prayed the heavens down upon the throng of people. 

Near His Old Home 241 


1882. — Eleven Conferences. — East and "West. — The Accident Insurance Man 

His assignments for the spring of 1882 were Wilmington 

at Middletown, Delaware ; Central Pennsylvania at Lock 

Haven ; his own dear Newark at Newark ; and the Wyoming 

at Carbondale, Pennsylvania. Just before starting on his 

eastern trip he received this friendly note from Schuyler 

Colfax : 

I write to say how disappointed I shall be not to meet you at Des 
Moines next week. What was in my mind was to have a chat with 
you. I wanted to have my memory brightened up on one of those 
funny stories you told us marines on the briny deep. 

Dr. Buckley, editor of The Christian Advocate, thus reports 

a part of Bishop Hurst's opening remarks at the Wilmington 

Conference : 

Brethren, I come to the Wilmington Conference with emotions 
such as I cannot feel in visiting any other Conference, and will not 
attempt to describe. I was born within the bounds of the Conference : 
here both my parents died, and in this Conference I was left a lonely 
orphan. Brethren, I see here to-day the minister who. when I had 
no thought of becoming a Christian, as I was returning from a little 
debating society in the Academy in Cambridge, asked me if I did 
not wish to meet my parents in heaven. I told him I did. That 
man, brethren, who led me to the altar I see here to-day. I well 
remember the first New Testament I ever owned. I see the minister 
here to-day who gave it to me, and in all my wanderings I have 
preserved that little Testament, and have it here with me in Middle- 
town now. 

Dr. Buckley adds : 

This was eloquence, not of voice or manner, but of penetrating fact, 
and it reached every heart. No wonder tears filled all eyes. I have 
never heard anything equaling the simplicity and pathos of this 
account of his conversion. As a brother afterward said in the cars, 
"It is one of the things that grow on one the longer he thinks of it." 

24^ John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

From Wilmington he wrote to Mrs. Hurst : 

Went out after getting here to Bishop Scott's. He lives five miles 
from here, on a farm. He told me about taking my mother into the 
church. Says he feels differently toward me from anybody else, and 
was so happy when I was elected. 

March 10. — It was very affecting this afternoon that Rev. J. A. 
Brindle, who received me into the church, came to talk with me 
about his appointment. 

Dr. Robert W. Todd writes : 

In the Cabinet meetings at Middletown he showed great anxiety 
to be just and kind to all concerned, advising us to confer freely 
with pastors where changes were deemed necessary, so as to avoid, 
if possible, the friction of disagreeable surprise, and secure loyal 
acquiescence all around. His presidency was both dignified and 
kindly, and his general official demeanor was that of a man dominated 
by the consciousness of a Heaven-imposed responsibility. While 
Bishop Hurst was a greater scholar than orator, there were times when 
his fire-touched lips poured forth a message of exquisite sweetness 
and wonderful power. 

Before holding the Newark Conference he spent Sunday 
at Elizabethport with his former congregation in Fulton Street 
Church. It was a special occasion, and they raised sixteen 
hundred dollars to pay all their debts. From Newark on 
March 30 he writes Mrs. Hurst : 

Dr. Locke, of Illinois, writes me he has sent a copy of Reynolds's 
Life and Times, of Illinois. Did it get to you? If so, it is a great 
find, and worth $13 — old as it looks, long out of print, and has 
matter no other book has about the Suckers of Illinois. 

D. B. F. Randolph writes : 


The urbane and scholarly manner in which, at the Newark Con- 
ference of 1882, he received the visiting East German Conference 
then assembled in the same city, speaking both in German and in 
English, excited universal comment and admiration on the part of 
both bodies. 

Note on Jane Welsh Carlyle 243 

At the close of the Wyoming Conference, says Dr. J. E. 
Smith : 

He came to Scranton, Pennsylvania, where I was then stationed. 
He was to take the midnight train for the West. As my guest for 
a few hours, I hoped for a good long chat with him. But he was then 
at work on his Bibliography. As soon as he entered my library he 
began to examine my books. I could get nothing out of him. Flat 
on the floor, he pulled down volume after volume until it was time to 
start for the train. After the work of the Conference he seemed to be 
as fresh as a boy. 

On April 16 he preached by invitation before the Cornell 
University at Ithaca, New York, and on May 7 at Garrett 
Biblical Institute, Evanston, Illinois. 

A jotting of his now infrequent entries in his Journal is 
that of June 15, 1882: 

On train, on my way to Mount Pleasant to lecture on the Revenges 
of History at the College commencement. I have finished Froude's 
Carlyle — first forty years. I could have voted against him for a 
scullion in a nobleman's kitchen because of his treatment of his 
wife. But now, after some days of ruminating, he comes up again, 
and I ask : Did not Jenny Welsh know him well ? Was she not free, 
and did not he say so — not to marry, even after the engagement? 
What better could she have done had she married crazy Edward 
Irving, whom she loved? "Had I married Irving there would have 
been no tongues," she said. How do you know, dear Jennie? So 
thinks always the woman who finds herself chained for life to a 
brute or a donkey. 

He spent two days at Berea, Ohio, during commencement 
in June, preaching the baccalaureate sermon on Sunday morn- 
ing, visiting the orphan asylum in the afternoon, and in the 
evening giving an address in German on education. On Mon- 
day he spoke to the trustees on the importance of the work 
among the Germans. He always maintained a deep personal 
interest in the success of the German Wallace College. 

A group of seven Missions and Conferences called him to 

244 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

the Pacific Coast in the summer and fall of 1882. These em- 
braced Utah Mission at Salt Lake City, Montana Mission at 
Bozeman, Columbia River at Baker City, Oregon, the Oregon 
at Albany, Southern California at San Luis Obispo, the Cali- 
fornia at Oakland, and the Nevada at Reno. Mrs. Hurst 
accompanied him to California, and Carl was with him on his 
trip to the Northwest. F. A. Riggin says of him in Montana : 

Imagine the scholarly Bishop Hurst, unaccustomed to pioneer life, 
plunging into the wilderness and amid the wilds of the Rocky Moun- 
tains, traveling over the valleys and the ranges, and eating, sleeping, 
and living in the most primitive style. So thoroughly was he equipped 
for his work that in every detail he measured up to its requirements. 
We met him accompanied by Secretary (now Bishop) Fowler at 
the terminus of the railroad, and drove hundreds of miles by private 
conveyance. Conference over, they visited the Yellowstone National 
Park. They scaled the rugged peaks, cooked their food, slept upon 
the ground, and traversed the mysterious regions of wonderland. 
Bishop Hurst was the first of our Bishops to traverse these trails. 
He was careful, considerate, farseeing, and wise in planning. Mon- 
tana will never cease to feel the effects of his prudent administration. 

W. S. Turner says : 

The Columbia River Conference tested his mettle because of an 
exciting debate over an unfortunate brother who was under a strong 
fire through serious rumors affecting his moral character. Bishop 
Hurst did himself great credit because of his manly and wise bearing 
through the protracted discussion which occupied two sessions under 
closed doors. Myself and a few others were threatened with vio- 
lence by an outside mob, such was the excitement awakened by this 
case during the session ; but Bishop Hurst under God by his wise 
course averted such a catastrophe. 

In selecting from the preachers of the Oregon Conference 
those whom he wished to read the ritual for the ordination 
of elders he fell upon Secretary Wolfe, whose voice and manner 
he liked, for the gospel lesson. But the incongruity of a man 
of that name reading, "the wolf catcheth them," caused the 

On the Pacific Coast 245 

secretary to decline, and the Bishop kindly made a change. 
At the California Conference he was confronted by a state of 
the public mind bordering on frenzy in the wild reign of 
intemperance, Sabbath desecration, hatred of the Chinese, 
sand-lot oratory, and mob violence. Dr. H. B. Heacock says : 

His address at the opening session was one of rare power, which 
showed the true philanthropist, the farseeing Christian statesman, 
and the defender of the oppressed. I never sat in the Cabinet with 
a Bishop who seemed more desirous to get all the facts in every case. 

To the Independent Bishop Hurst recounts his conversation 
with the accident insurance man near Los Angeles : 

"Why should I insure?" 

"Reason enough. You have a bandaged face. You have had a 
misfortune, and may meet with another pretty soon." 

"I cannot see it just as you do. Six weeks ago I had a runaway 
accident up in the Yellowstone Park, and yesterday in Los Angeles 
I came in contact with a piece of redwood lumber, which was either 
in the wrong place or I was, and I am to be home in two weeks 
more. Don't you think now, as an experienced insurance man, that 
I shall get along safely the rest of the way? Haven't I had my 
average, considering the time?" 

He dropped into a profound meditation, and for a moment was lost 
in the ecstasy of his profession. Then, looking up in a way truly 
merciful and encouraging, he replied: "You are right. I think you 
have run your risks." Then he released me, and I thanked him 
for his solicitude. If I ever do insure against accidents, that is the 
man who should, if I only knew his name, have the business. 

While in attendance at the General Committee meetings in 
New York he writes to Mrs. Hurst, November 9 : 

How I want to get at my Church History! It is needed, and 
I think I shall satisfy the public. You are a very great inspiration 
in all my work. But for my encouragement from you, I could not 
work as I do. 

246 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 


1883-64. — Thirteen Conferences in Ten States, South, Central, and East. 

— Impress on Iowa 

His first Conferences in the South came in the early months 
of 1883. They were the Mississippi at Meridian, Louisiana 
at Alexandria, Little Rock at Pine Bluff, and Arkansas at 
Little Rock. From Meridian he writes to his wife on Janu- 
ary 21 : 

I have had a great time to-day. My first sermon to the colored 
people. They shouted and cried out, and we had a good time. 

On his way to Alexandria to hold the Louisiana Conference 
as he passed through the little village of Plaquemine, where 
there were but two or three members of our church living, one 
of the number, "Sister Cheney Nelson," boarded the train 
and rode a few miles with him. She pleaded so well for a 
preacher to be sent to them that he appointed a pastor who 
built the house of worship that bears the name of Hurst 
Methodist Episcopal Church. Pierre Landry says : 

Two of the young preachers, who had dropped out, one to the 
overseership of a rice plantation, and the other to a government con- 
tract in the mail service, sought to return on trial. Though it was 
shown that they had carried on special missionary work in their 
respective localities, they were met with the positive opposition of 
some of our leaders. Having patiently listened to the objectors in a 
special conference, the Bishop said, " Brethren, your opposition to the 
readmission of these young men has disclosed to me their excellence 
of character. I see in them those qualities of leadership of which, 
if you live long enough, you will be proud. Give them a chance." 
In both cases his prediction was fulfilled. 

Of his address at the funeral of Bishop Peck in May, 1883. 
the Rev. Dr. Arthur Copeland, who was present, says: 

A Walk in Baraboo 247 

How vividly he portrayed a scene at a camp meeting held on the 
"old neck" of Maryland, where, under the light of burning pine 
stumps, he first saw and heard Bishop Peck. It was a most beautiful 
tribute that he paid that real Episcopos and shepherd of souls, and 
in language which seemed chiseled like the marbles of the Parthenon, 
both strong and ornate. The Protestant Episcopal Bishop of Central 
New York, Dr. Dan Huntington, sat near me in the crowded audi- 
torium, and seemed much impressed by what he saw and heard. 

Seven Conferences claimed his oversight in the fall of 1883 ; 

The Black Hills Mission at Rapid City, West German at Saint 

Joseph, the Illinois at Danville, West Wisconsin at Baraboo. 

Wisconsin at Milwaukee, Tennessee at Murfreesboro, and 

Central Tennessee at Hollow Rock. At Danville he says, in 

a letter to Mrs. Hurst: 

September 20. — Lewis Janes thanked me for my address to the 
preachers yesterday. I told them if they had any burdens or trouble 
about appointment, and wished to speak with me, to come to my 
lodgings and do so; if I could not help them, it would be at least 
a gratification to have tried. It seems it struck fire, and they have 

Dr. E. L. Eaton says : 

He was both lovable and approachable. A little shy about courting 
the personal attention of those in official position, I was therefore 
much surprised when he put his arm in mine one day at the Baraboo 
Conference and proposed a walk in the grove. I had in my pocket at 
that time an official request to transfer to another Conference and 
take an important appointment. Naturally I had set my heart on 
going. But I did not go. When that walk was ended I was willing 
to go to the ends of the earth if Bishop Hurst desired it. And yet 
he seemed to say little or nothing to dissuade me. 

He visited the University at Madison on his way to Mil- 
waukee, whence he writes Airs. Hurst: 

October 2. — The library is a perfect wonder of treasures. They 
seem to have searched the country and the century in order to find 
the books they have. The librarian had the kindness to show me 
some duplicates which he will exchange for some of mine. 

248 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

While in attendance upon the Committee meetings in New 
York in November he stole away and on the 15th wrote Airs. 
Hurst : 

On the Chesapeake, to Baltimore. — From a station on the railroad 
I could see the place, I think the very house, where I was born. I 
walked about the farm (Sallie's) where I used to live later, looked 
at the old trees I used to climb and gather cherries from in a tin 
bucket. The trees that were young and strong are now old and rotting 
away. I went to the creek where I used to swim and fish — how 
changed ! I came into town and Sallie with me, and we went to 
the graveyard, and saw our parents' graves. 

Ten days after adjournment from Murfreesboro he is in 
Nashville, whence he writes Airs. Hurst: 

November 27. — To-day Young [E. K.] and I went out ten miles 
to Hermitage, President Jackson's home. We had a lovely ride and 
saw his furniture, carriage, room he died in, grave — a splendid 
old Southern mansion in ruins. We visited afterward the Fisk 
University, and went upon the Capitol, and overlooked the whole 
city. We called on the widow of ex-President Polk; she was too 
feeble to see us, but we saw her house. No lady ever left a finer 
name in the White House than she. 

Hollow Rock, November 28. 

I was put into a room which was pretty cold — Young and I were 
together. Had a fireplace fire — four men in room above us. About 
5 this a. m. two other men came into our room to warm up, and I 
had to ask them to stop talking, so I could sleep more. Later they 
left, and came back while I was dressing. Breakfast was in an open 
hall — no fire. It is a poor hotel, kept by a dentist, whose big chair 
and buzz-saw are in the room. I think I will begin dentistry on 

His assignments in this country for the spring of 1884 were 
two Conferences : New York East at Brooklyn, and New 
Hampshire at Manchester. William T. Hill, of the former 
body, says : 

I recall his assiduous devotion to his task of studying how to 
serve the best interests of the churches and the members of the 

Impress on Iowa 249 

Conference, not only the effective, but also the ineffective, and the 
dignity, without assumption of superiority, with which he was wont 
to preside. His sermon at that session was of such worth that the 
Conference unanimously requested a copy for publication. Its subject 
was ''The Gospel a Sword." 

During his residence in Des Moines, at 618 Third Street, 
he won the love of the people and of all workers in the cause 
of righteousness. He was abundant in his labors for temper- 
ance and education. His presidency and addresses at the 
second Methodist State Educational Convention in June, 1881, 
together with a reception to the four hundred delegates at 
his house, were of signal service. W. F. Harned says : 

On the night of the great temperance victory in Iowa (June 27, 
1882), when the state went overwhelmingly for Prohibition, he and 
I were on the streets about midnight when the first reports came in. 
I remember the Bishop's remark. He said, "That is glorious." 

He immediately published a congratulatory address to the 
Methodist ministers of the state for their help in the campaign 
and the triumph. C. W. Blodgett, who knew him intimately, 
writes : 

He was a busy man. His library room was a workshop often 
for ten or twelve hours in a day. He was, however, never too 
busy to hear the voice of the humblest of preachers. His tender heart 
always responded to the appeal for help — either of sympathy or 
money. He was one who never indulged in criticism of his brethren. 
I saw him at one time — when a less masterful man would have com- 
promised the high position he occupied. By a very prominent layman 
in public the Bishop's motives were impugned and his word questioned. 
The following speech the Bishop was to make. Xot in the most 
remote degree did he refer to the unkind, unjust, and inconsiderate 
remarks of his assailant. Nor did he ever permit himself to reply. 
He did, however, excuse the brother and say he was under a pressure 
that few men could endure without irritation. His life in the West 
was a constant inspiration to the younger men. They were through 
him profoundly impressed with the importance and necessity of 
sanctified scholarship. 

250 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

E. L. Schreiner writes : 

While with us in the state he was in "labors more abundant," 
dedicating churches, speaking on great public occasions, and par- 
ticipating in functions both within and without the church that added 
new luster to the name of Methodism in the great Methodist state 
of Iowa. 

F. W. Vinson says : 

I knew Bishop Hurst as one of the noblest, truest of men, and one 
of the most faithful of friends and brave in doing what he believed 

Upon leaving Des Moines to go to General Conference and 
thence to Europe, a magnificent reception, combined with their 
silver wedding anniversary, a little anticipated, was tendered 
Bishop and Mrs. Hurst in the First Church. Dr. Young 
presided, Dr. Ryman prayed, Bishop Foss, present from Min- 
neapolis, and Bishop Hurst spoke. At the banquet which 
followed, Judge George G. Wright was toastmaster, and 
Governor Sherman, Hon. C. F. Clarkson. Rev. Dr. J. B. 
Stewart of the Presbyterian Church, Dr. Pomeroy of Callanan 
College, Dr. Kennedy, Rev. Dr. Frisbie, Colonel Gatch, Judge 
Nourse, and Bishop Hurst made fitting responses to a variety 
of toasts in which flashes of wit vied with affectionate tender- 
ness to make the occasion memorable and happy. A message 
which greeted him shortly before he sailed for Europe was 
this one from Mrs. Hurst : 

Don't spend money on books — wait until you return from Europe. 
You know you are easily tempted. 

The Bishop Abroad 251 


1884-85. — Abroad. — Twelve Conferences in Eight Countries of Europe 

and Asia 

Prior to his sailing for Europe in June, the General Confer- 
ence at Philadelphia claimed his service. He presided on three 
days, May 8, 17, and 26. On the 226. he joined with Bishops 
Simpson, Bowman, and Foss in the laying on of hands in 
the consecration of Bishops Fowler and William Taylor, and 
made the presentation of the Scriptures to the same. On the 
26th the question having arisen in connection with the report 
of the Committee on Cooperation in Church Work as to Bishop 
Wiley's right, as chairman, to close the debate, Bishop Hurst 
decided that he had such a right. Dr. Buckley appealed from 
the decision on the ground that the rule applied solely to mem- 
bers of the Conference, and the appeal was sustained. Bishop 
Hurst gave as the grounds of his decision : 

The Committee on Cooperation in Church Work is a creature of 
the General Conference. This body appointed a member from each 
General Conference District, and directed that the Board of Bishops 
should designate one of their number besides, who proved to be 
Bishop Wiley. All these together should constitute the Committee. 
It would seem that Bishop Wiley is as much a member of the Com- 
mittee as any other man on it, because he was designated by order 
of the General Conference. If he were not, it would be clear that 
the conclusions which the Committee reached, and this report, would 
be of no legal force. To this opinion I must still adhere. 

Buffalo having been designated as one of the episcopal resi- 
dences, Bishop Hurst chose this city as his home for the 
ensuing four years, but was a traveler abroad for more than 
a year. His first episcopal tour of fourteen months in for- 
eign lands covered the European Conferences, four of them 
twice, and the two in India : Germany and Switzerland at 
Zurich, Sweden at Upsala, Norway at Bergen, Denmark 

25-' John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

Mission at Frederikshavn, Bulgaria Mission at Sistova, South 
India at Hyderabad, North India at Bareilly, Italy at Bologna, 
Sweden at Motala, Norway at Trondhjem, Denmark Mission 
at Copenhagen, and the Germany and Switzerland at Lud- 

His seventh trans- Atlantic trip together with his family, 
excepting John, having been accomplished and having pre- 
sided as a brother over his own loved Conference in Zurich, 
conducting the business and the ritual service and speaking 
and preaching in German, he leaves Mrs. Hurst and the three 
younger children in Berlin and starts with Carl for his Scan- 
dinavian work. A pleasantly in her letter of July 9 to the 
Bishop contains a true prophecy in interrogative form: 

Who knows what " Mother " can do or can't do ? Mrs. Trollope 
didn't begin to write until she was fifty. Younger than that is this 
child. Who knows but my grandchildren will read their grand- 
mother's productions with the same interest that they will the works 
of their Bishop grandfather ! ! ! 

Of his presidency at Upsala J. M. Erikson says: 

We were all delightfully surprised when he opened the Conference 
by reading the Twenty-third Psalm in Swedish. The manner in 
which he led the proceedings of the Conference and the interest he 
showed in the welfare of all the brethren — old and young — won the 
hearts of all. He was kind, yet strong and firm, sincere, and had 
nothing of phariseeism or bigotry in him. 

The journey from Upsala to Bergen was by Christiania, and 
thence by water over the Skagerak and North Sea. Dr. 
Buckley says : 

The Bishop, accompanied by the resident and neighboring ministers, 
took passage on a steamer for Bergen, 224 English miles, as the 
vessels go, northwest. The entire membership of our churches in 
Christiania accompanied them to the pier, and there remained, filling 
the available space, singing hymns and spiritual songs, led by the 
excellent choir, till the boat started. Hundreds of the people of the 

The Social and the Revival Joined 253 

city, attracted by the singing, came down to the shore and swelled 
the concourse. Not only so: the brethren and sisters, to show their 
affection for their pastors, brought beautiful bouquets and wreaths 
of flowers in profusion to present to them. As the ship sailed the 
music of their songs followed it as far as their voices could reach. 
and still they could be seen waving their adieus. The vessel stopped 
long enough to receive and discharge cargo at several ports, some- 
times remaining some hours. Arrangements had been made by tele- 
graph to hold services, and as soon as the boat landed the preachers, 
accompanied by the Bishop, went to the church, where the people 
were assembled, and a regular service was held. A scene similar to 
that in Christiania was enacted on the departure from each place, 
where the resident pastor joined his brethren on shipboard. During 
the Sabbath of Conference five Methodist services were held at one 
time in the city. When the last day came a supper was held in 
a hall that would contain 1,200 people. A crown, equal to 27 cents of 
our money, was charged for admission. Such was the crowd that 
the refreshments gave out. The pastor offered to give back the 
money to any who were dissatisfied. None asked its return. Supper 
being ended, they began to sing and relate what God had done for 
them. Bishop Hurst and others spoke to the unconverted, and, to 
crown all, when the invitation was given, upward of seventy rose 
for prayers. 

From Bergen he writes to Helen, July 28 : 

I am very glad that you and mamma and Paul and Blanche, all. 
are well, and that you run out in the Thiergarten. It must be real 
fun to get caught in the rain, just like rabbits, and then have to run 
under a fruit-stand, and have a good excuse to buy some cherries 
and strawberries. 

Carl F. Eltzholtz says: 

When Bishop Hurst visited our Denmark Mission he and our 
superintendent, Rev. Karl Schou, were invited to tea by a prominent 
Lutheran clergyman, who also was interested in the work of the 
Evangelical Alliance; there was also a learned professor present 
who tried to draw the Bishop out and to sound the depths of his 
knowledge. He went through the ordeal in a magnificent manner : 
he told them about old Bible manuscripts and other things which 
they seemed to know very little about. 

254 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

Bishop Hurst also preached from manuscript in Danish 
in our church in Copenhagen. To Mrs. Hurst he writes from 
Frederikshavn, August 3 : 

Carl and I get along first-rate. We have very loving times — and 
pillow fights, and our own fun. 

From Consul-General James R. Weaver at Vienna he re- 
ceives a message which must have given him a quiet laugh 
upon his fellow traveler on many a journey, for whom he 
had recently interpreted an address in Berlin and who had 
just recovered from a severe illness in the first-named city: 

Dr. Buckley dined with us last evening and made final adieus, to 
our great regret; as for the last five or six weeks he has been an 
inexhaustible source of good cheer. Last evening in the bank he 
told me a story for the second time. I said, "Doctor, I am sorry you 
told me that, for it is the only one you have repeated during your 

A month later he holds an interview with Prince Alexander 
of Bulgaria, cheers the brave little band of workers in the Mis- 
sion meeting at Sistova, and is off for the Orient. Through 
the mysteries and pressure of quarantine he decides to make 
the trip to Constantinople over the Balkans. As was his habit, 
he takes a side excursion to Bucharest at the close of the Con- 
ference. His letter to Paul of October 6 from Bucharest says : 

I had a busy day yesterday, as I had to preach, and was at three 
services. This a. m. I got up at a quarter before 5, and had a 
little cup of tea and some bread, and a carriage took me down to the 
river. Mr. and Mrs. Thomoff were along. We crossed the Danube in 
three quarters of an hour in a little bit of a steamboat. On reaching 
the other side of the river we took another carriage, and rode 
through Guirgevo to the station for Bucharest. At the station we 
waited until 8:10 for the train. It took us two hours to ride to B. 
Bucharest is a big city. They speak the Roumanian language, which 
is really the old Latin. The people are descended from a colony 
planted by Adrian, the Roman emperor, whom he placed there after 
he had conquered the tribes living there, and this colony blotted out 

The Balkans and Classic Troy 255 

the old language, and planted the Roman instead. This learning ( ?) 
is for mamma. Now comes something for you. Candy is sold along 
the streets, but it is dirty-looking. I saw a boy with two doves 
in a little basket, with a net over it. How he did love them ! They 
were pretty doves, nearly white. You shall have some, dear Paul, 
when we get to Buffalo, and Blanche shall have a cat, or a silk 
dress, whichever she wants, and Helen shall have two silk dresses, 
any color she likes, and mamma — well, what shall we give her? To- 
night I go back to Guirgevo, and in the morning will be in Rustchuk, 
and then start across the- mountains. I think this is better than by 
boat and quarantine. But mamma will not hear much from me 
now for a week. 

The same day he writes Carl : 

On Saturday I had a private audience with the Prince of Bulgaria, 
Alexander I, and was fully satisfied with his assurance concerning 
the future of our mission in that country. . . . To-morrow a. m. I 
start by wagon across the Balkan Mountains. I do it to avoid quar- 
antine. The journey will take six days. I shall be in the track of 
the Russian army, and pass through places where the Bulgarian 
atrocities took place. 

Riding in a cart drawn by buffaloes, he makes safely the 
passage of the mountain roads, passing Tirnova, Gabrova, 
Shipka Pass, and Kazanlik, goes through Philippopolis and 
Adrianople, and in a week is at the home of his dear friend, 
Professor Albert L. Long, of Robert College in Constanti- 
nople. Dr. Long tells of this visit and of their joint excursion 
to the plains of Troy in an article for the Pittsburg Advocate : 

Quarantine is after all not an unmitigated evil. It has recently 
done very well by me. It has prevented Bishop Hurst from rushing 
through this place on his way to India without giving me the visit 
to which I had so long looked forward. 

The two days and nights of their delightful companionship 
on this classic outing furnished the theme which under Dr. 
Long's polished pen grew into nearly a page of the aforesaid 
paper. In it he tells of a trip in a caique up the Golden Horn 

256 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

to the Convent of the Holy Sepulcher at Fanar; a look at 
the manuscript of the "Teaching of the Twelve" granted by 
the Archimandrite Polycarp; a call at the Home School for 
girls at Scutari ; a drive to the Convent of the Howling Der- 
vishes ; then on the Austrian steamer gliding out of the harbor 
and down toward the Hellespont ; a night of good rest on the 
Marmora ; a short halt at Gallipoli ; then on ,.0 the Dardanelles ; 
the landing in a crushing crowd ; a cordial welcome and a 
good breakfast from Consul Calvert; the hiring of a Jewish 
guide, a Turkish muleteer and four good horses for the two 
days' riding; the arrival at Hissarlik at evening; the prospect 
of sleeping in the same room with a dozen armed ruffians, and 
the acceptance of the hospitality of the imam's house, with 
blanket and pillow on the earthen floor ; his own wakefulness, 
but the Bishop's sound sleep; his fear of capture and demand 
for ransom by the brigands ; the outbreak of the expected 
row among the rough men at the coffeehouse, but without 
harm save the nervous shock of pistol shots and loud shouts 
near their window ; the early ride to the ruins of Troy, and 
the sunrise while viewing the excavations made by Schliemann 
and reveling in the scenes before their eyes; a ride across 
the plain to the river Scamander, and the fountains of Forty 
Eyes ; a halt and dinner at Bonnar Cashi ; a view of the plain 
from this high point of vantage ; the return to the Dardanelles, 
where they arrived at sundown ; a repast, a pleasant evening, 
and a night of rest at the home of the Calverts ; and then the 
parting. Dr. Long returning to his home and Bishop Hurst 
taking the Russian steamer the next day, October 20, for 
Alexandria. He writes Mrs. Hurst from the Dardanelles, 
October 19: 

We had a wonderfully interesting time. I would take no price for 
this tour. It has been the dream of my life . . . and now I have seen 
it at last ! We had a Homer with us, and read it. Near here is 

In a Ship Carpenter's Room 257 

where Leander swam across the Hellespont to Hero (and so would 
I to you) ; also where Byron swam over. The house in which he 
stopped is near here. 

Of his few days in Egypt and his trip to Cheops, his letter 
to Helen, from Cairo, October 28, will tell : 

Yesterday I went to see the ruins of Memphis and also the great 
Pyramid of Cheops. Two gentlemen were with me. We took cars 
for fifteen miles, and each of us had a donkey, which rode on the 
cars until we reached the place near Memphis. Each donkey had a 
name : Flying Dutchman, Champagne Charley, and Yankee Doodle. 
The first was mine. He is a stumbler, and fell sprawling with me 
when in full gallop. But neither of us (donkey nor I) hurt ourselves. 
We all took lunch in a hut in the desert which now covers Memphis. 
Then we rode fifteen miles toward home, off one side of Cairo, to 
the great Pyramid. That was a big job. But it was a bigger one 
to go up it. One man lifted at one side and the other pushed. It 
was a grand view when we reached the top. Then we rode twelve 
miles home, and reached here just at dark. To-morrow I leave for 
Suez, and next day, 30th, go on board the steamer. 

To Mrs. Hurst from Suez, October 30. — I am in my new quarters. 
I had a hard time getting a berth. Last night I reached Suez, 
after a ride of eight hours, including an accident of two hours on 
the way, in the desert, to the engine, and saw the agent before going 
to bed. He said he would try to get a good room for me, but the 
boat was crowded. I left land this a. m. at nine, and came out to 
the steamer (Sutlej, just arrived from London) in a little steam 
tugboat, with the agent, and found that there were but two vacant 
berths, two people landing here. They were very poor, and two or 
three people in each room. So I began to negotiate to buy out an 
officer. The second mate and the doctor had sold out. The third 
mate would not sell, at £8 to Bombay. So I at last bargained with 
the carpenter for £6. I have drawers, writing table, and a nice 
hair mattress, and a good square window, high up, and every way 
nice. It is awfully dirty and greasy. My steward's name is "Light," 
and I said to him, "Now, Light, if you want to earn an extra 
shilling, get your soap and water and scrub out everything, wash out 
the grease, put the toilet fixings in shipshape." "I'll do it, sir," 
said Light, and he is at it with a vengeance. It is getting into good 
order now. He has only a white powder that he scrubs with, and 
he says, "That brings the paint and dirt both off." When he gets 

258 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

through I shall have a beautiful room. The carpenter has taken his 
things out, and I have my books in the little rack, and my things in 
the drawers, and am in nice shape. I can write every day and be 
entirely alone. 

To Mrs. Hurst, November 12. — I am in Bombay at last. Arrived 
two days ago, Monday, at four p. m., and went ashore in captain's 
launch. Presiding Elder Fox met me on the dock, and took me, 
bag and baggage, to a home in the second, or as we would say third, 
story of a building, the first floor of which is used as a cotton ware- 
house. The family is called F , Eurasians, children of English 

father and native mother. It is a large family, children in abundance. 
My room is in the rear part of the great dining room, and shut off 
from the rest by boards only a little higher than my head. All the 
racket of the family went on about me — piano, and rattle of kitchen 
things. Early in the morning, say at five, rattle again, perpetual 
agony of noises, and then at last breakfast. I was in agony all the 
time, slept but little, good old lady coughing all night. Dined out 
at Missionary Hard's last night, and after dinner an elderly lady, 
widow, called to take me along the sea, the great drive, the " Queen's 
Road." She finally asked me if I was comfortable. I told her at last 
how things were. She immediately said, " You ought to go to a 
hotel. You can't stand it." " Well," said I, " I'll try it another 
night." She replied, " You ought to go now." After getting back 
again I went upstairs, and about eight went to bed. Rattle to bang ! 
Rolled and pitched ! Clatter, clatter ! Got up, packed every rag I 
had, and went out — about nine p. M. " Where is Mr. F , chil- 
dren ? " " Gone to church !" " Mrs. F. ? " " Gone to church ! " 

" Well, tell your parents I am nervous and have lost sleep, and have 
gone to Watson's Hotel." Children amazed ! Grandmother, poor 
soul, who did the coughing, amazed. I called a " vici " (carriage), 
put in my " yaller bag," and was off in a jiffy. Bang at my door 
now — two missionaries ! They say Cleveland is elected. Bang again ! 

Coolie has come for the wash. Now back to F 's. Sent for rest 

of my baggage, with beautiful note, if I do say it myself, explaining. 
Beautiful note in reply from Mrs. F . All serene. It was provi- 
dential — that ride with the old English lady, who gave me good 
advice, and. if I meet her again, I shall thank her. 

J. A. Northrup, secretary of the South India Conference, 
writes : 

We were deeply impressed with the beautiful spirit of fraternity 

Reading Ritual in Hindustani 259 

and brotherly kindness which he manifested constantly toward all 
the members of our Conference, both American and native. The 
idea of his superiority never seemed to enter his noble mind and 
heart. He treated us all as brethren beloved with such perfect ease 
and naturalness that we saw in him a striking exemplification of our 
Saviour's humility. No evening meeting or Sunday service during 
that session of the Conference ever closed without an earnest appeal 
from the Bishop to the unconverted to turn to Christ. Even the 
ordination services were crowned with seekers of salvation responding 
to his loving invitation. Bishop Hurst, without the aid of an inter- 
preter, conducted the ordination of the native candidates in the 
Hindustani language, reading the ritual himself from a Roman Urdu 
copy with such correctness that his native auditors perfectly under- 
stood the reading. The marvel was that such a stranger to the 
language could so well prepare himself for that feat in only a few 
hours of study and practice. 

Between the sessions of the South and North India Con- 
ferences he spends Christmas at Cawnpore, then on to Luck- 
now for a few days, then to Shahjehanpore and Bareilly. Rev. 
(now Bishop) J. E. Robinson writes: 

How glad I was to see the dear man, whom I found as approach- 
able and affable as ever ! Elevation to the episcopacy had not spoiled 
him in the least. 

After adjournment at Bareilly he held the Central Confer- 
ence — the joint delegated body of the North and South India. 
Then he visited the Punjab in company with Dennis Osborne 
and Professor Frank W. Foote, of Cawnpore, taking in Lahore 
and Agra. Next in order was a trip over the district of the 
Central Provinces, 800 miles long, with the presiding elder, 
Clark P. Hard, who writes of the affection of his people for 
the Bishop, and quotes from a letter written by one of these. 
"O, how we love him!" To Mrs. Hurst he writes on train 
to Lahore: 

January 17, 1885. — Everything is going on in the same old way — 
banging about on cars, in wagons, and every way. I have been well 

260 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

ever since I have been here, except a few days' overwork in Calcutta. 
But I soon got over it. I was at five services, preaching twice and 
speaking besides three times. But I am now all right again, and hope 
to have no farther trouble. I am sure this Indian trip will be a great 
advantage to me — the perpetual sun-bath is splendid. The nights 
are now cold. I have to take all my bedding with me. Cars furnish 
nothing except the water. You find everything yourself — every stitch 
of towels and bedding. But the parcels ! Think of what a roll one 
has to travel with ! My bedding is as big as a barrel ! 

How he filled the interstices of this network of travel from 
the time he landed at Bombay early in November, 1884, to 
his departure in early February, 1885. he tells in that inform- 
ing book, Indika, the fruit of his journey and after-reflections. 
A slow trip on the Siam up the Arabian and Red Seas in 
February and a short excursion to review a few points in 
Palestine in early March bring him to Syria. March 9 he is 
at Beirut, where he pens these lines to Mrs. Hurst : 

We went to Damascus last Tuesday, the 3d, 60 miles, by diligence 
in one night. Stayed two days and went to the ruins of Baalbec. 
This whole journeying is a splendid experience, everything helping 
me in my Church History. Martin met me on my return. Dr. Bliss 
made me promise to come to his house — splendid home — on a prom- 
ontory overlooking the sea. I sail to-night for Smyrna, and shall be 
there a week, in the region of Ephesus, and Seven Churches of Asia. 
I preached here yesterday — read every word. 

The meeting with Dr. Bliss is thus described by Professor 
W. W. Martin, then teaching in the college with Dr. Bliss : 

This veteran missionary of the Presbyterian Church and the real 
builder of that noble college was immediately won by Bishop Hurst's 
simple and pleasant manner. The two talked together as if old-time 
friends. The Druse massacre in the Lebanon, the strange complex 
of the Mohammedan, making him possessor of the noblest faith in 
one God, yet blighted in all the best traits of our common humanity 
through a false and narrow civil code, and all that varied life of the 
Orient, as it was lived under the shadows of Lebanon, were grouped 
in the panorama of their mutual conversation. As we returned to 

Conferences in Europe 261 

the college Dr. Bliss remarked upon the fullness of the information 
possessed by Bishop Hurst, and said, " One would have thought that 
the good Bishop had lived among us and had shared our experiences. 
Your Bishop is a great man." 

His letters give us hints of his routes of travel and his 
anxiety for little Blanche in her illness during the summer 
of 1885. after he again struck European soil. To Rev. J. M. 
Erikson, Stockholm, from Naples, April 13: 

I am delighted to hear of the revivals in various parts of Sweden. 
I sympathize deeply with you in the loss of your child. I know 
just what that great sorrow is. The Lord comfort and bless you 
and your wife in your hours of trial ! 

To Mrs. Hurst from Copenhagen, May 18. — I have an article in 
the Pittsburg Advocate — Mediterranean Log Book — like the others 
you have seen. I leave here to-day for Motala. 

Motala, May 25. — I have just finished an article of 33 pages this 
size (note), for Chautauquan, on Athens. 

Stockholm, May 29. — Gothland has a wonderful history : used to be 
a Hanse island, and its chief city, Wisby, was very wealthy, like 
Liibeck and Hamburg. Now it is a city of ruins, and the new town 
is coming up again. I intend to make a Harper article on it, and 
have the photos for it. 

Goteborg, June 5. — Should anything happen to Blanche telegraph 
me immediately at one of those Conferences as named in the letter. 
I could meet the Cabinet and fix appointments and appoint a President 
and leave. How I wish I could carry the dear sweet child up and 
down stairs ! 

Christiania, June 8. — Perhaps the Lord means to test our faith, and 
will save dear Blanche, and so make us better Christians. 

On train coming from Norway Conference, June 15. — Yesterday 
was a great day at Conference (Trondhjem). In the afternoon 
we had a real revival service in the large Industrial Hall — said to be 
the largest hall in Norway. About 100 came to the altar, and there 
were about 20 conversions. 

Copenhagen, June 20. — I hope to preach a Danish sermon to- 

Chemnitz, Germany, July 1. — I reached here this a. m. at 8, from 
Conference. Our church in Saxony has always been troubled with 
imprisonments and arrests, and, as I had some success with the 

262 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

Prince in Bulgaria, and, I think, in Denmark, I made up my mind 
to make a trial. I heard that the Mayor of this city was friendly 
to us; and he is also a member of the Saxon Parliament. So, on 
my way to Dresden, I got out at Chemnitz, and have had a delightful 
visit with him. He is on very close terms with the Minister of 
Public Worship, and intimate with the King. He gave me very 
important information, and directions as to what to do. I am to 
go to Dresden, call on the Minister, and present our request, and 
then, when Parliament meets in the fall, present a formal application 
by letter to this gentleman, and he will send it on its course. Nothing 
may come, but if our preachers can be saved from arrest it will be 
a great end gained. 

Dresden, July 2. — Last night, at 10, I got the permission of the 
Minister of Public Worship for an interview to-day at 12. I had 
telegraphed here from Ludwigsburg to know if he was at home, and 
the answer was " No." But he was, and I came on the venture. 
I also saw the U. S. Consul, who is greatly interested. He is going 
to help get things in shape. He advises me to go to Berlin and see 
Pendleton, the new U. S. Minister. 

Berlin, July 4. — I reached here last night from Dresden, and went 
to see Mr. Pendleton. He became greatly interested in our matters, 
gave me coi.siderable help, and told me to depend upon him. The 
Consul in Dresden has taken the matter up with great vigor. Think 
of their arresting our preachers, and not allowing our preachers to 
read the service over a dead child in a graveyard, and trying to 
stop our services ! I think there is an end of this, and that the 
United States government will have something to say. 

Having- spent ten days in Frankfort and Kaiserslautern for 
a little rest, he joins his family in Paris. Soon they cross the 
Channel, and he spends the most of August in travel to differ- 
ent points. They attended the funeral service of General Grant 
in Westminster Abbey, then he hurried away to Newcastle to 
attend the Weslevan Conference, where he made an address 
August 6, "one of the most deeply interesting of the entire 
Conference — has never been excelled by any speaker to the 
Conference from the other side of the Atlantic," says the 
correspondent of the Daily Chronicle ; the next day to Ep- 
worth, where he was welcomed by the rector, Dr. Overton, and 

Why Not in Singapore? 263 

saw all the relics of the Wesleys ; joined his family again in 
London; dined with his family at Sir William McArthur's, 
the ex-Lord Mayor; attended City Road Chapel; reveled a 
few hours in the antiquarian collection of George John Steven- 
son; then away to Oxford, to Warwick and Kenilworth 
Castles, and Stratford-on-Avon ; then on to Edinburgh and 
other points in Scotland, whence he retraces his steps in time 
to get the steamer of August 27 from Liverpool to New York. 


A Bold Stretch of Faith and Authority 

The story of the founding of Singapore Mission, the great- 
est stroke of his entire foreign tour, is thus told by the Bishop 
himself in a letter (1891) to Secretary (now Bishop) McCabe: 

In the autumn of 1884 I took a miserable Russian steamer at 
Dardanelles, Asia Minor, for Alexandria. It was called The Tsar, 
and was used for carrying horses. I had just finished my tour to 
Troy, and had to pay the penalty for the privilege of visiting the scene 
of the Iliad by a three days' sail in that wretched boat across the 
eastern end of the Mediterranean. There were but two passengers 
besides myself. I wondered there was anyone. One was a German 
connected with the German consular service at Cairo. The other 
was a young German on his way to Singapore. I conversed much 
with this latter young man. He described Singapore as I had never 
heard it described before — a meeting place of languages, nations, 
faiths, and a stopping point for vessels in the Oriental trade of many 
nations. The thought occurred to me, " Have we ever had a Meth- 
odist missionary there?" Then it appeared .to me that we never 
had, but that from South India it would be most convenient to 
send one. 

On reaching Bombay, I think it was the first question I asked 
Dr. (now Bishop) Thoburn: "Why don't we have a missionary in 
Singapore? " 

" Can't send one," he answered ; " we have no man and no money." 

264 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

" Let's send one when our Conference meets in a fortnight in 
Hyderabad," I replied. 

aw he wanted it badly, but how to find the man was the question. 
When tlu- appointments of the South India Conference were read 
off, I announced: "Singapore, W. F. Oldham." 

Wlio and where was Oldham? He was on his way to India to 
take charge of our press at Rangoon, in Burma. Dr. Thoburn met 
him and told him where he had been appointed. Imagine his surprise 
i.i " he on his way to Burma," and to be "shot off one thousand five 
hundred miles beyond India"! But Dr. Thoburn told him he would 
go witli him and see what could be done. 

Now, not a dollar was appropriated for Oldham, or for a school, 
or for any beginning. It was a matter of faith and works only. 
During the winter Dr. Thoburn and Brother Oldham went to Singa- 
pore, began meetings, received a gift for a school from a Chinaman, 
and organized a little society. From that hour to this the Mission 
has grown. It is as fully a child of Providence as any work our 
church has undertaken. 

The General Missionary Committee, in November, 1887, refused 
to make of Singapore a Mission, but after a long and earnest debate 
referred the whole subject to the approaching General Conference. 

What did the General Conference do? It not only established the 
Mission, hut elected that same Dr. James M. Thoburn Bishop of 
India and Malaysia. Singapore was thus made not only a part of 
Bishop Thoburn's official territory, but, under the name of Malaysia, 
was made the point of central work and departure for the thirty 
Malaysian millions. 

To this appointment of Dr. (now Bishop) Oldham Bishop 
MeCabe made eloquent reference at Bishop Hurst's funeral 
in 1003 : 

Bishop Hurst seemed to have a sort of inspiration in opening new 

work. When he went to hold the Conferences in India he learned 

upon the steamer before reaching Alexandria, from a perfect stranger 

who showed him a map of Malaysia, of the commercial importance 

>iii£apore. He immediately resolved to occupy it. Even in his 

dreams Bishop Hurst saw a kingdom of God coextensive with all 

the earth. There was a young man coming from the United States 

take charge of our work in Rangoon. His name was W. F. 

Bishop Hurst immediately determined to send Oldham 

Oldham in Singapore 265 

to Singapore, and when the young man arrived at Calcutta, where 
he thought his journey was ended, Dr. Thoburn told him that his 
appointment was 1,500 miles farther on. Brother Oldham obeyed 
promptly, and went to Singapore and planted that Mission, which 
is now one of the most successful in all Methodism. It has connected 
with it a self-supporting boys' school, and the latest statistics show 
that that school has in it twenty-three instructors and 705 (later 
1,000) scholars, and is a center of religious and intellectual power 
for all that country and for Siam and Borneo. The Bishop created 
that Mission with the stroke of his pen. 

There is one incident connected with this school that used to make 
tears rush down Bishop Hurst's cheeks. 

Brother Oldham needed a helper, and we sent C. A. Gray there, 
from Zanesville, Ohio. As Brother Oldham saw him get off the 
steamer, and looked upon his stalwart form and noted his quick step, 
he said, " That is the very man for me." Mr. Gray took charge of 
the school, and in ten weeks he was taken ill. As a surprise to 
himself, and a great surprise to his friends, he was told by his physi- 
cian that he must die. He thought about it a little, and then gravi- 
tation shifting turned the other way, and he wanted to go home to 
his Father, young and strong as he was. He said to Brother Oldham: 
" Call in the boys," and they came in — forty boys, from Malaysia 
and Siam. " Boys," he said, " I have sent for you to let you see 
how a Christian can die. I want you to pass by and let me grasp 
each of you by the hand." And while those boys were going by him 
he began to sing, all alone: 

" Down at the cross where my Saviour died, 
Down where for cleansing from sin I cried, 
There to my heart was the blood applied, 
Glory to his name ! " 

Nobody could sing but the dying man. When the vacation came 
Brother Oldham went up into Java to get some new students, and 
he took dinner at the house of an old man. At the table one of his 
boys was sitting. The lad, who was the oldest son of the host, told 
the story of how the man sang when he was dying. Greatly agitated, 
the boy's grandfather took Brother Oldham by the coat, and said to 
him in the presence of the assembled company : " Do you see that 
boy? That is my grandson. He is the light of these old eyes. Take 
him and fill him full of that religion that makes a man sing when 
he dies." 

266 l"M\ Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

The fame of that wonderful song went all over that country. If 
Bishop Hurst could have known what was to happen, if he could 
have known about the Spanish war and its results, he could not 
have done a wiser thing than to plant that Mission at Singapore. 
That filled up the gap. That made a chain of Methodist missions 
clear around this globe. Now you can sail around the earth and not 
be very far at any time from a Methodist mission, and it was the 
farsighted wisdom of Bishop Hurst that did that. 

In a letter from Madras to The Christian Advocate of 
March 5, 1885, Bishop Hurst says: 

Fifty years ago, when Bishop Emory stood before the British Wes- 
leyan Conference with a flush of prophecy upon him, he exhorted 
its ministers to go East, while the young American daughter would 
go West, and the two would grasp hands somewhere in the Pacific 
Ocean. Little he thought the time would come when the daughter 
herself would send one force East and another West, and that the two 
would meet, in the Malay world, at the equator. Yet that is what she 
does. The Methodism of China and that of India have met, and 
now look each other in the face. The westernmost missionary in 
China can drop down the coast, while the Singapore pastor can go 
up to meet him : and together they can sing doxologies over the fact 
that the church which has sent them out from its warm heart has 
put its zone around the earth. 

Bishop Oldham writes: 

Bishop Hurst did me the high honor to appoint me to the opening 
of our Mission in Singapore, though he knew there was no missionary 
apportionment to sustain the enterprise. His quiet confidence in my 
ability to meet the strange situation was one of my chief assets, for it 
would have required more courage to disappoint such cheerful confi- 
dent than to achieve success in the face of almost any difficulty. 
W hen, after a few months, I was greatly beset with the unexpected 
emergencies with which neither experience nor resource gave me much 
fitting to cope, I was again greatly helped by kind personal letters, 
which were better for me at that time than any missionary subsidy 
: could have come. I found him ever after eagerly interested 
the affairs of that Mission, and so urbane and considerate in 
treatment of me personally that it was to me always a matter for 
ratulation to be thrown into his company. 

" And Malaysia " 267 

To have a man of his massive attainments so continually at work 
with the details of the church has always impressed me with the feel- 
ing for the necessity of us smaller men to be untiring in our own 

On the steamer Siam when fairly out of sight of India on 
the Arabian Sea and he had turned his face toward his family, 
who were spending the winter in Paris, he wrote again on 
February 10 to the Advocate of April 30: 

If from all the lands where our people are now singing their 
Centennial psalms our church were suddenly blotted out, there is 
aggressive force enough in India Methodism alone to sail to all the 
continents and islands and plant it over again. I have no regrets 
at the appointment of Dr. Thoburn as Conference evangelist. It 
means an evangelist for all India. He is just now in Singapore, away 
down on the equator, and within sight of China. Dr. Thoburn and 
the new pastor for Singapore, the Rev. W. F. Oldham, went down 
together to organize our church there. All honor to Allegheny 
College for sending out the first man for the Malay millions, and 
to complete the connection between India and China ! Think of the 
joy which the heroic Bishop Wiley would have had had he been 
a witness to the arrival of these men there ! But who knows how 
much he did see? The map of his sublime faith was very broad. 

When in 1888, on the day of Dr. Thoburn's election as Mis- 
sionary Bishop, the presiding Bishop announced that fact, 
and used the words "for India," Bishop Hurst instantly rose, 
walked rapidly to the chairman, and told him to give the full 
title — "for India and Malaysia." The correction was made, 
and when, a few months later, an attempt was made to close 
the Malaysia Mission, a reference to the General Conference 
action sufficed to end the controversy. How fitting was the 
election of Dr. Oldham by the General Conference of 1904 
as Missionary Bishop and his assignment to Southeastern Asia 
with headquarters at Singapore! 

John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

1&56-57. — At Buffalo. — Blanche's Death. — Fifteen Conferences in Eight 
States, East, Central, and South 

The arrival of Bishop Hurst and his family in America 
in September was soon followed by a most hearty and suc- 
cessful public reception at Buffalo in the auditorium and par- 
if the Delaware Avenue Church. Presiding Elder Albert 
X. Fisher presided. Dr. W. S. Studley, of Lockport, offered 
prayer, Dr. John B. Wentworth spoke in behalf of the min- 
isters, and Mr. F. H. Root spoke for the laity. Greetings were 
read also from the preachers and laymen of Rochester. The 
church was thronged with people not only from the city, but 
from many of the adjoining towns in Western New York. 
Bishop Hurst replied informally but heartily to these various 
kindly expressions of regard, thanking all for the pleasing 
warmth of his reception. He felt for the first time that he 
lived here, though he had lately been giving his residence 
as Buffalo. 

He rounds out 1885 with three Conferences: Genesee at 
Lima. Xew York (his new home Conference), the Holston 
at Johnson City, Tennessee, and the East Tennessee at Knox- 
ville. A line jotted down by the w r riter at Lima on October 
1 was: "Bishop Hurst presides easily." At the Educational 
Anniversary in College Hall (of old Genesee College) he spoke 
and neatly opened the way for a generous subscription in 
behalf of the Genesee Wesleyan Seminary. On Sunday 
besides preaching he spoke with his usual effectiveness at 
two missionary anniversaries. On his way to Tennessee he 
takes in a brief visit to Cambridge, Maryland, where he revives 
y memories : 

To Mrs. Hurst. October 11: 

The pastor met me at the boat, and invited me to preach, which 

U/lfriA cyw? 




Death of Blanche 269 

I did. The church is greatly improved, and is handsome. A fine 
congregation present. Leader of the choir was an old schoolmate; 
another sat in the front seat ; another, when I was only nine years 
old, and attended school in the woods, was present. We had fought 
many a time. One fine-looking but very aged lady told me this : 
She nursed me when I was sick and in infancy. One night I was 
supposed to be dead, and gave no sign of life. My father and mother 
thought I was dead, took leave of me, and went upstairs. About 
midnight I roused up, and called for water. My father and mother 
came rushing downstairs. The old lady said, " I reckon you never 
saw a prouder set in your life." To make the story more remarkable. 
her mother nursed my mother in her final illness. 

October 12. — I saw the old house where I used to leave my horse 
when I first rode '* into town " to school. 

On his way from the Holston to the East Tennessee he 
writes to Paul : 

Morristown, October 20. — Three Presidents were from Tennessee 
— Jackson, Polk, and Johnson. Johnson was a tailor, from Green- 
ville, and his sign is still over the little shop where he used to sit 
cross-legged, and sew clothes. 

Returning from Philadelphia, he finishes settling in the new 
home at the recently purchased episcopal residence, 455 Frank- 
lin Street, preaches to the Germans of Mortimer Street Church 
in his facile and happy use of their language, and addresses the 
District Conference, November 24, on the New South. Here, 
just as the family were rejoicing to find the quiet harbor 
after eighteen months of travel and broken plans, a new, yet 
not unknown, and sore sorrow broke upon his home and heart 
in the sudden illness and death of the sweet and loving Blanche 
from diphtheria. For ten days they battled bravely and pa- 
tiently, and, from the nature of the disease, well-nigh alone. 
On December 7 her gentle spirit took its flight to the bosom 
of her Saviour, leaving her father and mother, twice-stricken, 
with empty arms. After a very private funeral on the 10th. 
conducted by Drs. Iglehart, J. E. Smith, and Fisher, her 

John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

precious dust was deposited in beautiful Forest Lawn. While 
bowing in humble and hopeful resignation both Bishop and 
.Mrs. Hurst felt most keenly the loss of the child who even 
beyond her years took a knowing interest in the affairs of the 
home, and by her natural trend to domesticity had become. 
though "iily in her twelfth year, in no small measure the 
helpful adviser and close companion of her mother. Mrs. 
Hurst never fully recovered her buoyancy of spirit, and there- 
after her interest in the labors, cares, and joys of life with her 
loved ones and numerous friends on earth seemed divided 
with a longing for the coming joys of reunion with those 
gone before. Of his own sorrows Bishop Hurst once wrote: 

The most unpleasant element in the most of my severe disciplines 
i> that each stands largely alone, and there cannot, in most instances, 

iie an opportunity when the special wisdom learned from the dark 
experience can ever be applied again. 

Xot thus was it in this repeated sorrow- of a lovely daughter 
taken from his side. For he wrote again: 

What are our griefs but wishes? Every tear of sorrow is the 
language to a desire that the case were otherwise. Folly indescribable ! 
If my two daughters were living within a block of me in all joy and 
comfort, every hour a song and every year a chain of delights, 
c-ould T wish them to come into my cold and dreary hut. where the 
le is scanty and the language that of toil and pain? No, not for 
a moment. My happiness would be to know their happiness. Neither 
rnn I wish them back upon the earth. Their mansions are the homes 
inscrutable — fair, suited to their taste, prepared for them by the 
Hand which never makes an unloving stroke. 

ing under engagement to speak at a mass meeting in 
Xew York in the interests of the effort to raise a million dollars 
i year for missions, he sought release in this note of mingled 
ef and faith to Secretary McCabe: 

December T4. — The great sorrow which has fallen upon my home 
will prevent my participating in the missionary meeting at the Acad- 

Missionary Address in New York 271 

emv of Music on the evening of the 17th. I had made all my prepara- 
tions, but if I were with you I could not, with my present terrible 
burden, do justice to you, or the occasion, or myself. My bleeding 
heart would be more in the immediate past, I fear, than in the future. 
My duty, just now, is with my stricken family. Having seen our 
work in Europe and India the last, I should have been glad to give 
what picture I could of our great field. I sympathize fully with the 
effort for the million. It is as certain as the rising sun. No better 
or more sure battle cry has been heard upon our front line. 

But in response to repeated and urgent invitations he finally 
consented to go to this sixty-fifth anniversary of the Mis- 
sionary Society and, smothering his sorrow as best he could, 
took his part in the prepared programme. Bishop Harris 
presided, Dr. William Butler offered prayer, Dr. John M. 
Reid, General Clinton B. Fisk, and Dr. James M. Buckley 
all spoke in characteristic vein. Dr. O. H. Warren says : 

All the addresses were interesting and impressive, while that of 
Bishop Hurst is especially commended, not only for its character, 
but its adaptation to the needs of the hour. 

With what vivid and heart-capturing pictures did he show 
the obligation to missionary effort growing out of interna- 
tional kinship ! Here is one : 

If any should say that there is no parental bond uniting us with 
India, it may be replied that long before the civilization of Greece 
and Rome, or even before Pelasgic times, the Teutonic family was 
on the high table-lands of Asia. When William Butler was in India 
he was an Aryan boy carrying the gospel to the old home. If Paul 
could say, " I am debtor to the Jew and the Greek," much more may 
the American say he is debtor to each of the lands whence his 
national life is drawn. We are only visiting our Aryan relatives there. 

The writer was at this time pastor of the Colden. Boston, 
and West Falls Circuit on Buffalo District. Bishop Hurst 
spent a part of March 6, 7, and 8, 1886, with him. preaching 
and conducting the communion service at Boston on Sunday 

John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

morning in the Baptist church, which was opened for us, to 
accommodate the large congregation, more than filling the 
modest Methodist church. The Baptist brethren were present 
and communed with us — in spirit — in their own house of 
worship, really in the Lord's house. In the evening he gave 
an inspiring address on missions in the Colden church. This 
service he rendered to the hard-worked presiding elder, A. N. 
Fisher, in lieu of the same promised three months before just 
at the time of dear Blanche's fatal illness. It lingers a pleasant 
memory of the people. 

His official duties called him in the spring of 1886 to the 
presidency of the New Jersey Conference at Bridgeton (at 
the close of which he visited his sister in her final illness and 
was with her at her death, on March 18, at Cambridge), the 
East German and the Xew York both in New York, and the 
Vermont at Chelsea. The session of the New York Con- 
ference was one to test his powers, his patience, and his judg- 
ment to the utmost. Three trials of preachers were a part 
of the severe ordeal. Dr. A. K. Sanford writes: 

By the skill and prudence which characterized his presidency he 
carried the Conference wisely and safely through the storm. 

While attending the semiannual meeting of the Bishops in 
Minneapolis, in May. 1886, he dedicated the Central German 
Church. G. E. Hiller. their pastor, says: 

< )n Sunday morning he arrived very early before the opening of 
our Sunday school, which took place at nine o'clock. He first went 
to the Norwegian Sunday school, two blocks away, and made an 
address in Norwegian, then he went to our Thirteenth Avenue Church 
( one block away) and spoke in English, and at 10:30 he preached the 

licatory sermon of our church, in German. He spoke with remark- 
able correctness and fluency. 

While traveling through Ohio he writes on train, Monday, 

July 26, to Mrs. I Turst: 

Our " Methodist Melanchthon ' -73 

Saturday evening went to a lecture in Mount Union College, by 
Mr. McKinley, Congressman, on Civil Service. 

Ocean Grove was among the places he visited in x\ugust, 
and his sermon there on the 18th, on "Christ the Liberator," 
made a profound impression. The reporter for the Philadel- 
phia Inquirer says : 

For correctness and beauty of style, for scientific accuracy in 
delineation and argument, for adherence to the rules of rhetorical 
address, for elegance of diction and classical taste, for close observ- 
ance of the principles of scriptural exegesis, the sermon evoked great 
attention, and was closed with a most fervent appeal to the people 
to accept Christ as their liberator from the bondage of sin. 

His fall Conferences, 1886, called him to the Detroit at 
Adrian, the Michigan at Kalamazoo, then, after the General 
Committees, during which he took time to make the dedicatory 
address of the New Hall of Theology at Boston University 
on November 10, his theme being the "Theology of the Twen- 
tieth Century," away to the Texas group: Austin at Dallas, 
Southern German at Perry, Texas at Huntsville, and the West 
Texas at Victoria. Of his address at Boston, when Professor 
Buell introduced him as our "Methodist Melanchthon," Dr. 
Louis A. Banks says : 

The ninety minutes sped by as if they were oiled. Every listener 
felt the inspiration to do grander work for Christ. 

Having finished his work in Texas, he goes to inspect the 

work and preside over the Conference in Mexico, held at 

Puebla, in January, 1887. The importance of his Mexican 

tour justifies a separate treatment under another caption. His 

return from Mexico was early enough to permit him to preside 

in the spring at the North Indiana Conference at Marion, 

and the Delaware at Chestertown, Maryland, and to assist 

Bishop Harris at Troy Conference by presiding and preaching 

274 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

for him. He spent a few days at home in June, during which 
he writes on the 28th to Mrs. Hurst in Philadelphia: 

Mail small; no calls. Flowers all watered — pigeons happy — plenty 
of light in windows — no flies — plenty to eat — Osborn here — clocks 
wound up — busy all the time. 

He served in 1887 with Dr. J. M. Buckley and General 
Clinton B. Fisk as a committee of correspondence with the 
pastor of City Road, Wesley Chapel, London, on the design 
fi »r the memorial window to Bishop Simpson. In a letter of 
August 4 to C. C. McCabe he said : 

The saloon will be as complete an antiquity as a slave block or 
the fuming laboratory of a mediaeval adept in the Black Art. 

His service as a member of the Board of Education of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church began in December, 1886, when 
he was chosen to fill the vacancy caused by Bishop Harris's 
death, and continued to his life's end. 


Official Tour in Mexico 

After completing at Victoria his presidency of the four 
nferences in Texas, and having been joined by Mrs. Hurst. 
Helen, and Paul, he traveled easily and reached Mexico city 
on New Year's morning. 1887. For the fi rst time in its his- 
tory the annual session of the Conference was held outside 
of the capital, this year at Puebla. in the school building of 
the Woman's Foreign Missionary Society. He devoted about 
two months to visiting the more important places — nearly two 
weeks before and about six weeks after the five days at Puebla. 
Besides several days of inspection, preaching, and reconnoiter- 

On the Mountains of Mexico 275 

ing in the city of Mexico, he made an excursion to several 
places in the state of Hidalgo. Of the ride from Pachuca 
to El Chico he says : 

One after another the horses came in from the street and sauntered 
about the patio. Once on the upper hills, the great valley stretches 
out about us. We are climbing up the mountains beyond Pachuca, 
which is 8,150 feet above the level of the gulf. Here are mines, 
and mines and mines again — no less than 150 in this neighborhood in 
activity. One mine out of twenty-five pays expenses. The rest are 
successful only in raising expectations. The conclusion is, " Keep 
out of them all." 

But our horses have struck the cobble stones of the old town of 
El Chico. Dr. Rule, an English gentleman, has presented to our 
church a new edifice, which cost eighteen hundred dollars, and I am 
to dedicate it to-night. He comes out to bid us welcome and stands 
at the gateway of his hacienda. Our horses file into his large court 
and are evidently glad to get rid of their riders. Faithful they have 
been, for not one has fallen with his rider. The four hours have 
been a short bit of Mexican enchantment. On our return from El 
Chico to Pachuca we made a side excursion bv wagron from Velasco 
to Regla Hacienda and back by way of the famous mines of Real 
del Monte. 

Dr. S. P. Craver says of his supervision of the Conference 
at Puebla : 

The routine business was dispatched with rapidity, the Bishop 
having acquired such acquaintance with the Spanish language that 
he understood a large part of the discussions and motions without 
interpreting. The Mexican brethren were surprised and pleased to 
hear him read the Scripture and the prayer of consecration in the 
celebration of the Lord's Supper in their own language. Some of 
the brethren were surprised to find what a grasp he had upon the 
situation, the conditions and needs of the work, and of special phases 
of it, since he appeared to have given little or no attention to those 
aspects of it when he had been spoken to about them. He would 
go out for a walk with some brother who desired to lay before him a 
case, and would listen with apparently little concern, but would be 
sure to find his way to some old bookstall and pick up some odd 
volume which seemed to attract his attention more than the particular 
subject-matter in hand. But the next day he would ask a question 

j-,, John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

that showed he had not lost a word of what had been told him, and 
that he had pondered the whole case carefully. He showed great 
interest in any literary work the missionaries might be doing, and 
stimulated them to make good use of the pen, laying special stress 
upon the broader influence they could thereby wield. 

Alter the Conference was over he made a trip to the work in 

( )rizaba and Cordova on the Vera Crnz Railway, and another 

«m horseback into the mountain region of Puebla. At Xochia- 

pulco he dedicated another new church. Of this trip and 

•.cation he says: 

My riding, of some weeks before, to the Regla Hacienda had been 
on a Mexican saddle, and I never want anything better, for a fixed 
condition. You get twisted, and braced, and curved, and involved, 
and then packed far down into your rawhide compress, and after 
three or four hours the thing becomes a part of you, and then it is 
ier to stay there the rest of the day than to get out. The machine 
never turns. A girth, which makes it easier for a horse to turn 
a somersault without itself moving an inch, is an outcome of a long 
and combined Toltec, Aztec, and Spanish civilization. Whatever 
goes wrong with one here in Mexico, he must be sure of two things 
—a perfect girth for his saddle and a revolver. With one day's 
exception. I have had no revolver. A trusty weapon was offered me. 
witli the belt full of bristling cartridges; but the machinery would 
not fit me, and I handed it back. So my whole defensive outfit has 
been only a pocketknife, a bunch of keys, and a pocketful of small 

Range after range we crossed. Up and down and along great 
barrancas lay our bridle path. Often it was a mere narrow groove, 

'->ped out of precipitous mountain sides. Now and then we reached 
a lofty point, where new teeth of the Sierras, or combs, came into view. 
In two hours we arrived at a crest where great Orizaba, with its 
beautiful hood of everlasting snow, stood before us, as if to say, " I 
am more than a picture." By and by we came in sight of Xochia- 
pulco, perched on a hilltop. For miles we saw the tower of our 
beautiful new church, the highest object in the old Aztec town. Flags, 
rinp the Mexican colors of red, white, and green, fluttered from 
both the outer and inner walls of the church. The floor was covered 
with a carpet of pine spires, gathered from the surrounding groves. 
The aroma from them was sweeter than any incense which ever 

Embraced by Indians 277 

arose from a silver censer in silvery Mexico. The town bell rang 
out glad peals, which reverberated along the mountain sides and down 
the far-reaching barrancas. 

The people were Indians, descendants of the very Aztecs whom 
Cortez found here three centuries and a half ago, and whose off- 
spring has occupied these mountains ever since. The old Aztec 
tongue, which in literature is commonly called here Lengua Mejicana, 
is the language of the home and of business. Many understand 
Spanish, but the most do not, and all prefer to use the dear old 
speech of Montezuma's day, when no Cortez had caught sight of the 
sandy dunes where Vera Cruz now stands. 

My address was interpreted from English into Spanish by the 
Rev. Dr. Greenman. But how could we get the Spanish into Aztec? 
We had taken with us from Tetela the Rev. Mr. Aguilar, who is part 
Aztec himself, and knows the language; but he knows no English, 
though a good Spanish scholar. He, therefore, translated the Spanish 
interpretation into Aztec, and so the audience had in their own 
language all that was said. It was a strange scene — three men stand- 
ing on a platform, and filtering a dedicatory address from English 
into Aztec ! There were mothers in the audience, having their small 
children with them. Some of these little bronze creatures had been 
brought for baptism, but were impatient; and it was the strongest 
piece of public competition on which I ever entered when I endeav- 
ored to raise my voice to a key higher than the combined voices of 
twenty juvenile Aztecs. The dedicatory address lasted just thirty 
minutes ; that is, ten minutes each for the three languages. I baptized 
ten of the children. 

After the close of the services I was informed that it was now 
in order to receive the salutations of the audience. Ignorance was 
my misfortune. An Aztec salutation is a most absorbing and con- 
suming process, but a high art. The chief men of Xochiapulco came 
up first, each one embracing me, letting the hands meet, and patting 
me on the back. Of course, it was my duty to do the same thing. 
After the embrace, there came a grasp of hands. My inexperience 
made me a little awkward at first, but by the time I reached the fifth 
or sixth Indian the process became easier. But when I had gone 
through about fifteen such embraces, and the audience moving for- 
ward seemed about as large as at the beginning, I saw only utter 
defeat in view, and finally escaped by getting out of the church, 
leaving my two companions to make amends for my want of farther 

As the sun gilded the hills stretching far out from Xochiapulco, 

j-X I mi in Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

we took a walk to the old graveyard of the place. On returning to our 
lodgings we rolled ourselves up in our wraps and lay down to a 
perfect night's rest. Our next day's ride was through the ancient 
town of Xacapoaxtla to Mazapa, a distance of forty miles, where 
we spent the night with our familiar saddles, bridles, and blankets 
piled up about us. 

Vgain returning to Mexico, after a few days he took his 
third extended trip, this time through the western district, 
having in the meanwhile dedicated a third chapel to Christian 
worship in Ixtaculco, a small Indian village near Mexico city, 
and made a two days' visit to the flourishing work at Mira- 

Another mountain excursion of two brisk hours on horse- 
back takes him to Amecameca, at the base of Popocatepetl, 
where are the shrines of Saint Helena and others of the Monte 

His trip to the northern part of the field embraced an all- 
night's journey from Mexico to Leon; thence to Guanajuato, 
where a day was spent in sight-seeing, and the Sabbath in 
addressing two large congregations and the Sunday school: 
thence to Salamanca; the next day to Cortazar; then in the 
evening, a dark and somewhat risky coach ride to the night 
train for Queretaro. where he arrived at midnight. The next 
day was spent in visiting the historical spots in this historic 
city, followed by preaching again in the evening to an inter- 
ested congregation as he had at the four places just named. 
He took the midnight train for the capital, where, on the 
Sabbath following, he preached his farewell sermon in Mexico, 
and on Monday night was off with his family for the north. 

Hunting Prairie Chickens 279 

1887-S8. — Ten Conferences in Seven States, West, East, and Sooth.— 

Leaving Buffalo 

His official travels in the fall of 1887 were to the Saint 
Louis German at Warrenton, Missouri, North Nebraska at 
Fremont, West Nebraska at Broken Bow, the Nebraska at 
Lincoln, Pittsburg at New Brighton, Pennsylvania, and Cen- 
tral New York at Elmira. After adjournment at Fremont 
he hastened to Omaha, where he writes Mrs. Hurst, Septem- 
ber 13: 

Last night we had a union meeting and took $18,000 subscription 
for a new church. 

Of his presidency at West Nebraska Dr. P. C. Johnson says : 

Marked by a careful, easy, courteous manner. His bearing was 
modest, kind — nothing obtrusive or excessive. Without losing for a 
moment the dignity of his place, office, or person, he was easy and 
brotherly. He could be firm, even commanding. 

Here is a bit of newspaper comment in Lincoln, Nebraska : 

Bishop Hurst is dignified and learned, but happy, natural, and 
companionable. He enjoys the little asides that keep men young. 
Monday at Broken Bow he engaged in a chicken hunt — not failing, 
either, in practical results. 

In many churches he gave addresses on Mexico, illuminating 
and stimulating to missionary zeal and gifts. One of these 
was in Summerfield Church, Brooklyn, on November 7, while 
the General Committees were in session. "The Estrangement 
of the Masses from the Church" was the subject of his able 
and useful address before the General Christian Conference 
held by the Evangelical Alliance in Washington, D. C, in 
December, 1887. The anniversary of sweet Blanche's decease 
did not pass without messages to the lonely one in Buffalo : 

jSo John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

Washington, December 6. 

To Mrs. Hurst: 

You will receive this on the 7th. My heart will be with you all 
the time. 

December 7. — I think much of our dear Blanche. Let us be watch- 
ful and patient and we shall see her, and dear, sweet Clara, in the 
heaven above and beyond. 

On December 15 he read a liturgical form prepared by him- 
self especially for the occasion at the dedication of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Hospital in Brooklyn. It was printed in The 
Christian Advocate of the following week. On introducing 
him to the assembly Dr. Buckley, the President of the Board 
of Trustees, said : 

Years ago I was an inmate of a hospital midway between London 
and Constantinople, one of the best in the world, but its manage- 
ment was utterly devoid of sympathy with Christianity. During those 
five weeks I did not once hear the name of Jesus spoken by those 
about me, and no minister's hand was extended to me in Christian 
brotherhood beneath that roof, except the hand of Bishop Hurst, 
who happened to visit me wmile there. You can understand, there- 
fore, the satisfaction which I felt when the committee selected him to 
perform the dedicatory service of an institution which will carry in 
one hand medicine for the body, and in the other the Balm of Gilead 
for the soul. 

From San Gabriel, California, came to him from Dr. Abel 
Stevens these strong words of appreciation and cheer as the 
.Yew Year broke: 

Mrs. Stevens wishes me to beg you and their mother to kiss the 
little folks of the household for us. We fell in love with them at 
Geneva, and often talk about them here, in the ends of the world. 
' ."d bless them and the good mother who is so worthy of such blessed 
maternity. God bless you also, my dear old friend, and spare you 
long for his people ! 

The South Carolina at Charleston, the Virginia at Berry- 
ville. the Baltimore at First Church, Baltimore, and the Phila- 

Opening Gates for Preachers 281 

delphia at Twelfth Street Church, Philadelphia, were his Con- 
ferences for the first half of 1888. Prior to the session in 
Charleston he fulfilled a long-cherished desire to visit Savan- 
nah and vicinity. He writes Mrs. Hurst: 

Near Washington, on way to Savannah, January 26. — In the night 
I woke, and had some good aphorisms come to me, and I wrote them 

And Helen, Savannah, January 31 : 

Savannah is a most curious place. There are many little squares, 
and very old little buildings and walls which date from Colonial times. 
There is a fine monument to Pulaski (read him up). I spent yes- 
terday in visiting old and new Ebenezer — where the Salzburgers 
had their home in America. Some of their descendants are still here, 
and one of them drove me across the country and back — a distance of 
30 miles. Whitefield and Wesley both visited their home. You 
find Wesley's Works, and in his Journal you will see, early in first 
volume, his account of his visit to the Salzburgers. Read it up — 
examine you when I come home ! See if I don't. 

At the South Carolina Conference, J. B. Middleton says : 

He referred to the session of the first Methodist Conference held 
in this city just 101 years before, and briefly compared the numerical 
and spiritual strength of Methodism of that time with the present 
day. The address did not consist in mere statistical forms or rhetori- 
cal flourishes ; but rather in a scholarly presentation of important 
truths in such a way that the most untutored mind could grasp and 
hold the great central thought — the advancement of the Redeemer's 
kingdom and the ultimate triumph of the Cross. 

When he opened the Baltimore Conference he said with 
great feeling : 

I thank God for the brotherhood of Methodist ministers. I remem- 
ber down on Eastern Shore, where I was born, that my highest 
honor in boyhood was to open the gates for the preacher who came 
to visit our home. I have been trying to open gates for the preachers 
ever since. I am only too thankful when I can help a minister into 
a better place. 

John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

Dr. W. S. Edwards says: 

In council and in the chair he was careful and courteous, dignified 
without stiffness, and kind without running over with gush. 

Of his work at Philadelphia, Dr. W. L. McDowell writes: 

The Conference was delightfully impressed with his geniality and 
brotherliness. His addresses to the classes for admission into full 
membership and his sermons were characterized by clearness, thought- 
fulness, scholarliness, and spirituality. 

The tender memory of his mother thus mingled with an 
assuring message to his wife sent from New York at the begin- 
ning of the General Conference of 1888: 

May 3. — This is one of the few anniversaries I can remember — 
the day of my mother's death. I sometimes think she is looking 
on me, and her good spirit is with me. 

In the new adjustment of episcopal residences at the close 
of the General Conference, he chose Washington, succeeding 
Bishop Andrews, who went to New York, and being followed 
at Buffalo by Bishop Vincent. The people of Buffalo sig- 
nalized his departure by giving him and his family a farewell 
reception at the Delaware Avenue parsonage. One of the most 
pleasing and fitting features of this occasion was the reading 
by Benjamin Copeland of his parting tribute: 

Farewell, beloved Bishop Hurst, 
In scholarship and kindness, first! 
The saintly name befits him well, 
On whom the Madeley mantle fell. 
A bishop? Yes; and more, — a man ! 
Magnanimous in deed and plan, 
A Brother of the Common Life, 
A chieftain in Thought's sternest strife. 
With every noble cause allied, 
Niagara's flood, Potomac's tide 
Shall tell unto the utmost sea 
His seerlike faith and chivalry. 

Leaving Buffalo 283 

God grant that many years be given, 

Ere Bishop Hurst goes home to heaven. 

Watch over him by day and night, 

Ye angels, excellent in might ! 

But when the church laments him, dead, 

This to his praise shall then be said : 

Close to the weak he ever stood ; 

In goodness, great; — in greatness, good. 

The value of these appreciative lines to Bishop and Mrs. 
Hurst may be inferred from his letter of July 20, from Cottage 
City, to Mr. Copeland : 

I wish the subject were worthier — but if he strives to become 
more worthy of the tribute, that may be one end gained. Kind words 
generally come too late, but such as have come to me have done 
me more good than harm. 

Mrs. Hurst wrote Mr. Copeland from Washington, April 
26, 1889: 

Your beautiful lines on Bishop Hurst are still ringing in my ears 
— " Niagara's flood — Potomac's tide." 

Many will be glad that the exhortation which Bishop Hurst 
sent from Shelter Island in July, 1889, to the author of these 
verses has been obeyed: "Keep on touching the harp." His 
uniform helpfulness to the preachers and churches of Buffalo 
whenever he could aid has been expressed by Thomas Cardus 
as "his unvarying kindness and the urbanity of manner with 
which he received my requests for his presence and services 
sometimes rendered at the cost of self-sacrifice." Dr. (now 
Bishop) James W. Bashford says : 

During my two years' pastorate at the Delaware Avenue Church, 
Mrs. Hurst was a constant attendant at the services, and at the 
prayer meetings, and Bishop Hurst was a regular attendant at the 
church when he was not engaged elsewhere in episcopal duties. I 
yet marvel at the appreciation with which he listened to my preach- 
ing. I shall never be able to express his helpfulness to me in those 

284 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

early days. Nor shall I ever forget the courtesy with which he 
always received me and his kindness in coming often to the par- 
sonage and inviting me to walk with him in the afternoon. We had 
many delightful walks together, in which we discussed many prob- 
lem-- of church and state. He was unusually full of information 
gleaned from the best books in theology and ecclesiology. I often said 
to him, after one of these walks, that I thought he ought to write 
more, because he seemed to me to have a message for the church 
which he had not fully expressed. 

His Busy Pen 285 

The Author 

Books of Two Quadrcnniums 

His literary instinct and habit, which had not surrendered 
to the pressure of executive labors and administrative cares at 
Drew, not only survived amid the jostling of two prolonged 
removals of his family, his household effects, and his library, 
with all the interruptions incident to a proper adjustment to 
the new social environment, but took on new forms of pro- 
ductiveness as his new office, with its extensive travel and in- 
numerable contacts with men, brought him to the practical 
survey of new fields ; yet still clung tenaciously to the themes 
and departments of theological study which had earlier won 
a firm place in his thought and purpose. The stream of his 
numerous contributions over his own name to the periodical 
press, by no means confined to those of his own denomination, 
seemed to broaden with the ever-widening circles of his jour- 
neys to and fro in the earth and became the living nerves for 
the transmission of inspiring information to the church from 
the points of its impact upon the world, while the volume of 
his anonymous writing which for years had been flowing into 
the editorial columns of The Christian Advocate and a few 
other journals, both religious and secular, continued with but 
slight if any diminution. 

A brief survey of his books and pamphlets, issued during 
the first two quadrenniums of his episcopal residence at Des 
Moines and Buffalo, brings to our view an interesting group. 

Bibliotheca Theologica, a Bibliography of Theology and 
General Religious Literature, was published by Scribners in 

286 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

[883. This book, like several others of his writing, appeared 
m a form which was the resultant of an original and broad 
purpose, in this case dating as early as 1867, during his resi- 
dence in Bremen, to make a general thesaurus, but later modi- 
tied to bring it into a more compact compass more suited to 
the actual needs of preachers and theological students. Of his 
first scheme he says: 

The titles of foreign books multiplied rapidly and my interest in 
the undertaking steadily increased. But the material became unwieldy 
and, after two years of such labor as could be bestowed upon it, the 
completion seemed farther in the future than at the outset. I 
reached a point where it seemed best to sacrifice a cherished plan 
to a public want. 

The book was prepared in "mere fragments of time" saved 
"during the stress and pressure of graver duties; somewhat," 
he says, "after the fashion of that choice piece of work, 
Bethune's edition of good Izaak Walton's Complete Angler, 
of which, when completed, the editor said: 'I have lost no 
time by it, for it was the occupation of moments when others 
would have been looking out of the windows.' In the com- 
pilation of titles and other ways he was aided successively in 
the progress of the work, in Germany by John P. Jackson ; 
at Madison by the writer, by George B. Smyth, and by George 
J. Coombes ; and at Des Moines by J. C. W. Coxe. The book 
contains about 5,300 titles, giving size, pages, publishers, date 
and place of publication, with an index each of authors and 
subjects, on 431 clear open octavo pages. It formed the basis 
of his later and larger work entitled Literature of Theology. 

Theological Encyclopaedia and Methodology, a joint product 
with Dr. George R. Crooks, came from the press of the 
Methodist Book Concern in 1884, being the third in the series 
of the Biblical and Theological Library to appear, though it 
was the second on which the printing was begun. This work 

The Sword of Christ 287 

was on the general plan of Professor Hagenbach, of Basel, 
but many modifications and adaptations to English students 
were introduced. Of this pioneer volume in English Professor 
Philip Schaff, of the Union Theological Seminary, said: "It 
is the only book in the English language, so far, which answers 
the purpose." Professor H. M. Scott, of Chicago Theological 
Seminary, says: "The valuable and indispensable book of 
Hagenbach is not merely given us in American dress, but the 
additions and adaptations make it well-nigh an independent 
authority." The revised edition was issued in 1894, the work 
of revision having been performed chiefly by Dr. Crooks. This 
portly octavo of 596 pages has been and is a suggestive and 
safe guide to hundreds desiring to investigate special fields of 
religious philosophy, history, and doctrine. 

The Gospel a Combative Force, a sermon, was published by 
Phillips & Hunt in a pamphlet of 24 pages in 1884, at the 
request of the New York East Conference of that year. The 
resolution of that body characterizes the discourse as "one of 
great spiritual advantage as well as ability." This sermon, too, 
was a growth. In its first form it was preached at his second 
pastoral charge. Passaic, on June 26, 1859. ^ became a 
favorite with him, and he preached it at intervals to the last 
with increasing pleasure to himself and profit to his hearers. 
A few sentences from its shining pages reveal the sword of 
Christ : 

You fail to find any analogy to the young and valiant Christianity 
as it stood before the world, in the presence of Judaism and paganism, 
the sworn foes of every step of its advance. With unblanched cheek 
and steady eye and drawn sword it went from one field of victory 
to another, making no compromise with any faith that sued for its 
valorous friendship, conquering the old lands for its new gospel, 
stripping the venerable temples of their dying faiths, releasing the 
prisoner and the slave, filling the very archway of the firmament with 
its songs of triumph, occupying the Roman throne by a natural 

John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

gravitation, threading the deserts, climbing the mountains, pene- 
trating the savage northern forests, building its churches, rearing 
happy homes, establishing schools, and constructing a civilization new 
to the world. 

hi 1S84, too, was issued from the press of Harper's his 
Short History of the Reformation, the first of a series of 
five terse, pithy sketches of leading characters, principles, and 
events in the progress and development of Christianity as seen 
in the church. Of this Professor George P. Fisher, of Yale 
University, wrote: 

Let me express to you my admiration of your little book on The 
Reformation, which I have just looked through. It is verily " multum 
in parvo." You have succeeded in condensing, without crowding, 
a mass of matter which, were the order less lucid and the style less 
perspicuous, it would be impossible to bring into so brief a compass. 
I congratulate you on your remarkable success. 

This praise was equally due the other four of the series. 
which were a Short History of the Early Church (1886), 
a Short History of the Mediaeval Church (1887), a Short 
History of the Modern Church in Europe, and, by a little antic- 
ipation of what saw the light after he came to Washington, 
a Short History of the Church in the United States. These 
popular little volumes of about 130 pages each were taken 
up by the Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circles, and have 
had a combined circulation of over 145,000 copies. Nearly if 
not quite all of the manuscript of the Modern Church in 
Kurope was prepared by him from notes carried on his journey 
while he was in Texas in December, 1886. It was the writer's 
privilege in this case, as in many others, to prepare copy for 
the printer from the author's original draft in pencil, received 
in installments by mail from San Antonio and other Texan 
cities and towns. Together this series constitute a link in the 
'ling chain of church histories between the Outline 

Articles on Mexico -^9 

(1875), and the Short History of the Christian Church 

For his fellow Eastern-Shoreman and collegian friend, Dr. 

R. W. Todd, he wrote an introduction to that fine specimen 
of local church history, Methodism of the Peninsula (Phila- 
delphia, 1886). In the same year (1886) he published in 
pamphlet form The Success of the Gospel and the Failure of 
the Xew Theologies (Ketcham, New York). 

While on his Mexican tour and immediately thereafter he 
wrote a series of articles on the literary and educational phases 
of life in Mexico which together would constitute a valuable 
volume. They cover such themes as: Mexican Literature 
before the Spanish Conquest, Religious Orders of New Spain, 
Literary Spirit of the Religious Orders, First Printers of New 
Spain, First Books of the Mexican Press, The Earlier Schools, 
Literature during the Spanish Domination, Elegiac and Gen- 
eral Poets, Lyric and Dramatic Poets, Literary Groups of 
Mexico, Scientific Societies, Scientific Scholars of Mexico, 
Periodical Literature, Paradise of the Portales, Search for 
Americana, and Present Trend of Mexican Thought, all of 
which soon appeared in the Independent. 

His pamphlet, The Theology of the Twentieth Century, 
published in New York, 1887, by the Missionary Society of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, was his address given at the 
dedication of the new Hall of Theology of Boston University, 
November 10, 1886. Its 34 pages gleam and glow with beauty 
of sentiment and strength of statement, and furnish a fine 
example of a progressive scholarship firmly linked with evan- 
gelical fervor in the propagation of religious truth and life. 

2go John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

The Bishop 

1868-90. — At Washington. — General Conference in New York. — Fourteen 
Conferences in Eight States, Northwest, East, Central, and Sooth 

Bishop Hurst presided at three sessions of the General Con- 
ference of 1888 in New York city, at the Metropolitan Opera 
House — those of May 5, 18, and 29, and on the latter date 
joined with Bishop Ninde and the Rev. William Griffin and 
J. F. Marshall in the laying on of hands at the consecration 
of Bishop-elect John P. Newman. On the 8th he made a 
memorable address on the Colonization of the Slave at the 
anniversary of the Freedmen's Aid Society. When the ques- 
tion of electing a Bishop for Europe was before the body, 
delegate Achard from Germany requested and was granted 
the privilege of speaking in German and having Bishop Hurst 
interpret. A report of this incident was made to the Univer- 
sal ist Church organ, the Christian Leader, in the following- 
racy paragraph : 

A delegate replied, " Speak in English, we want to understand you." 
The witty Dr. Buckley was on his feet and with mock indignation 
said, " I ohject to the imputation that the members of this Conference 
can't understand the German language." The German was an orator 
and spoke with eloquence. He would utter five or six sentences, and 
with the greatest fluency and clearness the Bishop repeated them in 
English, repeating the emphasis, inflections, almost the intonations, 
of the speaker. At the last the German forgot the Bishop and spoke 
nt least twenty sentences, only stopping when the increasing laughter 
of the assembly at the hard task he was imposing on the Bishop 
reminded him. A faint smile crept over the Bishop's face as the 
sentences went on, but when they stopped, without a flaw or break he 
repeated in English the German's extended peroration. It was a 
marvelous piece of work. To have repeated an English address in 

In Touch with the Preachers 291 

this manner would have been a hard task, but to carry the thought 
and at the same time make translation into another tongue was an 
intellectual feat. That is the kind of bishops this breezy church is 
willing to have over it. We wouldn't object to having such in our 
own church. 

During the greater part of his first year in Washington 
Bishop Hurst and his family had rooms at the Riggs House. 
His fall Conferences in 1888 were the Norwegian and Danish 
at Saint Paul, North German at Sleepy Eye, Minnesota, Min- 
nesota at Winona, and the North Dakota at Jamestown. After 
completing this round he is in Martha's Vineyard with Mrs. 
Hurst, who on October 28 writes Helen, already at school in 
Washington : 

; I wish you could peep in and see how happy we are since papa 
returned, and hear him tell of his traveling experiences. He stopped 
over one night in Buffalo to look after the little stone at Forest Lawn. 
He stayed at Mr. Root's, and made no other calls except on business. 

On February 17, 1889, as was his frequent custom of visit- 
ing churches unannounced, he greatly surprised and delighted 
the preacher and people at Ryland Church by coming through 
the rain and preaching to them on "Faith a Victor." His goods 
and books (about 8,000 volumes), which had been in storage 
in Buffalo since midsummer of 1888. were shipped to Wash- 
ington March 21, 1889, filling two cars and part of a third, 
and were again put in storage in Washington until he could 
secure a house. The spring of 1889 brought him three Con- 
ferences : New England Southern at Taunton, Massachusetts. 
Maine at Lewiston, and East Maine at Dexter. Dr. S. O. 
Benton writes concerning the session at Taunton : 

On the afternoons of two or three days of the Conference session 
he came to the lecture room of the church and mingled freely with 
the brethren socially. This gave them an opportunity for a personal 
acquaintance with the presiding Bishop such as is rarely accorded to 

2Q2 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

the members of an Annual Conference. This fraternal act of his was 
commented upon by the brethren with very great pleasure. 

Dr. D. A. Jordan says : 

He impressed the Conference by the ease with which he carried 
the responsibilities of his position. I recall his great familiarity with 
and his deep interest in the Swedish work, which was just then 
beginning to develop with us in that Conference. 

Of the session in Dexter, I. H. \Y. Wharff says: 

His power to measure men was almost wonderful. He was exceed- 
ingly interested in the temperance work in Maine, and did not hesitate 
to say and do all in his power to aid this work. He changed the 
number of districts from four to three. One presiding elder was 
going out, and I urged him to continue the man on the fourth district 
on the new one that was to be made out of the fourth and parts of 
another. He replied in that easy way of his, " Wharff, I would do 
it in a minute if I thought his health was equal to it." 

While at the East Maine Conference he sends this note of 

confession and comfort to Mrs. Hurst, April 30 : 

I forgot all about the anniversary of our marriage until I reached 
here, and received your welcome letter. Thirty years ! How much 
happiness we have had ! I am trying to forget our two great sorrows, 
because they are so happy. So I think only of the joys past, and to 

He makes a trip to the Ohio Wesleyan University, in May, 
1889, and writes Mrs. Hurst, from Delaware, May 20: 

At 8 this a. m. I lectured on " Recollections of German University 
Life " to a great body of students. 

His fall assignments were four Conferences: Northwest 

Indiana at Brazil, Central German at Toledo, Ohio, Central 

Ohio at Upper Sandusky, and East Ohio at Massillon. Dr. 

W. H. Hickman says of the first : 

We were grappling with that difficult problem of how to get rid 
of a man without a trial and scandal, dealing justly and mercifully 

" To Know was to Love Him " 293 

with the man, and at the same time protecting the church. After 
one of those troubled sessions he asked me to walk with him. The 
saloon question had come into politics more than ever. The Bishop 
was such an enemy to the saloon, with its corrupting influences in 
civic affairs, that he had put himself squarely on the prohibition of 
the licensed system. I was surprised at his broad information on 
political affairs, at home and abroad; and my heart was moved as 
I listened to his burning words in denouncing the liquor traffic and 
the subserviency of public servants to this evil. 

Samuel Beck also says : 

The beautiful simplicity in the spirit and character of his work 
favorably impressed the members and presiding elders of the Confer- 
ence. Any member of the Conference could approach him without 
embarrassment. He left the work of the Cabinet largely with the 
presiding elders, and as a rule he would approve their recommenda- 
tions. When issues were raised he would get all the information he 
could and then decide them with firmness. To know Bishop Hurst 
was to love him. 

To Mrs. Hurst he wrote from Brazil, September 9 : 

I am surprised, indeed, that my little poem (Our Immortals at 
Fourscore) was ever accepted, and the more that it could have been 
published last week, as I only copied it off and mailed it from the 
Hoyts'. I am delighted that you like it; that pleases me more than 
the admiration of all others. 

Charles W. Taneyhill, of Central Ohio Conference, says: 

Bishop Hurst always looked out for the interests of the church. 
Ministers, though presiding elders, were instruments, but the church 
of Jesus Christ was all in all to him. The Johnlike spirit pervaded 

Dr. Leroy A. Belt adds : 

At the birthplace of missions, by the graves of Stewart, the black 
man, the first missionary to the Wyandottes, and of early missionaries, 
their wives and children, and also of the converted chiefs and warriors, 
Red Eyed Fox, Mononcue, Between the Logs, and many others, 
Hurst was at home, at once evincing the fact by recitations of history. 

294 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

He made one of the best speeches ever heard here, and I have heard 
many, particularly Simpson. 

Dr. W. H. Rider writes: 

At the Massillon Conference his work was critical. He heard 
all representations with a brother's heart, and did his work with 
cool determination, without a word or act to be regretted, and with 
tenderness and love. His sermon was a great masterpiece fitted for 
an assembly of the profoundest scholars and the humblest Christians. 
It was simply the gospel for all. His presidency was not marked 
with too apparent ideas of parliamentary dignity or judicial exactness. 
His Conferences were not court rooms, but families, and he was not 
conscious of prerogative, but of a fatherly relation to every one. So 
little technicalities were brushed out of the way for real interests. 
I remember one occasion, when Moses Hill was speaking to some 
question, he recognized that he had run against some minor barrier 
of a legal nature. In the midst of his discomfiture he turned to the 
Bishop and said, " It would be all right, Bishop, if you would only 
give it a twist." The Bishop gave it " the twist," and " the motion 

After securing a home in the fall of 1889, an d settling his 
family, November 1, in the house formerly occupied by Gen- 
eral Logan, at 4 Iowa Circle, the early weeks of January, 1890, 
find him in the South again, this time presiding over the 
Savannah Conference at Augusta, the Georgia at Mount Zion. 
and the Alabama at Xew Decatur. Of the work at Mount 
Zion R. H. Robb says : 

He saw what in his judgment would greatly strengthen the work 
for the next vear and did it although it offended some. 


This beautiful message of appreciation came to him in early 
February from President (later Bishop) James \Y. Bashford, 
of Ohio Wesleyan University : 

I am receiving daily fresh demonstrations of your wisdom and 
foresight in urging me to come here. Your words when you visited 
Buffalo a year ago last fall led to the decision. Your judgment was 
better than my own. I love the Delaware Avenue people and had a 

His "Clear, Strong Judgment" j.^^ 

delightful pastorate with them. But I sometimes think that I can 
do more good here in a week than I accomplished there in a year. 
I seem to be standing at a great fountain of life directing streams 
to every part of the world. Many come to converse with me daily. 
I insist upon the New Testament standard of consecrated Christian 
manhood or womanhood in every case, and then leave the Holy Spirit 
to make plain his call to the ministry or to mission work. I have 
felt like thus thanking you for your clear, strong judgment. Accept 
the words of my heart. 

On February 7 the first of a series of parlor meetings, in- 
cluding one each at Mrs. Henry W. Blair's and Postmaster- 
General Wanamaker's, was held in the parlors of Mrs. Hurst, 
and Miss Jane Bancroft spoke in the interest of organizing 
the Lucy Webb Hayes Training School. There was a large 
company present, and the one gentleman who was there beside 
Bishop Hurst was Air. William J. Sibley, who gave one hun- 
dred dollars toward the establishment of the school. Mrs. 
Jane Bancroft Robinson says : 

At this meeting Mr. Sibley became interested in the subject of dea- 
coness hospitals, and later built for us at a cost of $10,000 the small 
building, later enlarged, of our present flourishing hospital. Mrs. 
Hurst was particularly sympathetic in the efforts that were making 
at that time, and Bishop Hurst presided at a number of meetings 
at different churches where I spoke. 

This busy, anxious winter was the time of his successful 
canvass of Washington for funds to purchase the ninety acres 
constituting the site of the American University. Alas ! to this 
burden of care was soon to be added the greater one of grief. 
She who had for the thirty-five years since their hearts met in 
the heart of the Catskills been an inspiration and solace to him 
in all his work — a helpmeet indeed — quietly fell into her last 
sleep on March 14, and he was as never before alone. 

2o6 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 


The Husband in Grief 

Death of Catherine E. Hurst 

Catherine Elizabeth La Monte, one of three daughters of 
Dr. William and Anna (Vroman) La Monte, was born in 
Charlotteville, Schoharie County, New York, October 28, 
1836. She had one brother, Wellington La Monte. On her 
father's side she was of Huguenot descent, and on her mother's 
side was related to the Van Rensselaers of New York. Wil- 
liam La Monte was a man of much energy, of high ideals 
in his profession of medicine, in his business methods and 
standards, and in his civic relations. He enjoyed the respect 
and confidence of his fellow citizens in a high degree and by 
their choice represented them in the State Legislature. 

Catherine, or, as she was more frequently and popularly 
called, Kate, spent her girlhood and received her education in 
Charlotteville, where in her seventeenth year she graduated, 
September 28, 1853, from the New York Conference Seminary, 
in a class of eighteen. Alonzo Flack was then at the head of 
this school. The theme of her graduating essay was, "Why 
Are We Here?" an indication in itself of the serious and ethical 
quality of her nature. Miss Angeline Ensign, who became the 
wife of Bishop John P. Newman, was one of her schoolmates 
and intimate friends, and under God's blessing was largely 
instrumental in her conversion during their united school days. 
Mrs. Newman says: 

To picture her personal beauty and intelligent charms would be no 
easy task. She never failed to excite my admiration for her spright- 
liness and genius. She was a natural born linguist. We have laughed 
together over our first efforts in art, particularly in our class in oil 

Mrs. Hurst's Tastes and Works 297 

painting, but it was our dear Kate who bore off the palm. She was 
the acknowledged charm of the family circle, as the La Montes were 
the pride of the village and a tower of strength to the seminary. 

Kate's services in instruction were at times, even before, and 
more after, her graduation, brought into requisition in this 
school where her father's interest had become a paramount one. 
Astronomy and botany were the branches she conducted in 
1856-57. As we have already seen, a kind Providence guided 
her in the autumn of 1854 to her new position as teacher of 
the "ornamental branches" in Hedding Literary Institute, at 
Ashland, where the threads of her life in the loom of mutual 
love were beautifully interwoven with those of John Fletcher 

Amid all her ceaseless activities in creating and guarding 
the precious interests of the home, which was within the thirty 
years of their married life domiciled in no less than eleven 
different houses — one each in Passaic, Elizabethport, Eliza- 
beth, West New Brighton, Bremen, Frankfort, two in Mad- 
ison, one in Des Moines, Buffalo, and Washington, besides 
the frequent and prolonged tarryings of the family in hotels 
and other temporary quarters — her pen, her pencil, and her 
brush were always within easy reach of her hand, which never 
lost its cunning for the literary and aesthetic pursuits so loved 
in her youth. Her water colors and oil paintings, especially 
those of landscape, form a gallery of themselves, though many 
of them were widely scattered by her generous thoughtfulness 
of the pleasure of others. Her chief literary work was four 
adaptations from the German, Good Women of History: 
Anna Lavater, a Picture of Swiss Pastoral Life in the Past 
Century (Cincinnati: 1870) ; Renata of Este, a Chapter from 
the History of the Reformation in France and Italy (New 
York: 1872); Queen Louisa of Prussia, or Goodness in a 
Palace (New York: 1874) ; and Elizabeth Christine, Wife of 

John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

Frederick the Great (New York: 1880), all from the church 

She began her work on Anna Lavater in the spring of 
[868 and completed it in February, 1869. Bishop Janes said 
of her Queen Louisa: "I wish our Sunday school libraries 
could have more of such books. It is a gem." Her Elizabeth 
Christine, though based on the German of Ziethe, was ampli- 
fied and enriched by material drawn from Carlyle and other 
si >urces. While these sketches were intended primarily for 
youthful readers, the clear, pellucid stream of the narrative 
attracts and holds the maturer mind by its sparkling beauty 
and melodious flow. On June 28, 1867, she wrote from 
Bremen to her sister, Mrs. Elmore : 

I try to teach them (John, seven years, and Clara, about six) a 
verse from the Bible every day, and then they recite it at prayers 
in the evening. They can repeat the Apostles' Creed, first psalm, 
twenty-third psalm, and are now learning the Ten Commandments — 
know five already. 

Of her last days, Bishop Hurst wrote Carl, who was in 

Europe, on March 17, 1890: 

During January, when I was in the South, she had the grippe 
severely. But when I reached home, February first, she was over it. 
During that month she was unusually well, but complaining much 
of her head. She was very happy, and especially in view of getting 
the house in such beautiful order. She kept up her calls, received 
visitors, attended church and meetings, and was very happy. From 
3d March to 7th I was in New York (relative to University) and 
when I got home she was very well. Then I left again on Monday 
Toth and got back nth. She met me, and said: "I am sorry, Papa, 
T have not been so well." The next a. M. she lay in bed. Dr. Stanton 
came and thought nothing unusual or serious. He prescribed. She 
lay in bed that day. Could not sleep much at night — old trouble. 
Xext day doctor came, she was not any worse, and got up in after- 
noon and stayed up in evening. Next a. m. she was up early. 
Doctor came, and she had a pleasant time, and joked with the doctor 
about the little hop pillow he had prescribed. She complained to 
me of her head, one side paining her. But I think she thought of 

" Died Gently and Sweetly ' 299 

nothing serious. She wrote four letters to friends. She took break- 
fast in her room, and was about the whole morning. In afternoon 
about three she was stricken. Helen and I were in the house at the 
time. She was conscious about one half hour, but could articulate 
but little. I asked her if she could trust the Saviour, to which she 
replied, as best she could, in the affirmative. The attack was apoplexy. 
She soon passed into a comatose condition, heavy breathing, eyes 
closed, and died gently and sweetly at 8 p. m. . . . She was as pure 
and beautiful a mother as ever lived. . . . Let us brighten up, do the 
good work that our dear Lord puts in our path, and remember the 
best is yet to come to him who is worthy of work in the cause of 
human helpfulness. 

Her son. John La Monte, was summoned by telegram from 
Denver, and came immediately. Her funeral services were con- 
ducted at the residence, on Tuesday, March 18, by her pastor, 
the Rev. Dr. George H. Corey, of the Metropolitan Church, 
who made an address of appreciation on her Christian life, her 
varied talents, and great usefulness. Dr. Henry A. Buttz, Pres- 
ident of Drew Theological Seminary, also spoke words of tender 
sympathy and high commendation of the excellencies and vir- 
tues of the woman who had successfully filled so many impor- 
tant stations in the course of her fruitful life. Remarks were 
made by Drs. H. R. Naylor, J. H. Dashiell, and George Elli- 
ott, the pastors of other Methodist churches of Washington. 
Delegations came from Baltimore and from Philadelphia, and 
many distinguished citizens were present. Among those who 
were honored with the privilege of bearing the sacred dust 
on its way to the tomb were Andrew B. Duvall, Elijah W. 
Halford, General S. S. Henkle, Mark Hoyt. Hon. W. M. 
Springer, and Senator H. M. Teller. The private interment 
was at the Rock Creek Cemetery, where the remains of her 
darling Blanche on removal from Forest Lawn in Buffalo a 
year later were deposited on April 9, 1891. Together they 
shall wake on the eternal morning. Dr. James M. Buckley in 
an editorial said: 

300 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

Her hospitality was unbounded; pleasing everywhere, she was 
never more charming than at her own table. Genuine Christian 
sympathy and interest in all that made the world better and happier 
were her chief religious characteristics. If it be true that conjugal 
love increases with the number and extent of the vicissitudes of 
mutual joy or sorrow through which husband and wife may pass, then 
must this separation on its earthly side be indeed grievous. 

The Rev. J. W. Cornelius said in Zion's Herald: 

By native suavity, keen discrimination, thorough refinement, easy 
adaptation, large literary acquirements, true piety and consecration to 
the Lord's work, she was a helpmeet indeed in any pastoral, educa- 
tional, literary, or episcopal service which her distinguished partner 
in life has filled. 

Dr. Jesse Bowman Young says: 

In his activity as a writer she was from the time of their happy 
marriage, in 1859, until her death, an elementary constituent. She 
was a gentle and noble type of womanhood; she dispensed a generous 
hospitality, and yet found time and method for literary activities and 

Dr. Olin B. Coit, of Northern New York Conference, writes : 

She was his inspiration, and but for her he would never have 
developed his great powers. She was lofty in her ideals, scholarly 
in all her tastes, and her ambition for him was unbounded. 

Bishop Bashford, who was her pastor in Buffalo in 1887-88, 

says : 

Mrs. Hurst was a woman of beautiful Christian spirit and rare 
good judgment. She and her children were always in their accus- 
tomed places at public worship and at the Sunday school, and proved 
a real help to the Christian life of the church. 

Dr. Faulkner says : 

One of the most noble and accomplished ladies that ever presided 
in a Methodist parsonage. Her devotion, her sympathy, her tact, her 
ine accomplishments, were ever laid on the altar of her home. 

"Center of a Loving Circle" 301 

On April 7 a memorial service was held at Metropolitan 

Church, and on the same day at a similar service held by the 

Newark Conference at its annual session Dr. Buttz read a 

beautiful and touching tribute to her name and character. 

Among many precious words he said : 

Here (at Drew) she was the center of a loving circle, to whom 
her presence and companionship were always a joy. Her residence 
there was alike a gratification and a blessing, to their associates in 
seminary life, to the many students for the ministry with whom she 
was associated, and to the whole community. She had rare gifts 
in meeting and making at home all conditions of people with whom 
she came in contact. Her house was ever open, and her greetings 
to the many who visited her home always cordial and winning. 
The many who met her in her home life will remember with grati- 
tude the comfort and helpfulness of her intercourse, and the largeness 
and beauty of her hospitality. The students always found an open 
door and a hearty welcome. The pastor and the pastor's family 
found in her a true friend, and the people of the church recognized 
her as associated with them in the work of the gospel. Thus all parts 
of our community were pleasantly influenced by her spirit, her words, 
and her kindly deeds. While she was there they rejoiced in the 
sunshine of her presence, and now that she has passed over the river 
they deeply mourn that she is gone, and expect by God's grace to meet 
her on the other shore, where the Easter brightness shall never fade. 

A few weeks after her decease Bishop Hurst wrote to Dr. 

W. S. Edwards, of Baltimore: 

My wife was really a beautiful character, and I wonder at the 
goodness of the Lord in permitting me to have her companionship 
for over thirty years. 

In one of his memorandum books he wrote : 

She who was my comfort three decades must still exist in some 
happy place and condition, for her Maker would place her there. 
Where she exists she must be of the same character as when here, 
only stronger and purer in her present state. In leisure hours she 
was singularly able to make others happy, and I know she must 
be contributing in some way to the happiness of others. I am com- 
forted that she must now be making others happy. 

W2 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

To his old and esteemed friends, Dr. and Mrs. Porter, 
Bishop 1 lurst says: 

She was my instructor. I can see nothing which has proved to he 
a success in which I have had any part in which she was not before 
mo in faith and hope. Her last passion was a National University 
at Washington. There was no decadence in her mental force. We 
had talked death all over last summer, and she then said that she 
had no fear of death. Her favorite work was Kempis's Imitation 
of Christ, of which she kept two copies about her. Her favorite 
hymn was. " Lead, Kindly Light." " One step enough for me," was 
frequently on her lips. She was full of joy and humor. She certainly 
did not know any pain in her passage to her crown. 

Relieved by His Colleagues 30; 

The Bishop 

1890-91. — Two Trips Across the Atlantic. — Three Conferences in Maryland 
and New York. — The Second Ecumenical Conference 

At their May meeting in New York his colleagues of the 
Episcopal Board with thoughtful considerateness divided 
among themselves the work which would naturally have fallen 
to him in the autumn of 1890. A double burden, the one of 
care and responsibility for the vast educational project whose 
founding he had undertaken, and the other of sorrow and 
care over his household broken by the decease of his wife, 
rested upon him. As a help toward the development of the 
former and as a partial diversion from the latter, he sailed 
with Carl, Helen, and Paul for Europe about the middle of 
May. On June 17 in a letter to the writer he says : 

I have been in London, with the children, about three weeks, and 
leave for Holland this week. I have been studying the University of 
London, and hoping to use its methods for our own enterprise in 


After a few weeks spent at Tubingen, Paris, and other 
points on the Continent he returned, August 27, with Helen 
and Paul, Carl tarrying in London for a little work in the 
British Museum, intending in a few days to return to his 
studies in Tubingen. His arrival in New York, September 5, 
was saddened by a cable message that Carl was sick in London 
with typhoid fever, having been taken ill the day after the 
departure of his father for America. Helen and Paul came 
directly on to Washington, where the house at 4 Iowa Circle 
was again open, while their father took the first steamer Sep- 

jo4 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

tember 6, and spent on the ocean a most anxious week of 
mingled hope and fear for the recovery of Carl. Just before 
starting on the Servia he writes from New York, September 
6 to 1 Iclen : 

Go on, you and Paul, to school as usual. Keep up your spirits. 
( Kid knows best. Have prayers together every day. 

On September 15 he is by Carl's side in a London hospital, 
where he found the young man near the crisis of the fever. 
A few days of waiting and nights of watching were followed 
by the good news that the danger was past. After a month 
of careful nursing father and son board the Majestic and on 
October 22 land in New York. On the 23d a joyful union 
was that of the four in the Washington home. Immediately 
he prepares for the semiannual meeting of the Bishops to be 
held for the first time in Washington, beginning October 30. 

His assignments for the following spring were three Con- 
ferences : East German at Baltimore, Northern New York at 
Watertown, and Troy at Johnstown, New York. Of his presi- 
dency at Johnstown Edwin Genge says : 

After an evangelistic sermon on Sunday evening by Dr. Hite, 
Bisbop Hurst mingled with the brethren in the altar urging the 
unconverted to seek salvation and exhorting, with much earnestness, 
to immediate surrender to the Lord Jesus Christ. To the young men 
of the Conference it was an object lesson, commending the old-time 
methods of the fathers with the indorsement of one of our most 
cultured and intellectual leaders. 

After meeting his colleagues in semiannual session at Green- 
castle. Indiana, he returns about May 15 to arrange for the 
formal organization and incorporation of the Board of Trus- 
tees 1 if the American University, which took place at the 
Arlington Hotel, on May 28, in the rooms once owned and 
occupied as his residence by Charles Sumner at the corner 
of [ Street and Vermont Avenue. He was elected to mem- 

Second Ecumenical Conference 305 

bership in Phi Beta Kappa at Greencastle in 1891 and later 
served as Senator, 1895-1901. He preached the baccalaureate 
sermon at Wellesley College and delivered the baccalaureate 
address at De Pauw University in June. 

Much of his time during the summer and early fall was con- 
sumed in preparations for the Second Ecumenical Methodist 
Conference to be convened in October in the Metropolitan 
Church. His official duties, indeed, in connection with this 
great assembly began as early as November 20, 1890, when he 
met with the various committees of correspondence of the 
Ecumenical Commission of the Western Section. Here he 
was appointed a member of the Executive Committee, and upon 
its organization the same day he was elected chairman. He 
discharged the duties of that office during its existence. He 
was also made chairman of the Committee on Programme 
and Correspondence, which entailed much care of minutiae and 
adjustment of details before the work was completed. He was 
also appointed member of a committee to correspond with 
those churches of the Western Section from which no com- 
munications had yet been received. On May 4. 1891, he pre- 
sided at a meeting of the Executive Committee at Wesley Hall 
in Baltimore, and again at Saratoga, on August 5. He served 
as chairman of the local Committee on Entertainment and Re- 
ception and was also chosen chairman of the Business Com- 
mittee when the Ecumenical Conference was organized. In 
all these functions he acted with wise efficiency and coop- 
erated heartily with all who were charged with joint responsi- 
bility in guiding the affairs of the great body to a successful 
issue. Dr. James M. King, secretary of the Conference, says : 

Bishop Hurst's relation to the Second Ecumenical Conference was 
that of organizer, guide, and inspirer. He had all the facts and details 
not only in hand but in heart. 

On the afternoon of the first day it became his pleasant duty 

306 Jonx Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

t< i give the first address of welcome — one of the happiest efforts 
of his life on the platform, where he was always strong. A 
few of his apt utterances are samples of the brilliant whole: 

Our common Methodism, extending from this church, which here 
opens so heartily its doors for your entertainment, to the farthest 
missionary chapel on the farthest island of the farthest sea, will be 
aided to a larger faith and a more heroic endeavor by the work 
which, through the divine blessing, shall be done in the fortnight 
which lies before us. No century can ever come when the welcome 
will be more cordial, the presence more highly appreciated, or the 
remembrance more grateful. All the early Wesleyan leaders knew 
how to descrihe an odyssey, but not one could describe an anabasis. 
They could wander widely in search of souls, but never retreat to 
the old camping ground. Victories beyond sea became a juvenile habit. 
( Vvlon, where every prospect pleases, has blossomed beneath Meth- 
odist care ever since the aged, tireless Coke turned thitherward. True, 
he died on the way, but the coral beds beneath a tropic sea became his 
fit mausoleum, while the ceaseless waves of the Indian Ocean have 
ever since been chanting requiems to his memory. Faith always 
begins a new march at the last footprints of its immortal dead. 

As he continued in his warm greetings to the various dele- 
gations he suddenly broke out in the mother tongue of the 
Fatherland as he welcomed the Germans, and then, after a 
pause while the audible thrill of pleasure subsided into quiet, 
he saluted the French delegates in their own silvery tongue. 
The effect was a marvelous and beautiful suggestion of the 
spirit of Pentecost — of unity in diversity. At the close of his 
address he and Dr. Stephenson clasped hands in token of the 
unity of the Methodisms of the two hemispheres. Dr. Thomas 
O'Hanlon says : 

The effect of the address, especially of the peroration, on the vast 
assemblage was profound and permanent. It was a very great occa- 
sion, and Rishop Hurst by the blessing of God more than measured 
up to its great demands. 

On the second day he informed the Conference that the 

Closing Ecumenical Address 307 

presidential chair on the platform, constructed from beams 
of the City Road Chapel at the expense of a generous Wes- 
leyan Methodist layman, was to be used during the Conference 
and afterward presented to the American University. He also 
laid upon the desk for the use of the Conference the Bible 
from the Epworth Church, used by the Rev. Samuel Wesley, 
this volume being the property of the Rev. Dr. W. H. Boole, 
of Staten Island. On the fifth day, October 12, he introduced 
the members of the Conference with the ladies accompanying 
them to President and Mrs. Harrison, who received them at 
the White House, and on the tenth day, October 17, largely 
through his suggestions and arrangement, President Harrison 
and his Secretary of the Treasury, Hon. Charles Foster, and 
his Secretary of the Interior, Hon. John W. Noble, were intro- 
duced and addressed the Conference. The President spoke at 
some length, with his usual pertinency and intelligence, on 
International Arbitration, the theme of the hour. At the 
closing session on the afternoon of the twelfth day, October 
20, Dr. Stephenson in speaking to the resolution of thanks 
said of Bishop Hurst : 

We have all known his character and bearing, but now that we 
have seen his modesty and gentleness and thoughtful kindness we 
have learned to love him. 

At this session Bishop Hurst presided and made the final 
address, contributing greatly to heighten the lofty tone of 
spirituality which marked the closing hours. The Pacific 
Christian Advocate said : 

Bishop Hurst delivered a very broad and catholic farewell address, 
marked by tender pathos and deep solemnity. 

Among other words of strength and light were these: 

If we ask, " What does the Conference mean ? What is the note 
which it sends out over land and sea?" we are compelled to answer, 

io8 Jonx Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

" Union and progress." No legislative function has it possessed, not 
uigle law has it thought of enacting, yet there are forces that are 
far beyond the law. There is a power which creates law. There 
were lines of art, rigid and old, in the times of Michelangelo, but 
when he appeared he enlarged the horizon of the lines of art. After 
he poised Saint Peter's dome in mid-air, and released the rugged 
" Moses " from the shapeless rock, and threw upon the walls of the 
Sistine Chapel the figures of joy and sorrow which glow in the 
"Last Judgment," there were new revelations for the art of the 
future. So the lessons here have been lessons for the lawmakers of 
the future. When after ten years we greet each other, how delightful 
will be the salutation, with these golden memories coming up to aid 
us in the sweet enchantment! And if we never meet again here, 
what matters it? All the more glorious shall be the salvation when, 
with robe and palm and crown, we meet at the King's right hand, 
and behold him in his beauty, and go no more out forever. 


1891-92. — At Washington. — Nine Conferences in Five States, Sooth, East, 
and West. — General Conference at Omaha 

Upon adjournment of the General Committees at Cleveland 
in November, 189 1, he is off for Texas again, where he held 
the four Conferences : Austin at Waco, Texas at Houston. 
Southern German at Seguin, and the West Texas at Victoria. 
The opportunity for frequent horseback rides while in Texas, 
especially at Waco and Seguin, was greatly appreciated and 
industriously used to his great improvement in physical health, 
which had been quite worn by the strain of the Ecumenical 
Conference added to many other exacting labors. The spring 
of 1892 brought him to the presidency of the New England 
Conference at Boston and of the New Hampshire at Haverhill. 
Massachusetts, the latter being the one hundredth in the series 
of his total episcopal career. 


— — 




' jfl 

B^B> iJSl 

B^^^ ^ft^k 



i J 

From photograph taken by Prince. 1891. 

Whittier's Manuscript Hymn 309 

The General Conference of 1892 called him to Omaha, Ne- 
braska, where was held also the meeting of the Bishops a few 
days prior to its opening on May 2. He presided at the morn- 
ing session on two days, the 16th and 24th. On taking leave 
of the Conference, Dr. Albert Carman, of the Canadian 
Church, spoke farewell words of great tenderness, which elic- 
ited a brief and most fitting response from Bishop Hurst. His 
special burden at this session of the lawmaking body of the 
denomination was the American University, which received 
cordial though guarded commendation in the address of the 
Bishops, written this year and read by Bishop Foster, and 
also by the formal action of the General Conference. In con- 
nection with the immense mass meeting held in its interest on 
the second Sunday of May, his intense interest and labors 
proved quite exhausting, and in consequence he was confined 
at his rooms in the Paxton Hotel for several days, but rallied 
sufficiently to meet his duties in the chair. From Omaha he 
makes a visit to his son, John La Monte, at Denver, and 
then goes to the Colorado Conference at Pueblo, Utah Mission 
at Provo, and Wyoming Mission at Rock Springs. This view 
of his administration at Pueblo is given by C. A. Brooks : 

In the Cabinet he was very indulgent; in fact, I thought too much 
so, as he seldom interfered with the decision of the presiding elders. 
In his judgments of the men he was kind, but in one or two cases 
his indignation was aroused by unwarranted assumption of impor- 
tance; but even then he said but little. 

At the opening of the session of the Utah Mission he read 
Whittier's hymn, 

" It may not be our lot to wield 
The sickle in the ripened field," 

not from the Hymnal, where it is found. No. 398. but from 
the manuscript of the author just received in the mail and sent 

310 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

on his own request by the poet, who was then within a few 
weeks of his own translation. J. D. Gillilan says of the 
session : 

The best in the history of the Utah work. Bishop Hurst's presence 
was a benediction. 

Dr. Daniel L. Rader, who was superintendent of Wyoming 
Mission, writes frankly as to his work at Rock Springs: 

In the spring of that year (1892) the feeling between the farmers 
and the cattlemen reached the climax. From the time the white 
men had gotten control of the country, cattlemen had undisputed 
sway in allowing their herds to range over the vast stretch of that 
territory, but the farmers from Nebraska and Kansas began in the 
latter years of the eighties to settle along the water courses, to dig 
ditches, and to cultivate the soil. This shut the herds away from the 
water and made the ranges unavailable in many cases, but the settlers 
did not cease to press in and were very aggressive. In the spring of 
1892 a body of Texas rangers, together with a number of the leading 
citizens of the state of Wyoming, heavily armed, went into the 
northern part of the state, and before the civil authorities could 
interfere with them had surrounded the cabins of two young men 
who had taken up land along Powder River, killed the men and 
burned the cabins; and it was evidently their intention to drive out 
of that part of the country all the settlers who were not interested in 
the range cattle business. This culmination of trouble brought on 
very bitter feelings among the people. The superintendent of the 
Mission and nearly all of the Methodist preachers in the state, un- 
equivocally, publicly, and constantly denounced such proceedings as 
criminal and vicious in the extreme ; but many of the leading mem- 
bers of the church were personally interested in the range cattle 
business, and themselves and their friends made the situation for 
the preachers who denounced them very unpleasant. The difficulty 
had now gotten into the courts, the belligerents were many of them 
imprisoned, and the war was practically over, but the feeling still 
ran very high. 

Into this situation Bishop Hurst came, who had known neither 
friend nor foe on either side. With great wisdom and tact he 
granted the request of the superintendent and relieved him from that 
position, taking him back to his Conference in Colorado, and appoint- 
ing Rev. Dr. X. A. Chamberlain, of the same Conference, to the 

Farsighted Leadership 311 

superintendency. This proved a most judicious and happy appoint- 
ment. He also changed most of the preachers, relieving those who 
were distasteful to the people on account of their adherence to their 
principles, and sent in wise men who had not been involved in the 
conflicts. The Bishop did some of the best work for the church 
in his quiet, wise administration that has ever been performed in 
the interests of the cause in that region. One thing that impressed 
me at the time was his readiness to hear all sides; and the way he 
listened, as though he were all ears and had no powers of speech, 
one was led sometimes to wonder if he were listening at all, he was 
apparently so passive and inattentive. But he usually revealed the 
fact that he had heard and considered every material and important 
statement that had been made. His wisdom did not impress me so 
much then as it has since the results of his wise statesmanship and 
farsighted leadership have in course of time become apparent. T 
shall always be grateful for his disinterested brotherliness and his 
fidelity to the interests of the church as he saw them from his impartial 

}I2 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

Founder of the American University 

Hunting for a Site. — Paying for the Site. — Indorsements by Friends of 


Sporadic expressions of desire for the erection and endow- 
ment of a post-graduate university at Washington under the 
auspices of the Methodist Episcopal Church had been made 
prior to 1888 by several leaders of thought, prominent among 
whom were Bishop Simpson, who at one time thought seriously 
of devoting himself specially to this object ; Bishop Ames, 
whose residence in Baltimore gave frequent and emphatic 
suggestion of the coming need; Dr. (later Bishop) Newman, 
whose burdened pastorates in Metropolitan Church showed the 
opportunities presented, yet prevented his entrance upon the 
larger work ; and Dr. William Arthur, of England, who on a 
visit in 1880 outlined to the Harpers the plans for such a 

Before Bishop Hurst had settled his family in Washington 
there came to him in spoken and written form many messages 
unsought by himself of earnest exhortation and of hope that 
he would initiate a movement for the realization of the idea. 
While the logic of his life pointed him in this direction and 
his own mind clearly foresaw the ever-increasing necessity. 
yet his hands were full and his brain and heart busy with a 
multiplicity of duties quite sufficient for one of his years and 
strength. But the vision would not away. The voice of con- 
science was echoed in the voices of manv brethren. The noble 
woman at his side whispered her willingness to join in the 
sacrifice of rest and the few precious hours of leisure still left 

Hunting for a Site 313 

for completing his literary projects. One test to decide whether 
the providential leading was to an immediate effort remained 
to be applied. Was there a spot in Washington now procurable 
and suited to be the habitat of such an institution? A still 
hunt for a site was in order. 

The city of Washington with its environs furnishes an 
unusual variety of charming drives for the pleasure-seeker, 
and fine feasts for the eye and mind, as on horseback or in 
carriage one passes through the broad avenues or meanders 
over its suburban roads and its numberless slopes and knolls. 
But pleasure was not the chief purpose of two gentlemen who. 
on Christmas Day, 1889, began a series of rides together; for 
they rode with frequent regularity for ten days, and chose 
neither pleasant weather nor smooth roads. A far-away look 
of serious import was on the face of the leader in the dual 
party, while his companion, who held the reins of the high- 
mettled steeds, seemed eager to second the success of his 
earnest quest. 

The first was Bishop Hurst hunting for a site. Under a 
sense of duty, and yet with a lurking hope that for the less- 
ening of his own burdens he might not succeed, he had enlisted 
the help of Mr. Theodore W. Talmadge to take him from point 
to point until he could say either " Eureka — I have found it! ' 
or, " No suitable site can be found." The last afternoon of the 
ten davs' round was nearly at an end, when to the vision of 
both there came, as they rode along the Loughboro Road, 
on the Northwest Heights, a diversified and beautiful piece of 
ground. It was known as " Bellevue," ninety acres in extent, 
commanding a panoramic view over the District, the Manassas 
Plains, and the Blue Ridge Mountains of Western Maryland. 
The land was for sale. That far-away look in the Bishop's face 
changed to a gaze that roamed first over the fields spreading at 
their feet, and then again and again swept the circle to every 

>i ; Joitx Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

pi lint of the compass. The tract exceeded in its advantages all 
that could be demanded for the site of a university. 

The next questions were two: How much money will buy 
it ? and. Where shall the money be found? Negotiations for a 
price immediately followed. Bishop Hurst left for his Confer- 
ences in Georgia and Alabama. These four telegrams tell 
the story of his faith in action : 

T. W. Talmadge to Bishop Hurst at New Decatur, Alabama, Janu- 
ary 23. — Davis tract must be secured now. One thousand for option, 
twenty to be paid March first. Price one hundred thousand. Shall 
I close bargain ? 

Bishop Hurst to T. W. Talmadge : New Decatur, Alabama, Janu- 
ary 24. — Close bargain for Davis tract. Advance thousand for option. 
I will be responsible. Send papers for signature. Answer. 

T. W. Talmadge to Bishop Hurst, January 25. — Davis tract pur- 
chased — one hundred thousand dollars. Waggaman advanced thou- 
sand. Twenty thousand to pay March first. 

J. F. Waggaman to Bishop Hurst, January 25. — Have closed accord- 
ing to instructions — Davis tract. Will forward contract. 

Dr. Jesse Lyman Hurlbut was at New Decatur to represent 
the work of the Sunday School Union and says : 

I met Bishop Hurst at the " Tavern." He told me then of his plan 
to establish the University, and said that he had received word that 
if he wished to make the purchase of the land he must telegraph 
early the next morning. He wished advice. I hesitated to advise 
him to make the purchase, knowing how great would be the burden 
laid upon his shoulders; though I believed heartily in the aim and 
plan. We talked together about it until late that night; and the 
Bishop came to a conclusion in the matter, resolving to take up the 

Now began another hunt — this time for money. A pay- 
ment of $19,000, completing the first of five equal annual 
installments, was required to be in hand by March 1. On 
January 30. having been relieved of the Central Alabama 
Conference by Bishop Joyce, he is in Washington again and 

Paying for the Site 315 

has prepared and signed a heading to a subscription paper 
which reads : 

Finding a sentiment in the Methodist Episcopal Church favorable 
to the location of a National University in the City of Washington, 
District of Columbia, I, as resident Bishop, after consultation with 
other members of the Episcopacy and with a number of laymen of 
known liberality, interested in advanced education, have visited vari- 
ous locations, and have received several liberal propositions, with a 
view to that object. The " Davis tract," situated on the Loughboro 
Road, is found to be adapted for that purpose, and I contemplate 
buying it, provided proper assistance and encouragement are furnished. 
I should be glad to have the generous cooperation of all persons 
interested in the promotion of such an enterprise. Should the land 
be obtained, steps will be taken for the construction of buildings 
worthy of so great an object. 

With cab and street car, and many a block trudged on foot, 
and with the Rev. Dr. Charles W. Baldwin as his helper, for 
four weeks the Bishop canvassed the city, visiting from house 
to store, from store to office, and from office back to house 
again, securing pledges and money, and when the day of first 
payment arrived he had in his hand $22,000. The final pay- 
ment in March, 1895, when he transferred the trust from his 
own name to the Trustees, made this magnificent keystone- 
shaped site the unincumbered possession of the American 
University. Bishop McCabe exclaims : 

Think of raising one hundred thousand dollars for a site in 
Washington and getting it all paid in before the church fairly realized 
that he had bought the land. To me there is a wonderful pathos in the 
vision of John F. Hurst, in declining health, with waning physical 
vigor, at an age when other men seek repose, passing through the 
land from city to city, talking, arguing, pleading with men to help 
him make his dream come true, and it will come true ! 

From his old-time Baptist companion in travel in the Holy 

Land, Dr. George D. Boardman. came this word of cheer : 

Philadelphia, February 11. — Allow me to congratulate you, and the 
great denomination you so worthily represent, on your project. With 

»i6 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

joyous memories of Jerusalem, Bethany, Elijah's Cherith, Jericho, 
fordan, Moab, Dead Sea, Bethlehem, Abraham's Oak, and Hebron, 
I remain, my dear Bishop, always and all-ways, yours. 

At the first public meeting in the interest of the University 
on March 25 in Metropolitan Church, Bishop Hurst said, 
while still under the shadow of Mrs. Hurst's death: 

We plant the acorn; God's sunshine and raindrops and infinite 
patience, with the sympathy and help of his children, will reveal and 
mature the oak. 

On this occasion Rev. Dr. Bartlett, of the New York Avenue 
Presbyterian Church, said : 

There are three things to be considered in connection with this 
University: First, Washington is the place; second, this is the time; 
third. Bishop Hurst is the man. Tyndall said there were more 
scientific people here than in any other city. Washington in itself 
is a university, with Washington Monument as a steeple for it already 
erected. The whole nation will inhale the perfume or drink the 
poison of everything here ; will feel every quintescent drop of moral 
power that throbs at the center. Thought now is running wild. In 
the great molten mind of the world there is either being cast a demon 
or an angel. And [pointing to Bishop Hurst] this is the man to 
inaugurate this enterprise. 

On May 8, 1892, in his address at the mass meeting in Expo- 
sition Hall, Omaha, Bishop Hurst said : 

Responses came in from many quarters, expressing the hearty 
salutations of the noble representatives of our educational institutions. 
One among the first was that of Dr. Warren, of Boston, then another 
from the equal Warren of Denver, and then others from Presidents 
and members of Faculties, all expressing the wish, " God bless the 
noble work.' - Many of the honored men who sit on this platform, 
and lead the young men of our church toward the higher planes of 
' hristian knowledge, gave early expression to their confidence in the 
success of the undertaking. They said, " We cannot see yet how the 
money will come, whether or not the sentiment of the church will 
rapidly grow ; but our hearts are waiting, and we believe in ultimate 

Strong Indorsements 317 

This was the hearty word of encouragement from Bishop 

Warren on April 3 : 

I am so glad you took the matter of a Washington University in 
hand. Ever since you and I tramped Philadelphia over for Drew I 
have expected you would lead some great educational enterprise. No 
Methodist should hesitate about putting heart, hand, and purse into 
the Washington movement. Go on, my good brother, and may God 
give you great success ! With tenderest and holiest sympathy, I am 

At their May meeting in New York his heart was cheered 
by the indorsement given by the Board of Bishops as a whole, 
and at the public meeting of November 3, 1890, in Metro- 
politan Church, during the week of the sessions of the Epis- 
copal Board at Washington, Bishop Ninde said : 

You are building a glorious pharos that shall be a beacon to all 
the truth-seeking souls throughout all the stretch of the coming years. 

And Bishop Vincent declared : 

We need some central institution toward which the thoughts and 
aspirations of professors and students shall habitually turn. These 
institutions, so many of them all over the land, must be under some 
one great university, and up to this time there has been nothing so 
promising for the fulfillment of this end as the proposed institution 
in Washington City. 

Bishop Newman in his address at Omaha during the Gen- 
eral Conference of 1892 said: 

Educated carefully at home and abroad, gifted with an imagina- 
tion that frescoes the future with the actualities of the present, en- 
dowed with the rare power of organization to prepare great plans for 
the coming generations — it comes to us more and more that in the 
roll of the centuries, in the ordering of time, God Almighty, the God 
of our fathers, has selected Bishop Hurst to lay the foundation of the 
American University for American Methodism. 

On the same occasion President (now Bishop) Bashford 

John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

["he site is now worth five times its cost, and will grow in beauty 
and value as long as the capital of the nation stands. 

When the General Conference had passed the resolution 
approving the American University (1892) Bishop Hurst was 
heard to say to a friend. " I could kiss the whole Conference." 
Bishop Hurst was elected Chancellor of the American Univer- 
sity on May 28, 1 891, at the time of its incorporation, and held 
this important office until through waning strength he resigned 
on December jo. 1902, when he was made Chancellor 
Emeritus, and Bishop McCabe was chosen his successor. 
Through the first thirteen years of its history he was the 
inspiration and guide of the great educational enterprise. 
Under his administration and chiefly through his own personal 
efforts contributions amounting to $400,000 in cash and $100,- 
000 in property were brought into its treasury. These aggre- 
gate gifts of a half million dollars he saw so well used and 
invested that at the time of his resignation the total assets 
of the University were on a conservative estimate not less than 
two millions — the site itself having enhanced in value from a 
total cost of $125,000 to at least $900,000. The acquisition of 
this splendid piece of land without a penny of incumbrance 
was an achievement worth the effort of a generation. It was 
accomplished in five years and constitutes the chief feature of 
his series of successes which have won him the name of 
Founder of the American University. The acceptance of his 
resignation as Chancellor by the Trustees expresses their sense 
his exalted services: 

It is no diminution of the honor due to any others to say that 
chiefly to your own keen vision both of the need and of the oppor- 
tunity, to your courageous faith in God and in the people, and to your 
bold venture upon the field of actuality, the church and the country 
owe the chartered existence of this corporation and the substantial 
foundations already laid for a great Christian University. To your 
office as Chancellor and to your present honored title of Chancellor 

Founder of the American University 319 

Emeritus the whole body of our constituency will spontaneously and 
justly add the distinctive and unique name of Founder. 

Bishop Fowler said in his address at the memorial service 
held at Meadville : 

You need not be afraid of the American University not thriving 
and prospering. It will grow stronger and richer in this place, 
destined to be the literary center, as it is the social center, of the 
world, that most beautiful city of the world, the city of Washington. 
With the thirty or forty million dollars of government institutions at 
hand, all open and easy of access, to be used by the students of this 
institution ; with a church that has never known anything impossible 
to it back of it ; with the centuries open before it, that University will 
grow and unfold, and in the not-far-off future students by the ten 
thousands will crowd that way. When we have all of us vanished, 
faded out like the mists in the evening azure of the past, John F. 
Hurst will sit quietly on the pedestal of that American University 
specially honored year by year on Founder's Day, as having given 
to the race an institution to illuminate, and to the church an institu- 
tion to defend its faith. 

Of him Dr. Jesse Bowman Young wrote in the Western 
Christian Advocate : 

When ten or twenty million dollars shall be secured for the estab- 
lishment of the University, when its graduate courses, in connec- 
tion with the vast governmental collections and facilities which are 
to be found in Washington are available, when its Faculties are 
gathered and set to work, and its hundreds of students flock thither 
year after year, coming generations will point with grateful appre- 
ciation to its massive and noble buildings, its libraries and laboratories, 
its lecture rooms and professors, and say : " All this was once a dream ! 
As a vision it shone before the eye and kindled the imagination and 
fired the soul of a wonderful dreamer. He was not disobedient unto 
the heavenly vision. He sought, in the face of many delays, diffi- 
culties, and disappointments, to enshrine the vision in marble, and 
in endowments, and in ample provision for the needs of the land he 
loved better than life. When men laughed at the project, when he 
was hindered and maligned, when cold shoulders were turned to him, 
and when at last his heart was broken with domestic sorrow, he never 
for one moment lost sight of the vision. He had faith, and courage, 

>2o John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

and foresight, and fortitude. And when under his burdens his 
-trench gave way, and his once tireless body sank down exhausted, 
>till tlic vision cheered and exalted him. It had come to be the chief 
part of his life. And now, behold it in its glory, vast, magnificent, 
world-renowned, the source of daily benedictions, and as ceaseless as 
the sun in its ministrations — the American University — and thank- 
fullv recall the name of its founder, who dreamed it into being — 
John Fletcher Hurst!" 

Dr. Samuel L. Beiler, of the Boston School of Theology, 
who was as Vice-Chancellor from 1892 to 1897 associated 
with him most intimately, in the Central Christian Advocate 

says : 

Bishop Hurst has been called a dreamer. He was more than a 
dreamer. It was his to turn dreams into reality. He may not have 
risen to first rank in literature as a creator of new systems of truth, 
as Calvin or Kant, nor yet to that clothing of ideas in new forms 
that give them universality and immortality, as Milton and Shake- 
speare. But he was of that larger and possibly more useful class 
of authors who have an instinct for the veins where the golden truth 
lies buried, and the patience and endurance to dig it out, purge it, mint 
it. and send it forth to bless humanity. He had the historical instinct 
that recognizes values in deeds and thoughts of men and nations and 
churches. It was his to see the turning-point in the tides of life, and 
where great opportunities had been seized or lost. He did not dream 
dreams so much as live in the world of other men's dreams, and he 
had the rare power to lay hold of this ethereal material of which life 
is made, and clothe it with form and give some idea of its meaning 
and value. He was not a Nebuchadnezzar, but a Daniel. 

So Bishop Hurst was not the dreamer in whose brain was born the 
Drew Theological Seminary, nor yet the great institution he did so 
much to found in Washington. He was the seer who saw the value 
of these dreams, and had the courage to rescue the one from financial 
ruin, and to undertake to make real the other, born in the brain of 
the Father of his Country. London, Paris, Berlin, Vienna, Athens, 
Rome, were as familiar to him as his study. He was wont to say, 
" Put a roof over the capital city of any great nation, and you can 
cover all the requisites of a complete university." 

Washington, the capital of his country, to his vision, was not to be 
an exception. He saw that what exists to-day in Washington is only 
the germ of what is to be. Amazing changes were taking place under 

His Faith and Courage 321 

his eyes. Libraries, laboratories, and institutions were springing up 
as if by magic. His soul took fire. He saw Washington's dream 
fulfilled in the American University, located in sight of the Capitol 
dome, amid facilities unsurpassed on earth, crowded with post-grad- 
uate students from all lands, led on by specialists in original investiga- 
tions that would bless the race. 

He believed that Methodism, with its untrammeled and living, con- 
sistent faith, its high spiritual life, and ideals born of a gospel experi- 
ence and consecrated to noblest service of humanity, was better fitted 
to foster such an institution than the politicians of less spiritual aims 
and more selfish purposes. He felt that the hour had come when this 
dream must be brought down out of the clouds and made a reality 
among men. He knew his limitations and understood the gigantic- 
task he was assuming. But he dared to begin the foundations, hop- 
ing, believing, sure that some day the capstone would be put in place 
with shoutings. 

Only those who toiled with him in the early years, prayed with 
him when the days were dark, stood by him when those who should 
have been friends opposed, and lifted when burdens seemed too great 
for mortals, can fully appreciate the undying hopefulness, the cour- 
ageous persistence, and the sublime confidence of Bishop Hurst in 
the ultimate triumph of this greatest and dearest dream of his heart. 
With open eyes he walked into his Gethsemane. Many arrows pierced 
his soul. His brain reeled and staggered. But he dreamed on, be- 
lieved on, to the end. Nor will he die in vain. The blood of martyrs 
is the seed of the church. His hopes will yet be realized, and the 
American University, beautiful for situation, the joy of Methodism, 
will be Bishop Hurst's great memorial. 

The future development of higher education in America will 
justify this lavish gift of the energy of his latest years, as 
Wordsworth has vindicated the large consecration involved in 
the creation of King's College Chapel, Cambridge : 

" Tax not the royal Saint with vain expense, 

With ill-matched aims the Architect who planned — 

Albeit laboring for a scanty band 

Of white-robed Scholars only — this immense 

And glorious work of fine intelligence ! 

Give all thou canst: high Heaven rejects the lore 

Of nicelv calculated less or more." 

3 22 


The Author 

Culminating Literary "Work. — At "Washington. — Fourteen Years of 


The transfer of his residence to Washington was not accom- 
plished without many tokens that his work and life in Buffalo 
and vicinity were highly prized by the people of Western New 
York. One of these evidences was the earnest and persistent 
invitations of the enterprising publisher and bookseller, Henry 
H. Otis, to write a series of brief articles suitable for a mar- 
riage souvenir. This he promised to do at his first opportune 
leisure, a pledge he fulfilled in a few hours that he found 
between the adjournment of the General Conference and the 
tenth of June, 1888. The little book called The Wedding 
Day was published in Buffalo in 1889 and has met with much 
favor. The dainty volume of 48 pages in white and gold 
besides the Marriage Ritual contains bright and strong essays 
on the New Home, the Home Altar, the Home Beautiful, 
Good Reading at Home, Forbearance, and Yesterdays of 

Of his Short History of the Church in the United States, 
published in 1890, mention has already been made in con- 
nection with the other four of the little Chautauqua series. 
Parochial Libraries in the Colonial Period (New York, 1890) 
was a paper read before the American Society of Church 
History in New York, December 30-31, 1889, and treats espe- 
cially of the work of Thomas Bray in Maryland. It was printed 
also in the papers of the Society. 

The fruit of his journey through India in 1884-85 was not 

From photograph by G. C. Cox, 1896. 


Indika 323 

confined to the religious and ecclesiastical interests of that great 
empire, nor to the increased intelligence and missionary zeal 
of the church in America, which gave his letters and addresses 
a warm welcome. As Germany was pictured in his Life and 
Literature in the Fatherland, so his observations and reflections 
while in India, combined with his subsequent studies on mate- 
rials gathered or discovered on his travels, gave to the world 
of letters a stately volume which was christened with a Greek 
name, borrowed from Megasthenes : Indika : The Country and 
People of India and Ceylon, published in Harper's best style 
in 1 89 1. It is a royal octavo of 814 pages, with splendid 
maps and illustrations, and has had a steady sale from the day 
of its publication. His labors upon this book extended from 
1885 to 1 89 1. How he at first intended to make two volumes 
— one to be devoted to Western Asia and Europe — may be 
seen in this letter to Mrs. Hurst from Stockholm, May 27, 

I find my book, Ecclesiastical Journey in the Elder Lands, is farther 
under way than I thought. The volume on India and Ceylon has 
20 chapters already, and Europe and the Levant 27. 

He completed his first draft of Indika early in 1888 and 
then began its careful revision. The revised manuscript was 
given to the publishers on July 8, 1889, and the work was in 
the hands of the public in the fall of 1891. Bishop Thoburn 

He has done the kind of work which was needed, by placing both 
the India of the past and of the present vividly before the American 

Dr. W. H. Milburn, Chaplain of the United States Senate, 
wrote : 

My daughter and I have been thoroughly reading Indika from start 
to finish, map and all, and a more delightful book we have never got 

-$_'4 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

hold of. We heartily thank you for its instructive and fascinating 
pages, which have done so much toward helping us to see vividly 
that wonderful country, its people, and the mighty changes now going 
on there. I wish you could some day do as much for China. 

Bishop Goodsell says : 

Your hook is the meat of many, hesides being rich in new matter — 
I believe it will stand for India where Wells Williams's work stands 
for China. 

Dr. Asbury Lowrey says : 

All through we trace the footprints of the scholar; but the Bishop 
displays his erudition here as everywhere with admirable modesty. 
There is not a pedantic hair in his head. 

Joseph Cook's commendation contains these words : 

Bishop Hurst is particularly felicitous in his combination of de- 
scriptions of scenery with discussions concerning the history, politics, 
social life, industries, races, and religions of the land. 

The severe critic on the tripod of the Xation was con- 
strained to call it a " very well written book," and "very intelli- 
gent observations upon places and people." and says : 

Such books as this will be read with pride and profit by all English- 
speaking races ; and the author will have earned the respect and 
gratitude of all those natives of India who desire the friendship and 
sympathy of the civilized natives of the West. 

The Critic passes friendly judgment: 

How shall we begin to describe or criticise a book that has enthralled 
It weighs four pounds and a quarter, though the literary qualities 
belie its avoirdupois in the same way that well-mixed and well-baked 
poundcake has no suggestion of heaviness. Bishop Hurst is a genial 
traveler, a keen yet kindly observer, and tells us of man and beast, of 
vegetable and mineral growths, of soldier and civil servant, foreigner 
and native, missionary and convert, writing with an enthusiasm which, 
though tempered with criticism, still kindles us. 

Short History of the Church 325 

It was a pleasant reminder of his India trip to furnish the 
introduction to Dr. M. V. B. Knox's A Winter in India and 
Malaysia among the Methodist Missions (New York, 1891) ; 
a delightful task to perform the same service for one of his 
former students, Dr. J. W. Etter, in his The Thorn in the 
Flesh; or, A Religious Meditation in Affliction (Dayton, Ohio, 
1892) ; and also for J. W. Johnston's compilation from the 
addresses and sermons of his former instructor at Dickinson, 
Dr. O. H. Tiffany, entitled Pulpit and Platform (New York, 


His Short History of the Christian Church appeared in 1893 

(Harper's), a fine duodecimo of more than 700 pages. It 
was based upon the series of five short histories, but many 
additions were made which in brief were: Bibliographies of 
the several divisions and chapters with a few footnotes ; larger 
and more frequent maps ; to the Modern Church in Europe 
a chapter on the Schools of the Church of England, three on 
the Scottish Church, five on the Roman Catholic Church, and 
one on the Salvation Army ; with an expansion of the Scholars 
of the English Church into three chapters, and of the Old 
Catholics into two ; and to the Church in the United States, in 
the Colonial Period, a chapter each on Religious Literature, 
Early Leaders, the Influence of the Puritans, and the Epis- 
copal Defection in Connecticut ; and. in the National Period, 
one each on the French Infidelity, and Theological Scholar- 
ship ; while the chapter on Larger and Earlier Denominations 
is expanded into eleven distinct chapters, and the three, on the 
Roman Catholic Church, the L'nitarian Church, and the 
Universalists, are each enlarged. The index of authors and 
general index are full, and an appendix of statistics closes 
the work. In the preparation of this volume for the press 
he was aided by Rev. John Alfred Faulkner, one of his former 
students at Drew and now his successor there in the Chair of 

j26 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

History. It has had and still has a wide circulation among 
all denominations. Dr. William M. Taylor, of the Broadway 
Tabernacle, appreciated it in a letter: 

I know something from experience of the kind, and also of the 
amount of lahor required for the compilation, verification, and con- 
densation of the dates, facts, and statements of a small period of 
church history in the small country of Scotland, and when I think of 
what must have heen required for what is virtually a universal 
church history, extending over nineteen centuries, I am appalled. I 
congratulate you that you have done it so well. The style is clear 
and elegant ; the arrangement natural, and easily rememberable ; and 
the substance is marvelously accurate. 

The commendation of it by Zion's Herald, Boston, was : 

At once learned and popular, accurate in detail and yet free in the 
treatment of the massive material. 

The Short History of the Christian Church was translated 
into German by Professor Arnold Sulzberger of the Martin 
Mission Institute and published at Cincinnati in 1895, with 
certain additions made by the translator in adapting it to use 
in Germany. It was also translated into Spanish by P. A. 
Rodriguez and published by the Methodist Book Concern at 
Nashville, Tennessee, in 1900, for use in the missions of the 
Southern Church among Spanish-speaking peoples. 

In 1892, after repeated solicitation, he consented to serve 
as one of the associate editors in the revision of Johnson's 
Universal Cyclopaedia, taking charge of the revision and sup- 
ply of all articles relating to Methodist biography, history, and 
doctrine. It fell to the writer's lot to assist him in this work, 
which ran through nearly three years before the ground of 
the eight volumes was fully traversed. Probably the most 
delicate task of this undertaking was that imposed by the 
exigencies of the work in the reduction of Dr. Whedon's 
strong article on Arminius and Arminianism. It was now 

Literature of Theology 327 

his office to prune the periods of a master who had more than 
once exercised his powers of criticism with friendly and helpful 
severity on the productions of the young pastor at Irvington 
and Passaic. For Professor W. W. Martin's Bible Lands he 
prepared the preface in 1895. 

His Literature of Theology, brought out by the Methodist 
Book Concern in 1896, a Classified Bibliography of Theolog- 
ical and General Religious Literature, is one of the finest speci- 
mens from the press of the church. It is a generous octavo 
of "jjt, pages and contains under proper headings about ten 
thousand titles. His Bibliotheca Theologica was out of print, 
and the accumulations of new literature had been numerous 
since it was completed in 1882. The new work, while an out- 
growth of the old, is much more complete in point of classifi- 
cation and more nearly exhaustive of the issues of the press of 
Great Britain, the United States, and Canada. Another dis- 
tinct feature, introduced at great cost of labor, is the item of 
the price, added in most instances to the title. Professor 
George W. Gilmore, of Bangor Theological Seminary, later 
of Meadville, Pennsylvania, was his main assistant in the 
compilation and classification of the titles and in the prepara- 
tion of the index of subjects, which occupies eighty pages of 
double columns. The index of authors, prepared by the writer, 
covers fifty-seven pages. The book is found in nearly all the 
larger libraries of this country, where it usually gives evidence 
of frequent use. 

Among the trophies of his habitual hunt for literary treas- 
ures was a manuscript volume which he discovered in an out- 
of-the-way part of a secondhand bookstore in Geneva, Switzer- 
land, in the summer of 1890. It proved to be the autograph 
Journal of Captain William Pote, Jr., during his Captivity 
in the French and Indian War from May, 1745, to August, 
1747. Pote's home was in Woodford's, now a part of Fal- 

j28 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

mouth, Maine. While engaged as captain of a schooner, the 
Montague, in carrying workmen and supplies to Fort Annap- 
olis Royal, he was made prisoner by the French and Indians 
and taken to Quebec, where he was kept in confinement over 
two years. His Journal is a full record of his experiences and 
of comments on many of the important events of the war, and 
abounds in personalia of those who shared his prison life — 
thus contributing richly to the genealogical history of many 
Xew England families. This valuable Journal for which Bishop 
Hurst wrote a general preface, and which was annotated, 
with an historical introduction, by Mr. Victor H. Paltsits, of 
the Lenox Library, was published by Dodd, Mead & Co. in 
1896, with superb illustrations and a reproduction of the 
Morris map in the Lenox Library, in a limited edition of 350 
copies on handmade paper and 25 copies on Imperial Japan 
paper, from the press of De Vinne. The quaint spelling of the 
original is preserved throughout. Its quiet humor and occa- 
sional sarcasm brighten the pages of this historic and pathetic 
narrative even to the point of fascination. The precious orig- 
inal could not, of course, be used for printer's copy, and it 
became the occupation of the writer for many hours, taken 
during a busy pastorate at Lovejoy Street Church, in Buffalo, 
to transcribe it in an imitation, approximately a facsimile, 
which was placed in the printer's hand. Mr. Wilberforce 
Eames, of the Lenox Library, says : 

My first impression of its historic value is strengthened by its new 
setting. It is certainly an important addition to our stock of knowl- 
edge, and its quaintness of style adds to its interest. 

Professor William F. Ganoug, of Canada, contributor to 
the Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, writes : 

It is a most valuable book, and admirably edited. 

History of the Christian Church 329 

The Americanist and jocose bookdealer of Nassau Street, 
Mr. Charles L. Woodward, says : 

If Captain Pote could see it, it would compensate him for the drub- 
bing that he received at the hands of the squaws. 

" Irenic Movements Since the Reformation " was the theme 
of his lecture, one of a series, before the Union Theological 
Seminary in New York in 1896, and appears in a volume called 
Church Unity published the same year by the Scribners. For 
the Brief History of English and American Literature, by 
Professor Henry A. Beers (2 vols., 1886, 1887), he prepared 
an Introduction and two supplementary chapters on the Reli- 
gious and Theological Literature of Great Britain and the 
United States, and the work thus enlarged was issued in one 
volume by the Methodist Book Concern with a full index of 
authors, writings, and periodicals in 1897. It forms a most 
useful and suggestive primer or compend. 

His History of the Christian Church, in two volumes octavo 
of nearly a thousand pages each, was published by the Meth- 
odist Book Concern, the first volume in 1897 and the second 
in 1900. Upon this work he wrought longer than any other. 
He began its writing during his second year at Drew at three 
and three quarters minutes after 11 a.m. on January 17, 1873. 
Amid all his other labors he kept it as the central object of his 
study and literary effort. The briefer histories which had 
already come from his pen were rather the epitomizings of 
this more extensive treatment than the germs from which it 
expanded. The composition grew gradually into shape during 
the terms of his professorship at Drew, and more slowly dur- 
ing his residence at Des Moines and Buffalo. The earlier 
portions of it he began to prepare for the press in 1883. In 
these he abandoned the form of lectures which at first he 
had thought to use, and adopted the clearly denned treatment 

»3<d John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

which marks the entire work. After being well settled in 
Washington he organized and superintended a force of helpers 
to bring the work to completion. Among these colaborers 
should be mentioned, first. Rev. Dr. John Alfred Faulkner, 
who furnished many valuable additions and footnotes, and 
brought to the author's hand much varied and rich material, 
besides important bibliographies interspersed throughout. 
Professor Charles R. Gillett, of Union Theological Sem- 
inary, did him excellent service in the bibliography of 
the latter part of the first volume, and Librarian S. G. 
Ayres, of Drew Theological Seminary, assisted in the same 
work in the second. Professor Charles W. Rishell, of 
Boston School of Theology, aided greatly on the Reformation 
in Continental countries and the post-Reformation period in 
Germany. Austria, the Low Countries, and Scandinavia. Rev. 
C. C. Starbuck, of Andover, was of much assistance on the 
post-Reformation period in Southern Europe and on the Greek 
Church. Upon all these contributions Bishop Hurst put the 
scrutiny of his own eye and the touch of his practiced hand 
both in the manuscripts submitted and in the galley and page 
proofs which passed under his revision. Much of this later 
stage of the work — especially that of passing through the 
press — was done while on journeys, and the writer enjoyed 
the privilege of reading and revising and mailing and 
receiving again the installments of proofs, and, especially in 
the later chapters of the second volume, of cutting down 
to smaller proportions the large excess of matter above the 
limits of a two-volume work. Of Volume I Dr. Samuel 
Macauley Jackson, professor of church history. New York 
University, says: 

It is the fruit of long-continued study and the use of the most 
recent literature. The author's standpoint is conservative. But if 
lie prefers the old it is not because he is ignorant of the new. Those 

Commendations of the Press 331 

who may make their acquaintance by means of it with church history 
may rely upon it that they will not have to unlearn what they here 

Of the work as a whole the following expressions of opinion 
will show the well-nigh unanimous verdict of the public : 

This is a work of high order, not only in scholarship, but in the 
spirit of absolute fairness which breathes on every page. — The Critic. 

Bishop Hurst has brought to his task not only a thorough under- 
standing of his subject, but a true historical spirit. — The Christian 

Fairness, accuracy, and completeness within the scope planned for 
are the ends at which he aims and, to a very successful degree, reaches. 
— The Advance. 

The work is plainly and even conspicuously that of a scholar, and 
one who understands both the need and the method of popularizing 
his learning. — The Congregationalism 

He excels in brief, summary presentations of special topics which 
omit nothing essential from the bony anatomy of the subject, but 
clothe it with the flesh and blood of a living interest. — The Inde- 

Bishop Hurst's work takes high rank in the modern literature of 
church history. Dr. Hurst has devoted years to the study of his 
subject, and his history shows the result of wide reading, careful 
thinking, and painstaking composition. — The Interior. 

Bishop Hurst brings to his task a thorough equipment. To accurate 
German scholarship he adds a clear, strong, graceful English style. 
He treats with philosophical insight the historical preparation of 
Christianity, the Apostolic and Patristic ages, the early persecutions 
and literary attacks, the Christian apologists, ecclesiastical schisms, 
and the development of theological literature. Exceedingly interesting 
are the chapters on Early Christian Life and Usages, The Church in 
the Catacombs, The Triumph of Christianity and Extinction of Pagan- 
ism in the Empire, and the great theological controversies that fol- 
lowed. — Methodist Magazine and Review {Toronto). 

The value of the text is greatly enhanced by excellent bibliograph- 
ical tables and by peculiarly good maps. — The Outlook. 

The chapters on Gregory the Great and Hildebrand (Gregory I 
and Gregory VII — probably the two greatest men who ever sat in the 
papal chair) seem to us to be very well done indeed. The execution 
throughout is not unworthy of the theme and the author. He knows 

33- John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

what a church history ought to be, and much well-directed labor has 
issued in an approximation to his ideal. — The Methodist Review 
( Nashville). 

His work is that of the true teacher, who directs his pupils to the 
mines whence the marble may be quarried. The preacher should 
tell the story of the vanished past. He will find for his furnishing 
no better work than Bishop Hurst's thesaurus of source-works and 
rich pages of historic recital. — Western Christian Advocate. 

['lie chastened tone of a broad and pregnant scholarship is upon 
(.very page. It is redeemed from the partisan blemishes of an earlier 
day — those marks of a callow and immature stage of the historical 
science. It is true to the fundamental principles of the divine enter- 
prise it sets forth, and with comprehensive sagacity it keenly recog- 
nizes the large submission of all other elements in the drama of life 
to the religious and ecclesiastical. The wonder remains that one who 
sustains the burdens of his office and other burdens voluntarily 
assumed in the establishment of a complete educational equipment for 
his church, should have found the time to offer these volumes of 
consecrated scholarship upon the altar of Christ. They betoken many 
years of careful, painstaking research and fruitful meditation. That 
encyclopedic knowledge for which the Bishop has become so widely 
known is here accompanied by exactness and the habit of a scholar. 
— Methodist Review. 

Bishop Hurst was one of the foremost in organizing the 
American Society of Church History in 1888 and a vigorous 
working member of the Council. He served as vice-president 
with Philip Schaff as president, and upon the death of the latter 
was chosen president in 1892. He filled that office until the 
society was merged with the more general American Historical 
Association in 1896. During its brief and separate existence 
it achieved a fine literary triumph in securing the publication 
of a series of thirteen volumes of denominational histories, of 
which he was one of seven general editors, the others being- 
Philip Schaff, Henry C. Potter, George P. Fisher, E. J. Wolf, 
Henry C. Vedder, and Samuel Macauley Jackson. Dr. Jack- 
son says : 

One meeting of the Council was in his house in Washington (4 Iowa 

History of Rationalism Revised 33$ 

Circle). It was there that the scheme for a series of denominational 
histories was first discussed. 

In his tribute to Dr. Schaff he said : 

Our friend and teacher has with unerring skill taught not only us 
of to-day, but our successors forever. As in general literature future 
generations will remember Coleridge and Carlyle as first revealing 
to the Anglo-Saxon mind the wealth of German literature of the time 
of Goethe, Schiller, Herder, Wieland, and the whole Weimar pan- 
theon, so will our friend, the youngest of us all in hope and the senior 
of us all in charity, be remembered gratefully and affectionately as 
the first to bring to the Anglo-Saxon mind the learned theological 
treasures of the Fatherland. 

Upon the invitation of Mr. Rossiter Johnson, editor-in-chief 
of Appleton's series of The World's Great Books, he furnished 
the three biographical and critical introductions for the 
volume containing Thomas a Kempis's Imitation of Christ, 
Rochefoucauld's Maxims, and Pascal's Thoughts (New York, 

The revised edition of his History of Rationalism which 
appeared in 1901 was, under his direction, prepared for the 
press by the writer, assisted by Professor F. E. Hirsch, of 
Charles City, Iowa. In 1901 Revell published in Chicago 
Upon the Sun-road : Glints from the Sermons of Bishop John 
F. Hurst, edited by Viola Price Franklin, an i8mo of 56 pages, 
one of the Quiet Home Series. The selections were made from 
a larger collection taken here and there from the published 
works of the Bishop and sent to Mrs. Franklin, who with an 
appropriate foreword and with good taste chose and classified 
under proper headings seventy-four of those best suited for her 

In 1 90 1 also appeared, from the Western Methodist Book 
Concern at Cincinnati, his little book entitled The New Hearth- 
stone : A Bridal Greeting. Besides the marriage ritual it con- 


34 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

tains seven chapters centering abont The Hearthstone. His 
purpose was to embody certain elements of an artistic char- 
acter in a work not dissimilar in general to The Wedding 
Day, and the publishers succeeded to his entire satisfaction 
in the beautiful product of their press. 

it was in the early nineties that the Publishing Agents of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church at New York invited Bishop 
Hurst to assume the responsibility for a new and popular 
1 [istory of .Methodism. To their request, after several months 
of declinature on the ground of preoccupation with other tasks, 
he finally acceded and began in 1893 with his usual vigor to 
plan for its execution. He secured as collaborator the services 
of Rev. Thomas E. Brigden, of the Wesleyan Church in Eng- 
land, on the British Methodism — one whose literary and 
antiquarian tastes he had quite freely tested in other days of 
personal association. For American Methodism he employed 
on different parts Rev. W. A. Dickson, Rev. E. L. Watson, 
Rev. Dr. S. Reese Murray, Rev. Page Milburn, Dr. James 
R. Joy. and the writer, who also wrote the Foreword in March, 
1900; and for the World-Wide Methodism, the Rev. Dr. James 
Mudge, Rev. F. G. Porter, and Mr. R. H. Johnston, of the 
Library of Congress. The accumulation of material in manu- 
script and illustrations continued until 1899, when by arrange- 
ment with the publishers he committed the final work of adjust- 
ing part to part, and of completing, revising, and preparing 
the entire mass for the press, according to the author's plan, 
to Dr. Joy, who finished the task in January. 1904. The work 
was published in seven finely illustrated octavo volumes, three 
each being given to British Methodism (1902) and American 
Methodism (1903), and the last one to World-Wide Meth- 
odism ( 1904). 

Incidental to the progress of this stately work through the 
press and helpful to its just fame was the publication, in 1903. 

John Wesley the Methodist 335 

of the greatly admired volume entitled John Wesley the Meth- 
odist, By a Methodist Preacher. Much wonderment as to its 
authorship was gratified and satisfied, when, upon an examina- 
tion of the three volumes on British Methodism, it was found 
to be a judicious selection therefrom of portions, both illustra- 
tions and text, bearing directly on the subject. The deft work 
of this biographic extract was also done by Dr. Joy, who 
supplied the sentences needed here and there as a nexus to form 
this spirited and picturesque portraiture of Methodism's illus- 
trious founder. John Wesley the Methodist and The History 
of Methodism will stand the worthy monument of Bishop 
Hurst's latest stage of literary fecundity and useful authorship. 

336 Jo u.v Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

The Bishop 

1892-96. — At Washington. — Twenty-five Conferences in Fourteen States, 
West, Central, East, and South. — Funeral of Secretary Gresham 

At the twenty-seventh anniversary of the Board of Church 

Extension in Philadelphia, on November 4, 1892, Bishop Hurst 

was one of the speakers. In an address of much point and 

power he said of the two leaders, Drs. Kynett and McCabe : 

Some years ago there was out in Iowa a young man nursing a 
great idea. He began by extending himself over six feet in the ethe- 
real regions. Then he thought of extending the church into all the 
country. A few years of service as pastor and presiding elder 
expanded the idea. Of course, there was only one place for such 
a man, and that was at the center in Philadelphia. Chaplain McCabe 
has never found out precisely the society to which he belongs. It 
used to be the Church Extension, after that it was the Missionary 
Society ; at present it is quite largely the American University. But 
he has a great heart and takes in both hemispheres and all the stars. 

On January 12, 1893, he opens his mouth in defense of the 
American Sabbath in the memorable hearing before the select 
Committee of the House of Representatives against open gates 
on Sunday at the World's Fair. Dr. J. H. Knowles, of the 
American Sabbath Union, says, " Bishop Hurst's address was 
most impressive." 

In the spring of 1893 he held two Conferences, the South- 
west Kansas at Great Bend, and the Northwest Kansas at 
Belleville. The spirit of his presidency at the former is well 
expressed by Dr. James T. Hanna : 

He was kind, gentlemanly, genial, considerate, sympathetic. He 
evidently desired to please God in all he did or said, to benefit the 
church and help the brethren. 

Anonymous Letters 337 

Touches of his humor are mingled in a letter to Helen 
written from Chicago while in attendance on the Bishops' 
meeting at Evanston, on May 3, 1893: 

Bishops Foss, Foster, and FitzGerald were on my train when the 
Washington and New York train joined ours at Harrisburg. So 
we settled all the affairs of the church right away, and all talked all 
the time. 

On June 25 he delivered a chastely eloquent address on the 
late Senator Leland Stanford in the Metropolitan Church. 
His Conferences that fall were the Cincinnati at Troy, Ohio, 
Erie at DuBois, Pennsylvania, Ohio at Lancaster, Blue Ridge 
at Daisy, North Carolina, and the North Carolina at Lexing- 
ton. At DuBois some anonymous letters reached him intended 
to prevent the probable appointment of a certain minister as 
presiding elder and containing statements of his unsoundness 
in doctrine and irregularity in conduct. Showing the letters 
to the preacher himself, he said, " This is what I always do 
with this sort of stuff." He tore the letter into fragments and 
cast them into the waste basket. While at home a few days 
before his trip to North Carolina his affection for his former 
associates and successors flames out on October 9 in a message 
to Helen, who was on a visit to Madison : 

Give best love to all at dear Drew. No oaks or hearts better 
than there. 

He preached a notable Thanksgiving sermon on November 
30 in Foundry Church in which he dealt in no uncertain terms 
with the question of the exclusion of the Chinese. He asks : 

In God's even scale of justice which outweighs the other, the China- 
man with his tolerance or the American with his exclusiveness? 

His spring Conferences in 1894 were the Washington in 

that city, the Central Pennsylvania at Harrisburg, and the 

33^ John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

Wyoming at Scranton, Pennsylvania. At the first named he 
said : 

These cheerful faces do not indicate that they have seen hard times, 
hut later reports will tell. I hope the presiding elders will expunge 
all allusions to hard times from their reports. 

In the fall four Conferences fell to his lot : Indiana at Bloom- 
ington. Southeast Indiana at Shelbyville, Tennessee at Martin, 
and Central Tennessee at Dowelltown. W. P. Banks says of 
his work at Dowelltown : 

Nothing escaped his eagle eye. He required everything, in open 
Conference and in Cabinet sessions, to be up to a high standard, and 
yet. when a case proved itself worthy, he exhibited the tenderness 
of a woman. A brother who made rather loud claims to holiness 
was considerably behind with his Conference course of study. The 
Bishop asked him some questions about what he knew of these books. 
The brother replied evasively, " Bishop, I am wholly the Lord's." 
' Well," said the Bishop, " a man can be wholly the Lord's and still 
be very ignorant." 

He responded cheerfully to a call to speak at the dedication 
of the new Hoyt-Bowne dormitory building at Drew on Octo- 
ber 23, and gave a charming and inspiring address on " The 
Romance of Drew." At the close of the annual meeting of 
the American Society of Church History at Washington on 
December 28. 1894, he entertained the officers and members 
at luncheon at his home, 1701 Massachusetts Avenue. The 
spring of 1895 brought him to the Lexington Conference at 
Maysville, Kentucky, the Wilmington at Smyrna, and the 
Newark at Tottenville. on Staten Island — his second official 
visit to each of the two latter. Elam A. White says : 

At Maysville a brother had misplaced twenty-five dollars of the 
benevolent money and was unable to pay it, and the Bishop asked 
that the money be made good. Whereupon a member of the Confer- 
ence moved that we take a collection, which was done, covering the 

Funeral of Secretary Gresham 339 

Upon the sudden death of Judge Gresham, Secretary of 
State, he was requested by President Cleveland, on behalf of 
Mrs. Gresham, to conduct the funeral services on May 29, 

1895, at the White House. Mr. Cleveland writes: 

His ministration on that occasion was noted by us all as being the 
most solemn and appropriate. All that I recall of him is of the 
most pleasing character. 

He became a nonresident member of the Century Association 
of New York on June 1, 1895. and remained in actual relation 
until 1902. He was also connected with the Authors Club 
from about the same time until his decease. 

His fall assignments, 1895, were four: Central Swedish at 
Chicago (where he used the Swedish language in the opening 
service, at the communion, and at the ordination ceremonies).. 
Detroit at Ann Arbor, Michigan at Albion, and the North Ohio 
at Mount Vernon. The Conferences at Ann Arbor and Albion 
in two successive weeks were seasons of intense feeling, the 
interests of Albion College being thought by some to be jeop- 
ardized by those of the American University, represented by 
the Bishop and earnestly advocated by many leading members 
of the bodies. The result, however, was a fine illustration of 
how one good cause is helped, but not hindered, by another. 
He was in Washington again in time to give an address at 
the corner-stone laying of the Fifteenth Street Church on 
October 8. The Upper Mississippi at Grenada, the Alabama 
at Pratt City, the Central Alabama at Marion, and the Phil- 
adelphia at that city, claim his attention in the early part of 

1896. Of the Bishop at Marion Dr. Henry N. Brown says: 

He was the mirror of a great mind, but noted for his simplicity. 
He was kind to children and did not fail to ask about them. He was 
approachable, and made the most lowly to feel at home in his 

340 Jonx Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

In an opening address at Philadelphia he made feeling ref- 
erence to the religious care of that body over his childhood 
home. He also expressed the hope and belief that God 
would hasten the time of Cuba's freedom — so wonderfully 
fulfilled two years later. On March 9 he presided at the 
ceremony of ground-breaking for the College of History of the 
American University. On June 4 at the corner-stone laying 
of First Church at Germantown he made an address which 
was very rich in local and historical allusion. 


1896-98.— At Washington.— Twenty-three Conferences in Sixteen States, 
, Central, East, South, and West.— Many Addresses.— A Zoological Episode 

At the General Conference of 1896, held in Cleveland, Ohio, 
he presided on May 8 and the 25th in the afternoon. In the 
consecration of Bishop-elect McCabe he joined with Bishops 
Bowman and Foster, and Drs. L. D. McCabe and T. C. Iliff, 
in the laying on of hands. Upon his return from General 
Conference he set earnestly about learning to ride the bicycle, 
in which the writer was permitted to act as tutor to his former 
teacher. He became a good rider and took frequent spins 
about the city and at Marion, where he spent several summers. 

Four Conferences in the fall of 1896 call him from home: 
The Kentucky at Vanceburg, West Virginia at Moundsville. 
Pittsburg at Indiana. Pennsylvania, and the Genesee at Corn- 
ing. New York. Joseph Lee says: 

He impressed me at Moundsville by his firmness and the kindness 
which he showed toward the men who were in hard fields of labor. 

He was present and spoke at the reception to Bishop Fowler 
in Buffalo on October 2. The session of Genesee at Corning 

Honored by Princeton 341 

is vividly impressed on the memory of the writer as one of 
the most intense in spirit for twenty years. The enthusiastic 
subscription for the American University of $3,000 by the 
preachers themselves, the sudden death of Rev. Andrew Purdy 
on the streets of the city, the funeral service conducted by the 
Bishop at the church, and his powerful and evangelistic sermon 
on Sunday morning — all united to lift the thought and purpose 
of the body to a higher level of spirituality. On Wednesday, 
October 21, he presided and made the first address at the 
corner-stone laying of the College of History of the American 
University. It was a memorable occasion, addresses being 
given by Bishop Alphaeus W. Wilson, the Hon. Robert E. 
Pattison, Bishop Charles H. Fowler, the Rev. Dr. Charles 
H. Payne, the Rev. Dr. James M. Buckley, and Bishop Charles 
C. McCabe. 

Princeton University in November, 1896, as one of its 
honors at its one hundred and fiftieth anniversary, conferred 
upon him the degree of Doctor of Divinity. His eighth official 
tour in the South came early in 1897, when he held the Florida 
Conference at Tampa, Saint John's River at Tarpon Springs, 
Savannah at that city, and South Carolina at Columbia, leaving 
Washington on January 12 and arriving at home February 9. 
As was his unvarying habit on every return with valise or 
trunk, these were immediately unpacked before he ate or slept, 
and put in readiness for the next trip. Travel in all its 
minutiae had become a second nature to him. The next week 
he is in New York, but consents in his absence to let the 
writer take his copies of Melanchthon's Bible and Horace, each 
containing autograph notes of the " Good Philip," to the 
four hundredth anniversary of the reformer's birth at Luther 
Memorial Church on the 1 5th of February. He returned from 
another trip to New York on the 22d, but left again that night 
for Madison to attend the funeral of Dr. George R. Crooks 

34- John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

on the following day, where he made a beautiful and appre- 
ciative address, from which we take the following warm 
flashes : 

With the illustrious names of McClintock, Nadal, Kidder, Strong, 
Miley, and now the knightly Crooks, this school of theology furnishes 
to the world most vivid examples of the nobility of service, the splen- 
dor of consecrated genius, the sweet melody of lives attuned to the 
harmonies of heaven. . . . His mind was transfigured while gazing 
into the perspectives of history. 

He preached at Harvard University in March, and at Vassar 
College on April 25. Five more Conferences were under his 
supervision in the fall : Central German at Columbus, Ohio, 
Central Illinois at Canton, Minnesota at Winona, Northern 
Minnesota at Fergus Falls, and the Northern German at Ar- 
lington, Minnesota. On his coming to the Germans at Colum- 
bus, H. A. Schroetter, of Covington, w r riting of him as " our 
German Bishop," says: 

Of medium stature, well proportioned, with clear eyes, strong yet 
pleasing and dignified features, which give proof of his high culture, 
he has largely acquired the German good nature, and knows much of 
its amiable fellowship. 

At this Conference he spoke touchingly in German at the 
memorial service for Frederick Cramer, one of his former 
pupils in Bremen. F. W. Merrell says: 

His advice to the young preachers at Canton as to their investments 
was apt. He said: " I would advise you not to build a shed to which 
you must go when it rains, but to buy an umbrella that you can take 
with you." He then spoke of the embarrassment occasioned to pastors 
and to the Cabinet by the endeavor to station pastors who buy farms : 
'They want to be sent to the charge just north of it (the farm), 
then to the one just south of it, then to the one just east, and then 
the one west, and then they are done. They locate." 

Of the same session R. B. Williams writes : 

A Warm Place in Southern Hearts 343 

In Cabinet work I found him one of the most brotherly, sympa- 
thetic, lovable men that I have ever known. 

Dr. L. L. Hanscom says : 

At Winona he was unpretending in life and manner and the em- 
bodiment of thoughtfulness, earnestness, and energy. 

Bishop Hurst's fine sense and habitual use of courtesy 
toward those who came before the Conferences where he was 
presiding found effective illustration at the Minnesota Con- 
ference in his introduction of Dr. William V. Kelley, editor 
of the Methodist Review, in a brief reference to the Doctor's 
father, Rev. Benjamin Kelley. Dr. Kelley writes : 

As I listened I thought how incredible it would have sounded to 
that faithful, modest, unselfish man, if, when he lay dying in Port 
Jervis, in October, 1874, some one had told him that, twenty-three 
years after he had gone, a bishop of the church would stand in far-off 
Minnesota and describe his character and eulogize his life and his 
work in the presence of a whole Conference. 

At the close of the Bishops' meeting in Baltimore he was 
saddened by the news of the sudden decease of Dr. Charles 
W. Buoy, of Philadelphia, at whose funeral on November 5 
he made the first address — a model tribute to a true knight of 
the cross. He served as one of the Joint Committee on Federa- 
tion of the two great Methodist bodies on January 7 and 8, 
1898, in Washington, and gave a reception to the other mem- 
bers on the evening of the 7th in his library. His brotherly 
cooperation with the representatives of the Southern Church 
in securing their just rights from Congress brought out a 
testimony to his large love for the brethren of that great com- 
munion in a characteristic letter from Dr. (now Bishop) E. E. 
Hoss, who on January 28 wrote : 

Be assured that you have made for yourself a warm place in 
the Southern Methodist heart. What a blessing it would be if the 

$44 Jo ,IX Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

best nun of our two churches only knew one another! And what a 
blessing if all the malcontents and soreheads could be put into a 
capacious growlery, and allowed to fight and snarl to their hearts' 
content ! 

In February he was elected one of the vice-presidents of 
the Evangelical Alliance for the United States, an honor 
which he appreciated highly, and he gave frequent proofs of 
his interest in the noble and beautiful objects which caused 
and still glorify its existence. One day about the middle of 
February while exercising on Sixteenth Street on his bicycle, 
which had come to be almost a rival to his favorite pedes- 
trianism, there was suddenly placed before him the alternative 
of running against a woman or taking a fall to the pavement. 
It was a case of self-preservation versus politeness, and polite- 
ness won. He carried a bruised hip for two weeks, and an 
operation w T as found necessary before he was well again. The 
Delaware Conference at Orange, New Jersey, the New York 
at that city, and the East German at Rochester, New York, 
were his in the spring of 1898. During this second presidency 
over the New York Conference he made a visit to the congre- 
gation of Saint Mark's Church (colored). Dr. W. H. Brooks, 
its pastor, says : 

His address to my people was sparkling, bubbling over with wit 
and humor, and full of a deep spirituality, and his sermon was pro- 
found and ran like limpid waters from a full fountain. 

Mr. John M. Cornell, his host, wrote him after the session: 
1 Your presidency has left nothing but pleasant impressions 
and happy memories." At Rochester he chose to preach in 
English, but conducted the business and the ordination services 
and addressed the Sunday school in German. On May 21 
he presided in Baltimore at a meeting of the Executive Com- 
mittee of the Western Section for the Third Ecumenical 
Conference, and in the evening made an address at a meeting 

"A Beautiful and Sweet Alliance" 345 

held under the auspices of the General Conference of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South, in the interest of the 
American University. On June 1 he spoke on the Leadership 
of Christianity in the Higher Education at the Quarter Cen- 
tennial of Boston University. Mrs. C. W. Ellis, of Newton- 
ville. savs : 

This was one of the most scholarly and most charming of his 
public addresses. He spoke at the same time with President Eliot, 
of Harvard, and other speakers chosen from the best we have here, 
and I recall the pride I felt at the time in the speech of the Bishop. 

Speaking of the early leaders in education in the church, he 

Brave they were, glowing incarnations of the beatitudes of Christ. 
. . . Hostility between the church and the university ! Never ! Noth- 
ing but an everlasting unity, a beautiful and sweet alliance. 

On June 20 he delivered the address at the dedication of the 
Slocum Library at Ohio Wesleyan University, his subject 
being Libraries in the United States. 

With his daughter Helen he made the rounds of the Pacific 
Conferences again in the fall of 1898: Nevada Mission at 
Carson City, California German at San Francisco, California 
at Pacific Grove, Southern California at Santa Barbara, Ari- 
zona at Tuqson, New Mexico English Mission at Silver City, 
being the one hundred and fiftieth in his episcopal career, and 
the New Mexico Spanish Mission at El Paso. Texas. Dr. 
H. B. Heacock says his address to the entering class at Pacific 
Grove was " instructive, inspiring, and lives in the memory of 
many " ; and adds : 

The American University had now assumed a certain regnancy 
in his thought. The interests of our church in colleges and univer- 
sities, according to his theory, demanded a great central post-graduate 
institution as its climax and bond of union. The institution at 
Washington, so auspiciously begun, loomed before his vision as the 

546 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

normal outcome of our educational plans and essential to their full 

1 )f his interest in zoology in a practical way few are aware, 
and the letter of Dr. Frank Baker, Superintendent of the Na- 
tional Zoological Park, will be a surprise to many of his 
friends : 

Washington, D. C, September 22. — I am very greatly obliged to 
you for the interest you have taken with regard to procuring speci- 
mens for the National Zoological Park. The bear from Marion, 
Massachusetts, has arrived, and has proved to be a very fine acquisi- 
tion. With regard to the bear at Truckee, California, the expense of 
transportation would be so great that it will hardly pay the Park to 
negotiate for the animal. 

' In our Spanish Mission," says Dr. Thomas Harwood of 
the meeting at El Paso, " he was so kind and fatherly that 
he endeared himself wonderfully to all our Mexican brethren." 
About Thanksgiving time in response to an invitation from the 
editor of Harper's Weekly he wrote a vigorous and approving 
article on the very live topic of expansion in the Philippines. 
It was published simultaneously with another of a different 
view by Bishop Henry C. Potter, of Xew York, who after 
a trip of observation in the Orient greatly modified the senti- 
ments contained in his own article. On December 18 he spoke 
at the Decennial of the American Sabbath Union, of which 
he was a Manager, held in Calvary Baptist Church. Among 
other excellent remarks he said : 

The general opinion of thinking men and of the press to-day is 
the discriminating and just view that the Sabbath is a great boon from 
the Creator to the race made in his image, and should be welcomed 
in the spirit of love, obedience, and hope as the bulwark of social 
morality and a fountain of blessing to the home and to the state. 

Hymns in the White House 347 


1898-1901. — At Washington. — President McKinley's Friendship. — Nineteen 
Conferences in Eleven States, West, North, South, and East. — 

His Second Marriage 

Major William McKinley and Bishop Hurst were fast 
friends before the choice of the people made the Major the 
President. Of this relation as it continued and grew to in- 
timacy Colonel Henry O. S. Heistand. who was Mr. McKin- 
ley's private secretary when he was Governor of Ohio, says : 

Bishop Hurst was one of the warmest personal friends of William 
McKinley. No one visited Mr. McKinley who was more cordially 
welcomed than Bishop Hurst. The President not only appreciated 
the Bishop on account of his high ecclesiastical office, but admired 
him for his brilliant attainments, his excellent judgment, and his 
wise counsels. He loved him for his charming and sympathetic 
nature, and placed high value upon him as a man and friend. The 
relations existing between these two great men were those of perfect 
confidence. For many years it was Mr. McKinley's custom to have 
his intimate friends gather at his home on Sunday evenings and sing 
hymns. Mrs. McKinley, being unable to attend church, the President 
always, if possible, remained with her in the evening, though attend- 
ing church in the morning by himself. At these little informal 
Sunday evenings the voices of Mr. and Mrs. McKinley were always 
mingled with those of the assembled company, and occasionally Mrs. 
McKinley would play an accompaniment. Upon entering the White 
House this custom was continued, and Bishop Hurst was so frequently 
a member of the party that Mr. McKinley hardly thought the gather- 
ing complete until the Bishop had arrived. It was through these 
gatherings, where my wife usually played the accompaniment, that I 
formed the acquaintance with Bishop Hurst, which grew to a friend- 
ship. At one of these evenings of sacred song it was discovered that 
the only Methodist hymn book available was the one carried by Mr. 
McKinley in his own church devotions, and the President said, " I 
must get some more hymn books. Our little Sunday evening devotion 
must not suffer for want of books." Whereupon Bishop Hurst said, 
" Now, Mr. President, let me provide the hymn books for the White 
House"; to which the President agreed. A few days later (on New 
Year's Eve, 1898), ten handsome copies of the Methodist Hymnal, 

348 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

each volume bearing Bishop Hurst's compliments and his signature, 
were received and afterward used on Sunday evening by the " White 
House Choir" (as the President called it), until the time of Mr. 
McKinley's death. 

The Hon. George B. Cortelyou, Postmaster-General, who 
was secretary to the President at the time of his tragic death, 
says : 

I well remember President McKinley's regard for Bishop Hurst, 
and the President several times commented to me on the energy and 
forcefulness with which the Bishop presented the claims of the 
University. Upon the occasion of these calls I saw the Bishop fre- 
quently, and always had the pleasantest relations with him. He was 
of a peculiarly gentle and winning disposition, but withal a very 
vigorous and persevering advocate in any cause in which he was 

On one of his calls to see the President, Bishop Hurst noticed 
that the usually lustrous eyes seemed a bit dim, and said : 

' You seem a little tired." " Yes,'' he replied, " I have not 
been quite well for several days." " Is there anything I can 
do for you? " asked the Bishop. " Yes, there is," he replied. 

1 Keep on praying for me ; that will help me more than any- 
thing else." 

His Conferences in the spring of 1899 were the Saint Louis 
at Union Church in that city, the Missouri at Cameron, and 
the Central Missouri at Oskaloosa, Iowa. The session at 
Saint Louis was remarkable for the spirit of reunion manifest 
between the representatives of the two great branches of 
American Methodism. Dr. Frank Lenig writes : 

The ordination of elders, held in the Lindell Avenue Church Sun- 
day afternoon, was unique, peculiarly impressive, and perhaps the 
first of the kind ever held — a kind of a reunion service. At the laying 
on of hands Bishop Hurst was assisted inside the altar by Bishop 
McCabe. and Bishop E. R. Hendrix, of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. South ; and on the outside by Dr. Young, Dr. Hopkins, of 
the Southern Church, and myself. 

City or Great Heart " 


Dr. W. T. Wright says : 

His eye and intellect were clear, his administration vigorous. The 
Conference was hard to handle, but the Bishop handled it with his 
usual skill and, I think, fairness. 

In the midsummer heat, on July 20, Bishop Hurst was at 
the Fourth International Convention of the Epworth League 
at Indianapolis, where he responded in English, in German, 
in French, in Italian, and in Spanish, to the address of welcome 
in Tomlinson Hall. His official task in the fall of 1899 took 
him to six Conferences : Northwest Indiana at Frankfort, Chi- 
cago German at Milwaukee, West Wisconsin at Baraboo. 
Wisconsin at Waukesha, Rock River at Rockford, Illinois, 
and Dakota at Huron. Of the Rock River Dr. H. G. Jackson 

The Conference was an exciting one, in some respects. Matters 
of critical interest came up for settlement, but Bishop Hurst presided 
with such fairness and skill as to satisfy all parties. 

W. H. Smith adds : 

Clear, calm, judicial, in the midst of the strife and contention, 
he was master of the situation, and I believe few could have filled 
his trying and difficult position with such satisfaction to so many 
intensely interested partisans, or brought out more peaceable results 
for the men and the church. 

While the Bishops were at their semiannual meeting in 
November, 1899, in Philadelphia, Bishops Hurst and Ninde 
made responses to the welcome spoken by Dr. John E. James 
at the public reception on the evening of the third. " If I 
should try to give a name befitting this wonderful city," said 
he, " I would call it the city of Great Heart." Continuing 
he gave the Methodists of the city a most hearty compliment 
for the successful establishment in recent years of their four 
great and growing charities, the home for the aged, the hos- 
pital, the orphanage, and the deaconess home. 

350 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

The dedication of the new administration building at Drew 
i .n I December 5 called him to his loved Madison, where he was 
the first on the afternoon programme. The body of his address 
was a clear and strong expose of the weakness of certain 
phases of the destructive higher criticism, and a masterful 
argument drawn from history proving that God's Word is like 
the great oaks of the campus, growing in strength and beauty, 
and entering the thought and life of the world more effectually 
through the storms of opposition. On December 18, 19, and 
20. at the request of Chaplain Milburn. who was recovering 
from illness, he opened the daily sessions of the Senate with 
a brief prayer. He spoke most fittingly at the farewell service 
at Twelfth Street Church on December 31. prior to its mer- 
gence with the Wilson Memorial Church. 

At the service in memory of Bishop Newman held at Met- 
ropolitan Church on Sunday, February 25. 1900, Bishop Hurst 
preached a most appreciative memorial sermon, using for his 
text the same passage from which Bishop Newman had 
preached in the same place on John Wesley during the Second 
Ecumenical Conference: "There was a man sent from God 
whose name was John." The next day he addressed the 
Preachers' Meeting of New York city on " The American 

His Conferences in the spring of 1900 were three: New 
Jersey at Millville. Virginia at Alexandria, and New York 
East at Danbury, Connecticut. In his address at Millville to 
the class for full connection he said : 

Let me urge you not to be in a hurry to become great, but rather 
to be wise, patient, cautious, and studious, never losing sight of the 
fact that you are only instruments in advancing the cause of God, 
and that what you accomplish is not so much your work as it is that 
of God through you. 

At the Ecumenical Missionary Conference held in New York 

Trips in Virginia and Canada 351 

at Carnegie Hall and many other public places opened for the 
throngs in attendance, Bishop Hurst spoke at a meeting in 
Broadway Tabernacle on the afternoon of April 23 on the 
Philippines as a missionary field. At the General Conference 
of 1900 held in Chicago he presided on May 7 in the morning 
and the 23d in the afternoon at Studebaker Hall. Together 
with Bishops Foss and Thoburn he laid hands on Bishop 
Edwin Wallace Parker, and also presented the Scriptures to 
him at the Consecration service held on Sunday, May 27. 

During the summer of 1900 he made two trips besides his 
usual stay, shortened thereby, at Marion. One in July in 
company with the writer was by steamer to Old Point Com- 
fort; a steamboat ride up the James to Jamestown and the 
ruins ; by carriage to Williamsburg, affording two hours with 
President Tyler of William and Mary College; to Yorktown 
and back to Williamsburg by livery ; by rail back to Old Point ; 
a few days later to Richmond and return by rail; and thence 
by boat home again. On the second trip in August he was 
accompanied by Helen, to the White Mountains, to Quebec, 
to Port Hope and Montreal. 

At all subsequent Conferences the writer was with him. His 
fall series, all in Iowa, were the Saint Louis German in Bur- 
lington, Northwest German at Lemars, Northwest Iowa at 
Spencer, and Upper Iowa at Osage. His sermon in English 
at Burlington was one of great power, many being visibly 
affected to tears. On the way between Burlington and Lemars 
he stopped three hours at Cedar Rapids, where he made an 
inspiring address to the District Conference in session at 
Trinity Church. Professor F. E. Hirsch, of Charles City 
College, says : 

The sermon which he preached in Lemars has ever remained in 
my memory. He preached on the words, " There is joy in heaven 
over one sinner that repenteth." He said that every great event in 

35- John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

history has produced an immortal song; the greatest event of which 
( rod can conceive is the conversion of a sinner; and that this is in 
itself sufficient to start the full anthem of the heavenly choir. 

Bishop Hurst was one of the ninety-seven distinguished men 
who served as a board of electors in October, 1900, to deter- 
mine the names to be placed in the Hall of Fame for Great 
Americans in the New York University. He was also one of 
the Committee on the Centennial of Washington as the seat 
of the Federal Government held at the White House on 
December 12. 

In January, 1901, he presided at the Upper Mississippi Con- 
ference at Aberdeen, and the Mississippi at Moss Point, at the 
former being the guest of Rev. Dr. Richard Wilkinson, and 
at the latter of Rev. Dr. H. W. Featherstun, each the pastor 
of the Southern Church. At Aberdeen we were entertained 
at dinner at the beautiful home of Mr. George Paine, whose 
mother, widow of Bishop Paine, added greatly to the charm 
of three hours of most delightful hospitality. The Bishop 
preached at the Southern Church at Aberdeen to the great 
satisfaction of both pastor and people. 

What proved to be his last Conference was the Troy, held 

at Saratoga, New York, April 10-15, 1901- The correspondent 

of The Christian Advocate wrote : 

He presided with his usual ease and dignity, and without seeming 
haste so dispatched the minute business that it was almost finished 
by noon of Saturday. 

Edwin Genge, the Secretary, says: 

It was evident that he was laboring under some disability. Yet he 
bravely carried through the work of the Conference. He was much 
interested in some of the brethren who were to be moved, and made 
several inquiries concerning them and their work while routine busi- 
ness was being transacted. His sermon on Sunday morning was 
preached with much vigor. At the ordination service in the afternoon 
it was apparent that he had undertaken to do too much for the one day. 

Summation of Episcopal Service 353 

On his way from the morning service to the Sanitarium 
where he was entertained he said to the writer with great 
earnestness : " I would like to live twenty years more to preach 
the gospel." 

After his return from the Bishops' meeting at Portland, 
Maine, we went again together to Charlottesville, Virginia, 
where he, although in feeble health, fulfilled an engagement 
by preaching in the chapel of the University of Virginia both 
morning and evening on Sunday, May 12. While there he 
greatly enjoyed a call on Saturday evening upon Dr. Wilson 
C. N. Randolph, a great-grandson of Thomas Jefferson, and 
a drive with Professor F. H. Smith on Monday morning to 
Monticello, the home and the tomb of Jefferson. He preached 
his last sermon at West Baltimore Station Sunday morning, 
June 16, 1 90 1, and spoke briefly, but very earnestly, choice 
words of welcome to the class of nearly one hundred proba- 
tioners who were received into full connection by the pastor, 
Dr. M. F. B. Rice, in the evening. This was his last public 
service in America. 

A summation of his twenty-one years of episcopal service 
shows that he presided at 170 Conferences and Missions, 
157 having been held in 45 states of the Union, and 13 in 
9 foreign countries, made 18,414 appointments for a year in his 
assignment of effective ministers to their work, and ordained 
1,041 deacons and 803 elders. 

For many years prior to his residence in Buffalo Bishop 

Hurst and Mr. Francis H. Root had been warm friends 

through a mutual appreciation of qualities of character. In 

the tireless application of energy each in his own field and in 

the spirit of progress, impatient of delay in any good work, 

the two men were alike. When Bishop and Mrs. Hurst with 

their three younger children came to reside in Buffalo in 1885 

they were for a time, while the newly purchased episcopal 

354 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

residence was being put in order, the guests of Mr. and Mrs. 
Root, and thereafter the two families were on intimate terms. 
Bishop Hurst and Miss Ella Agnes (born 1858). the youngest 
daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Root, became engaged in February, 
1892, and the wedding took place in Buffalo on September 5, 
three days earlier than had been planned, the change of date 
having been made at the earnest request of Mr. Root, then 
in his final illness. Mrs. Hurst was cordially welcomed by 
all the family at 4 Iowa Circle, Washington, and late in 1893 
they removed to 1701 Massachusetts Avenue. Bishop and 
Mrs. Hurst traveled in Europe during the summer of 1894. 
A son was born to them on December 18. 1894, to whom was 
given the name of Spencer Root, in honor of Mrs. Hurst's 
father and mother. 

In May, 1898, Mrs. Hurst and Spencer went to Europe for 
the announced purpose of cultivating her voice. Her stay was 
prolonged through the next winter, and she wrote in Febru- 
ary, 1899, of her plans to remain another year. To Bishop 
Hurst's earnest request that she return with their child she 
made no reply. In this crisis his gentleness and considerate- 
ness, his affection, his sense of duty and of justice, his clear 
vision of the right path for all concerned to pursue, all united 
in a final heart message and appeal which as a husband and 
father he sent to his wife. She never returned to him. He 
grieved deeply over the situation, but never surrendered his 
affection for his absent wife, nor the hope for her return. To 
the proposition for a formal separation and a relinquishment of 
his claim upon the child he never gave any consent. In the 
fall of 1899 he removed to 1207 Connecticut Avenue, which 
continued to be his home for more than three years under the 
care of his daughter Helen. 

Vienna, Paris, London 355 

The Bishop-Traveler 

Eighth Trip to Europe. — Third Ecumenical Conference. — The Break 

Bishop Hurst served as chairman of the Committee of the 
Western Section on Programme for the Ecumenical Methodist 
Conference which met in London in September, 1901. The 
duties of this position involved the holding of several meetings, 
and much correspondence on both sides of the Atlantic. A 
preliminary meeting of the Committee was held on May 21, 
1898, at Baltimore, during the session of the General Confer- 
ence of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South ; another at 
Washington on March 21, 1900; and several were held at 
different places before he started for Europe on his eighth 
visit and fifteenth trans-Atlantic trip. During the month of 
June he made preparations for his Ecumenical address which 
he delivered in London in response to the welcome. His 
daughter Helen accompanied him on this journey, sailing 
July 3, 1 90 1. They spent most of the summer at Vienna, 
visiting his son. Dr. Carl Bailey Hurst, then Consul-General 
in that city. 

As the time for the opening of the Ecumenical Conference 
approached they made a short visit to Paris, in the hope that 
he might there have the opportunity of seeing his wife and son, 
but in this he was greatly disappointed. On reaching London 
they stopped first at the Sackville Hotel, Piccadilly, and later 
had rooms at Upper Bedford Place, Russell Square. He 
assisted in the administration of the holy communion at the 
close of the forenoon session of the opening day of the great 
meeting in City Road Chapel, September 4, and in the after- 
noon he made the first response to the three addresses of wel- 

35t> John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

come. He occupied about twenty minutes in reading in clear 
tones what proved to be his last public address. The opening 
sentences and a few toward the close indicate the spirit both of 
the man and the address : 

Mr. Chairman, these words of welcome, an eloquent trinity in 
voice, but a beautiful unity in spirit, warm and stir our hearts to a 
quicker and stronger stroke. We had supposed that every puff of the 
locomotive, that every plash and turn of the steamer's wheels, every 
coach and car used on our journey hither, was taking us farther and 
farther away from our homes ; but the deep fraternal love that pervades 
these cordial greetings puts every pilgrim from across the sea to this 
Mecca of modern evangelism at once and wholly at home again. The 
speed of travel and the annihilation of distance by easy transporta- 
tion are among the greatest of latter-day achievements with steam and 
electricity; but these do not equal in luxury and rapidity the real 
and enduring transports of the spiritual children of one common 
Father, who already find themselves sitting at the family hearthstone, 
looking into countenances that at first wore something of a strange 
look, but in a trice, through the spirit of prayer and affection, are 
transformed into the faces of kindred. . . . 

Brethren, one of the happiest effects, and certainly one of the 
chief objects of our two preceding Conferences bearing the name of 
Ecumenical, has been the enlarging and love-crowned spirit of cath- 
olicity which has prevailed throughout the sessions, and left its 
sweet fruitage in the personal life and consciousness of each and all 
of the delegates. The sentiments thus nourished into new power 
by these addresses and by their widespread dissemination through 
the press have led the thoughts of the whole church to higher alti- 
tudes and stimulated all hearts to a broader, warmer, more generous, 
and more comprehensive love for all who bear the name and desire to 
welcome and obey the Spirit of Christ. If the Ecumenical quality 
of our meeting to-day, as of those of ten and twenty years ago, 
should be questioned by any who doubt the propriety of the present 
application of the term, or should be challenged by any who eye 
with jealous wonder the wide-spreading growth of Methodism, the 
best defense of our adoption of this globe-covering word would be 
found, not in the statistical tables of our growing communion in all 
the habitable parts of the planet, but rather in the catholic spirit of 
John Wesley — the most truly catholic man of the eighteenth century 
— and in the continuous and unfolding catholicity of the millions who 

A Staggering Blow 357 

have answered with their faith and love to that apostolic voice, exam- 
ple, and evangel. 

The correspondent of the Methodist Recorder of Septem- 
ber 5 says: 

Bishop Hurst is just now reading his address of reply on behalf 
of the West. Alas ! he is ten years older than when I last heard him. 
He is, I suppose, the most honored representative of the West here 

Two days later the news which shocked the world, " Presi- 
dent McKinley has been shot," broke upon him, while, with 
Admiral Henry Keppell, the veteran naval hero of the Crimea, 
he was the guest of the Baroness Burdett-Coutts at Holly 
Lodge, Hempstead. It was a staggering blow. His general 
health had been declining for several months, and the sad 
message of September 14 that his dear friend was dead was 
almost immediately followed by an attack of partial apoplexy 
on the 1 6th. From this he slowly rallied and was able to be 
about in a few days. His last written message to Helen was a 
note penned in the hotel, on the day Mr. McKinley died. It 
gathers into its simple yet beautiful unity the triple experi- 
ences of his heart's affection for the living, sorrow for the dead, 
and his perpetual refuge in the house of the Lord : 

Dearest Helen j The President is gone ! I will leave this for you 
on your arrival. I-ut I will be at the church all the time. 

Affectionately, J. F. Hurst. 

On September 24 he and Helen took passage for America. 
While the ship plows the Atlantic — a familiar road to him 
now on his sixteenth crossing — and before father and daugh- 
ter again touch foot on their loved and native shore, we have 
time to examine a little more closely and fully, on the shining 
jewel of his life, some of the facets which do not readily yield 
themselves to a setting in the chronologic order of a career 
so rich in details of industry and fruitfulness. 

John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

Aside Views and Touches 

The Book-Lover and Antiquarian 

Henry Ward Beecher said, " There is no pleasure in life 
equal to buying a book you cannot afford to buy." Vance 
Thompson enlarges on the statement — shall we say confes- 
sion? — of the Brooklyn divine: 

Hazlitt praised old books; anyone can praise old books. Isaac 
Ritson read them; even that is not beyond the reach of the ordinary 
intelligence. But buying old books is an art. Dibdin's theory that all 
one needed was " civility, quickness, and intelligence " is defective. 
The matter is not so simple. One must be wily as a red Indian, 
patient as a thief. Any superficial, early-stunted fool may buy a book 
for what it is worth. There is no art in that. It needs no nous. 
The elaborate joy, the supreme art of book-buying is paying forty 
cents for some dusty i2mo worth a Spaniard's ransom. 

Bishop Hurst was a Nimrod among book-hunters. How 
he loved books and how keen was his scent for rare literary 
treasures at the age of twenty-two, is indicated by certain 
autobiographic references taken from one of his papers entitled 
" About a Book Auction in Germany " : 

As to taste I was always fond of everything old; had more liking 
for an old wall than a new palace; loved the old, jaundiced rag- 
woman better than my neighbor's sweet prattler; preferred a hollow 
log for a seat to the richest ottoman; always gave more for the first 
than for the last edition of a work, other things being equal; liked 
half-effaced pictures better than the glowing colors of new ones; had 
a passionate love for old maps and designs, and yet could not boast 
the slightest practical acquaintance with art; in fact, I fell in love 
with everything that could boast of a coat of the " charming dust." 
... I stood one day in a Brunswick street and read a large placard 
announcing a great sale of old books, curious coins, pictures, shells, 

Rival Recreations 359 

manuscripts, and relics. The bill closed with the information of 
the place where a complete catalogue could be found giving many 
useful facts concerning the articles to be sold. My blood was at once 
crazy within me. I rushed over the grandest bridge in Brunswick 
without stopping a moment. Two old churches did I pass without 
thinking to look up at a single gargoyle. Soon I had the catalogue, 
and taking the nearest street to my lodgings I neither ate nor slept 
until I had read every word of its precious contents. I closed it with 
an agitated frame and lost appetite. Nor did sleep come to my eyelids 
that night, and I was blessed with none save short and nervous 
snatches for the next three nights and days that intervened before the 
antiquarian auction. 

His interest in old books was always marked by a vital 
link connecting them with the life and thought of the present ; 
it grew with his growth and strengthened with his strength; 
yet it was ever held in subordination to his dominant passion 
for useful work. Book-hunting was his choice recreation, 
though a close second was travel on foot. His happiest and 
most successful respites were those in which these rivals were 
yoked together. A walk that promised punctuation by a peep 
at the drawers and corners and upper shelves of some book- 
stall had no superior as a spur to his striding pace. A bookshop 
three or four miles distant from his lodgings drew him more 
strongly than one near at hand — the enchantment lent to it 
not being due to mere distance, but rather to the opportunity to 
step it off in lively and tonic fashion. His daily and volumi- 
nous correspondence, entailing a great variety of cares and 
burdens, was lighted up and lightened by the ever-present 
bibliographic message. Booksellers w r ere by no means the 
only ones to whom he wrote, when the emergency did not sug- 
gest the telegraph, but soldiers and sailors, consuls and 
missionaries, or whoever might be in touch with specimens of 
literature, ordinarily inaccessible, in any part of the postal 
world, were on his address list. His journeys by car and 
steamer and stage were often relieved of monotony by the 

360 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

study and butchery of the " cats " which had accumulated on 

his desk since his last trip. His favorite method of search 

was of the mousing kind, especially where the deposits had 

outgrown the primal plan of the shop and found their overflow 

into every sort of cranny or angle, or even invaded the most 

private precincts of the dealer's sanctum sanctorum. He was 

usually present by proxy at the leading book sales in New 

York, Boston, and Philadelphia, and was as eager to learn 

the results of the bidding and the destination of particular 

items as the angler is to know where the shining sides of the 

largest trout have been seen, since the wary prize slipped from 

his own hook. It would have been a rare day when on the 

ocean there was not some message either going or coming 

that concerned some treasure on which his mind was set or 

the treasure itself moving to its place among the thousands 

of his culling. Dr. Samuel Macauley Jackson says : " He was 

the bibliophile and book expert embodied." Dr. Samuel A. 

Green, of the Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston, writes : 

I knew him as an indefatigable collector of rare titles and a genuine 
lover of books; and he knew a good thing when he saw it. I shall 
always remember him as a man with the true bibliographical instincts. 

Mr. Robert E. Cowan, of San Francisco, whose practiced 
eye he had enlisted in certain lines of search, wrote him : 

Your wants are carefully considered and in mind, but this market, I 
fear, does not admit of much in the shape of pleasant surprises either 
for the book-buyer or the bookseller. If it should so fortunately 
happen I will advise you thereof; for in my estimation you as a book- 
hunter are " first in line." 

Another dealer who would have been willing to let the 
Bishop dispense quite largely with his desire to make a good 
bargain, and confine his attention more closely to the size and 
value of the game he bagged than to the amount of powder 
and shot consumed, says : 

Pilling and Indian Books 361 

It always seemed to me that the commercial spirit was closely allied 
to the book-loving spirit in Bishop Hurst, and therefore my reminis- 
cences of him are more vivid along that line than that of a book- 
lover ! 

One of the many lines of his special collections was in the 
languages of the American Indians — particularly those of 
North America. This brought him into correspondence and 
later into personal contact with the eminent Indian bibliog- 
rapher, Mr. James Constantine Pilling, who long and success- 
fully prosecuted his work at Washington under the auspices 
of the Bureau of Ethnology. Mr. Pilling, half in playfulness 
but half in earnest, wrote him on December 18, 1888: 

You are compelling most of the collectors of this class of literature, 
myself among the number, to play second fiddle, at any rate so far as 
the missionaries are concerned ; for you seem to have preempted 
them all. 

In April, 1894, while holding the Wyoming Conference, 
after considerable epistolary diplomacy, the Bishop gave Mr. 
Pilling the privilege of examining his collection for the pur- 
pose of collating titles and editions. He wrote the Bishop on 
May 7: 

I want to thank you sincerely for your kindness in letting me see 
your American linguistics. I envy you your Mexicana. 

An instance of his watchfulness for " nuggets " offered in 
Europe is indicated by his letter to Dr. Erikson, who had 
done some bidding at an auction at Bukowski's Local (Stock- 
holm), on October 2, 1886: 

Dallas, Texas, November 26. — I am very much obliged to you 
for kindly sending me the Bukowski books, and also the Arfvedson, 
"De Colonia." 

On the 2 1 st of the following March he wrote Dr. Erikson 
again in acknowledgment of another " find " which had fol- 
lowed him in the mails : 

362 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

I am very much obliged to you for having taken care to send me the 
copy of Luther's Catechism. I received it safely; it even went down 
to Mexico, by which time it had had a good many cuffs and knocks, 
but it was not in the least injured. 

After the adjournment of the Conference at Winona in 
1888, bound for Jamestown, North Dakota, he stopped over 
in Saint Paul between trains. Dr. Arthur Edwards desired 
to have an interview with him, but did not know where to look 
for him. He applied to one of the brethren for directions. 
' I think." said this gentleman, " that you will be as likely to 
come across the Bishop in some secondhand bookstore as any- 
where else." Dr. Edwards made a bee line for a secondhand 
book store on Third Street, and there he discovered Bishop 
Hurst, absorbed in a search for something rare. 

Dr. William H. Meredith, of Boston University, himself 
no ordinary connoisseur of literary rarities and especially of 
Methodistica, says : 

On both sides of the Atlantic, almost invariably, even in out-of-the- 
way places, we have been told, on inquiry for such things: "Dr. 
Hurst of America," or " Bishop Hurst takes all we can get in that 
line." He seemed to be able to go directly to the very spot where 
a rare thing was placed, even if the bookseller himself did not know 
where to put his hand upon it. At the Ecumenical Conference in 
190 1 a little lot of Americana was sent me on approbation. Not 
wanting it myself, I took it to the City Road Chapel, and showed it 
him. In a moment he separated the chaff from the wheat. He knew 
the valuable at a glance. Never have I met his equal in the knowledge 
of books. 

While he presided at the New York East Conference in 
Danbury, Connecticut, in 1900, a gentleman, who had made 
considerable effort to get a fine span of horses and carriage, 
started to give him a long ride and show him the beauties 
of the place. Xo sooner had he become seated in the carriage 
than he inquired if there was an antiquarian store in town. 
Finding one to his taste, he spent so much of the afternoon 

At Santa Barbara Mission 363 

there that when he came out it was too late to take the ride. 
To his notion it was a good exchange — a ride for a hunt. 
Professor Charles W. Rishell. of Boston University, says : 

Once in Boston he asked me to go with him to a bookstore in some 
out-of-the-way place in a back room upstairs. I never saw him look 
so happy as just then. He seemed to know all about the rare editions 
of everything on the shelves; and his conversation with the propri- 
etor showed that he was acquainted with similar places in all the 
principal cities of the United States. 

Dr. William V. Kelley, editor of the Methodist Review, 
writes : 

John F. Hurst was the greatest book-lover and hunter and accumu- 
lator of rare, curious, ancient literature ever seen on our Episcopal 
Board. Among the objects shown to us in June, 1904, at the old 
Mission at Santa Barbara, was a large Choir Book, no years old — 
a yard and a half wide, perhaps, as it lay open before us — the musical 
notes and the words of the Latin chants hand-printed or painted 
large and clear on the smooth, cream-colored sheepskin ; a most 
beautiful piece of work, the production of which must have cost years 
of labor by the Brothers of the Mission. As we turned its wide, 
thick, flexible pages and lingered over them admiringly, our Fran- 
ciscan guide said, " A Methodist Bishop came here some years ago 
and offered us a thousand dollars for that Choir Book." " What was 
the Bishop's name?" I asked. "Hurst," was the monk's reply. 

Dr. Jesse L. Hurlbut says : 

I was seated at a table with him and a number of ministers, in 
Minnesota, I think. One minister said that he had in his library 
a book bearing the autograph of Philip Melanchthon. " But," said 
he, " it must have been the property of several other persons also, 
for I find annotations all through it, in three or four very different 
handwritings." The Bishop replied, " That is a sure token that it 
belonged to Philip Melanchthon; for he wrote in no less than four 
styles of handwriting, all very different from one another." 

He often judged and measured men by their books. At the 
session of the Newark Conference in 1866 he casually met for 

364 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

the first time a young man who was applying to be ordained 
local deacon. That young man was reading a book in odd 
moments at the house where he was entertained. Twenty- 
eight years later Bishop Hurst said to the man, now a leading 
light in religious literature, " Do you know what book you 
were carrying about with you and reading the first time I ever 
saw you? " " No, I do not remember," replied the preacher. 
" It was a volume of John Ruskin's Stones of Venice," said 
the Bishop, " and I knew then what kind of a young man you 
were." In writing on ' The Drift of Great Books " Bishop 
Hurst makes disclosure of some of his own richest possessions 
and of his experience in acquiring them or of the rarer one of 
losing others to rival hunters : 

What lover of books does not sigh over the treasures he has lost 
by not seizing the golden moment? It is well if you have kept your 
counsel during the long process — as long it must have been for a 
downright treasure. If your friend, with a similar bibliomania, has 
heard you whisper of your passion and especially of a thought as to 
the probability of your acquiring a special find, the precious quest 
is in danger. Such a thing as his, and not your, getting the prize 
has happened even in these honest days. Go to his library on some 
rainy day, when he is communicative and the logs burn cheerfully. 
If you saunter around his shelves you will probably strike a neigh- 
borhood where your host suddenly becomes disconcerted and will say : 
" By the way, Jones, here is the book you mentioned to me once. 
I thought I would go and see the book, don't you know. Brown was 
very good and let me have it. True, he charged me a good price 
for it, but, you see, I just had to have it." Of course, on that day 
Jones ate neither luncheon nor dinner. 

There used to be a time when a great library would even let its 
duplicate treasures go into any hand that offered money enough, but 
that time is past. I know a fine Gutenberg [his own Catholicon], 
which was a duplicate of one in the British Museum and which it 
parted with in 1804, but no such happy day ever came again when that 
library was willing to part with any valuable duplicate, let alone a 
large paper from the first press at Mainz, over which both Lowndes 
and Brunet would grow rapturous and spend a whole page in bibli- 
ophilic panegyric. 

A Hand-Picked Collection 365 

On the issuing of standard authors in abridged form, which 
he called The Plague of Small Books, he emptied several vials 
of his choicest irony: 

Think of reducing the Spectator, and Plutarch's Lives, to about 
one half their size, yet all bright in gilt, and gay muslin, and tinted 
paper ! Since we began this article we came across a publisher's 
announcement of an abridged edition of Boswell's Life of Johnson. 
O tempora ! One should as soon think of abridging the multiplication 
table or Kempis's Imitation. There are some books which ought 
never to be abridged. There is no more sense in it than in amputating 
a limb to save tailors' bills. 


The Hurst Collection. — Its Creation. — Its Contents. — Its Dispersal 

Through all earth's marts a traveler, his keen eye 

And mind, e'er bent to Clio's magic spell. 

Alert to see and seize materiel, 
In dust or dusky nook a prize would spy. 
If yet the gems his love and wish defy. 

Their faces in his vivid vision dwell; 

Their hiding places fairies to him tell. 
And soon or late into his hand they fly. 
Strange comrades met on table, desk, and shelf, 

Or pressed each other in his crowded crypts; 
Yet through them all ran one strong living tie: 
His love made each more than its lonely self — 

Not battered books and musty manuscripts — 
Lo ! breathing, speaking tomes that cannot die. 

The extraordinary character of Bishop Hurst's entire collec- 
tion lay in its being a hand-picked library, gathered through 
forty years and made up of strong and rich pieces, not merely 
in one or two favorite lines, but in a score or more distinct 
departments. Among its more than fifteen thousand separate 
pieces — which for convenience might be divided into Ameri- 

c e.p. 

366 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

cana (Parts I, II, and III of the Catalogue) and General — 
were found under the first head : Indian Languages numbering 
five hundred, both South and North American — the Mexicana 
being predominant — and including Eliot's Bible, 2d ed., and 
the Mohawk Prayer-Book ; New- England Primers, 1 50 copies, 
several of the 18th century, and some not noted by Paul 
Leicester Ford in his bibliography: 104 Mathers; Sowers; 
Ephratas ; 752 Franklin Imprints, including 67 Poor Richard 
Almanacs, 432 Pennsylvania Gazettes, 63 Colonial Laws, and 
six copies of Cicero's Cato Major; other rare Frankliniana ; 
Washingtoniana, including 48 volumes from George Wash- 
ington's library at Mount Vernon, and 341 other items from 
other members of the Washington family or relating to the 
General ; early newspapers ; Confederates ; First Editions ; and 
Local Histories galore. The General Collection (Part IV 
of the Catalogue) contained twelve editions of ^Esop's Fables, 
and eighty-six of a Kempis's Imitation of Christ, in eight lan- 
guages; forty-six specimens from the presses of the Aldus 
family in Venice, five from the Plantin press of Antwerp, and 
thirteen from the Elzevir press at Leyden ; thirty-seven early 
and rare Bibles, in eleven languages ; a large, practical outfit 
of Bibliography, numbering, with catalogues, about six hun- 
dred volumes ; about eighty biographies ; first editions of 
Hawthorne, Milton, Byron. Dickens, and others; ten chained 
manuscripts of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries : some 
choice extra-illustrated books ; many volumes having valuable 
historic associations, such as Samuel Johnson's copy of Dry- 
den's translation of Virgil, Hawthorne's set of Shakespeare, 
books from Dickens's and Kingsley's libraries, Melanchthon's 
Bible and copy of Horace, and Southey's Palmerin of England 
used in the preparation of his edition of that work; fifty-one 
samples of early printing of the sixteenth century : a fine group 
of Incunabula, or books printed prior to A. D. 1500, numbering 

Contents of Library 367 

sixty-six (inclusive of Bibles), among which are found three 
copies of Higden's Polycronycon from the press of William 
Caxton, the pioneer printer of England, and fine specimens 
of Gutenberg and Schoffer of Mainz, Ulric Zel of Cologne. 
Anton Koburger of Nuremberg, Ulric Gering of Paris, Anton 
Sorg of Augsburg, Kessler and Froben of Basel, Jenson, Pa- 
gininus, Wendelin "of Speier," and Arrivabenus of Venice., 
Ketelaer and Leempt of Utrecht, Koblinger of Vicenza, the 
" R " printer and Flach of Strassburg, John Faure of Lyons, 
Bartolommeo di Libri of Florence and others; three speci- 
mens each from the presses of Caxton's successors of a little 
later date, Wynkin de Worde and Richard Pynson, and two 
from the press of Peter Treveris of Southwark ; seventeen 
items of Erasmus, mostly contemporaneous editions of 
Froben at Basel (one of Froschover, Zurich, the printer of 
the Coverdale Bible of 1550) ; over two hundred books of 
fiction, nine of Eugene Field's works, many collected works ; 
a few select Americana, such as Sandys's Ovid and the twelfth 
part of Hulsius's Voyages (Heinrich Hudson) ; twelve ancient 
works on Japan ; sixty-four issues of the earliest Protestant 
press, mostly at Wittenberg, written by Luther and Melanch- 
thon, with artistic work of Holbein and Cranach ; three illumi- 
nated devotional manuscripts on vellum of the fifteenth and 
sixteenth centuries, ten manuscripts in Samaritan, Arabic, and 
Persian characters, a few contemporary Melanchthons, thirty- 
five curious and beautiful miniature books, several hundred 
periodicals, several hundred pamphlets, about fifty volumes of 
poetry, about one hundred volumes of fine bindings, chiefly 
literature and poetry; one hundred and fifty books of travel 
and guidebooks, forty-seven pieces of Colonial and seventy of 
Confederate currency, five hundred and seventy-five engrav- 
ings, photographs, portraits, copperplates, and maps ; six hun- 
dred and twenty-eight numbered items of theology, embracing 

j68 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

a set of Bampton Lectures for nearly a century, about seventy- 
five Disciplines of the Methodist Episcopal Church, many 
standard works in history, exegesis, and doctrine, a hundred 
or more early Methodist publications, including many first edi- 
tions of John Wesley's books and eight books by Samuel 
Wesley; and last, but by no means least, a superb collection 
of autograph signatures, autograph letters, autograph docu- 
ments, and autograph manuscripts by celebrated persons of 
both hemispheres. Among them were specimens of the hand- 
writing of Alexander von Humboldt. Lafayette, John Wesley, 
William Wordsworth, Count Zinzendorf, Tischendorf, Van 
Oosterzee, Samuel Taylor Coleridge. William Cowper, Thomas 
Moore, Sir Walter Scott, Robert Southey, Robert Browning, 
Mrs. Browning, Garibaldi, Munkacsy, Thomas Carlyle, Ben- 
jamin Franklin, Robert Morris, James Kent, Alexander 
Hamilton, Francis Hopkinson, Benjamin Rush, Presidents 
Washington, Monroe, Polk, Jackson, Buchanan, Lincoln, 
Grant, Hayes, Garfield, Cleveland, Benjamin Harrison, and 
McKinley ; Holmes, Longfellow, Whittier, Diaz, Jonathan 
Edwards, Increase and Cotton Mather, Daniel Webster, Ste- 
phen Girard, Generals Gates, Scott, Wool, Sherman, and 
Sheridan; Washington Irving, Mrs. Sigourney, William Gil- 
more Simms. Edgar Allan Poe, Walt Whitman, William H. 
Seward, Jefferson Davis, P. T. Barnum. George Peabody, Dr. 
Kane, George Bancroft, Agassiz, Sam Houston, Frances E. 
Willard, Gerrit Smith, Eugene Field, Edmund C. Stedman, 
Harriet B. Stowe. D. L. Moody, and numerous others. 

In accordance with the terms of his will and the rights of his 
heirs his library was sold by the Anderson Auction Company, 
New York, in four parts, separately catalogued under 4,281 
items, the First Part, containing only the Washington and 
Franklin books, on May 2 and 3, 1904; the Second Part, 
embracing special Americana, such as Writings of the Mathers, 

Remarkable Prices for Books 369 

New England Primers, and Indian Languages, on November 
28 and 29, 1904 ; the Third Part, including General Americana, 
on December 12 and 13, 1904; and the Fourth Part, consist- 
ing of Theology, books with Historic Associations, Engrav- 
ings, early Bibles, Bibliography, extra-illustrated books, In- 
cunabula, Manuscripts, and Autographs, on March 20, 21, and 
22, 1905, The gross amount realized was $56,500, or about 
$15,000 more than the estimated cost of the collection. 

A few items of special interest and value from Parts I, II, and 
III are here noted : Washington's Official Letters ascommander 
in chief with marginal and appended notes in manuscript by 
the editor, John Carey, in two volumes, from Washington's 
library, brought $2,810; his set of Gibbon's Decline and Fall, 
6 volumes, $1,626; his Locke on the Human Understanding, 
2 volumes, $650; Poor Richard's Almanac for 1739, consisting 
of 12 fragile leaves with edges torn and wholly innocent of 
any cover, sold for $565 ; the daily cash book of Washington's 
household during his second term as President at Philadel- 
phia, kept by Tobias Lear and Bartholomew Dandridge, 
reached $525; the Mohawk Prayer Book (Bradford imprint. 
New York, 171 5), $1,300; Eliot's Indian Bible (second edi- 
tion), $410; the proposed Prayer Book, Philadelphia, 1786. 
$190; Hawthorne's Peter Parley's Universal History, first 
edition, 2 volumes, $140; New England's First Fruits, London, 
1643, $136; and the Pennsylvania Magazine, Philadelphia, 

1 775-*77 6 > $ 2 °°- 

The sale of Part IV was an extraordinary occasion, prob- 
ably never before paralleled in public book sales in America in 
the attractive massing of strong pieces. The following account 
appeared in the April number of the University Courier: 

On Monday afternoon there were two high points of interest 

reached. The first was when the Paris Bible of Freyburger, Gering, 

and Crantz, 1475 or r 4/6. went for $135; the Jenson Bible of Venice, 

3/0 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

1470. $150; the Matthews Bible, London, 1549, $90; and the Coverdale 
Bible, 2d edition. Zurich, 1550, $190 — all within a few minutes. The 
second was at the close when the ten chained manuscripts to the 
music of the rattling links, the rhythmic voice of the auctioneer, and 
the lively voices of bidders, were struck off at prices ranging from 
$30 to $151. 

The evening session of Monday was marked by two waves of lesser 
and two of greater excitement, beginning with a moderate one over 
books from Dickens's library for $106, the extra-illustrated Life of 
Dickens, by Forster, which brought $105, and Johnson's copy of 
Dryden's Virgil for $96. Interest jumped to a high pitch when Eng- 
lish presses were struck, and the three pieces from Caxton's press ran 
up the rapid scale to $1,400, $700, and $675, to be followed immediately 
by the three Wynkin de YYordes for $170, $130, and $150, while 
the three Pynsons let the interest down to the level again by bringing 
$70, $40. and $21, and Treveris made a slight ripple with two items 
of $70 and $35. The second moderate height was reached when 
Hawthorne's Famous People, first edition, went for $52, Leigh Hunt's 
copy of Hazlitt's Characters of Shakespeare for just half that sum, 
and the Hulsius (twelfth part) for $37.50. Near the close came the 
fine enthusiasm caused by the Incunabula, which was sustained for 
a half hour, while these early specimens from the cradle of the art 
showed their long-hidden faces, and were struck down in lively fashion, 
the chief being Gutenberg's Catholicon of Balbus, Mainz, 1460 (partly 
made up with that probably of the "R" Printer), $710; the "R" 
Printer's two items for $100 and $105 ; the three from Peter Schoffer's 
press, Mainz, 1473, I 474- an d 1478, bringing respectively $260, $52.50, 
and $45 ; and Ulric Zel, Cologne, closing the scene with his four 
specimens at $60, $115, $35, and $27.50. 

Tuesday's afternoon session was punctuated by several items of 
special interest, each succeeding one rising a little higher, and the 
last being a brilliant burst of bibliopolic splendor. There was a fine 
elevated stretch as the sixty-four beautiful specimens of the Witten- 
berg press came out in stately procession and were retired, one by one, 
the highest price of the line being reached by Luther's essay on 
schools (1530), $47. A few minutes later came three Illuminated 
Manuscripts at $25, $40, and $41, a choral book or Antiphonal for 
$80, and eleven Oriental manuscripts from $3.50 to $50. Then fifteen 
minutes later Melanchthon's Bible and Horace were sold for $75 and 
$60, and Milton's Paradise Lost, first edition, was struck off at $75. 
After twenty minutes of ordinary items, Southey's copy of Munday's 
translation of Palmerin of England lifted all up as it climbed to $315. 

A Massing of Manuscripts 371 

Then for a half hour there was little to excite, except, perhaps, the 
fine Plantin, a Roman Breviary, for $45, and the eight volumes of 
Ruskin at $66. The acme of the afternoon came when Nathaniel 
Hawthorne's set of Shakespeare (15 volumes, one missing), with his 
autograph in each, set all eyes agog, and many mouths open with loud 
simultaneous bids which moved swiftly up from $5 to $20, to $30, to 
$50, to $60, and then by a leap to $100 a volume, or $1,400 for the 
incomplete set. 

The evening session of Tuesday capped the climax. It began at 
7 :30 and lasted for more than three and a half hours. It was a severe 
ordeal for the good-natured Morse, the auctioneer, whose voice and 
enthusiasm failed not through the 294 numbers sold, consisting almost 
wholly of autograph letters and manuscripts of celebrities. There 
was frequent opportunity to note the different values on different items 
of the same writer, the comparative worth of the writings of different 
authors or public characters, the characteristic signs or motions, be- 
sides vocatives, of the experts at bidding, and the high art of the auc- 
tioneer in putting bids into the arena without more than a nod, a wink, 
or a lifted finger of the bidder. 

Thomas Carlyle's sentiment, " Seize occasion by the forelock ; hind- 
hair she has none," in his autograph, brought $35. The surly Scot 
was followed by the sunny " Mark Twain," whose lines brought $7.50. 
Four items of Coleridge brought $125, $105, $25, and $35. Fenimore 
Cooper's Life of Preble, $230; a volume in Cowper's hand, $80; a 
Diary of Jacob Eliot on leaves of Ames's Almanacs, $400; nine 
brief manuscripts of Eugene Field went for $572.50; a letter of 
Benjamin Franklin, $52.50; and nine of his signatures, $57.50; 
a letter of General Gates. $45 ; and two of Alexander von Hum- 
boldt, $14. Electric thrills went through the crowd at the name 
of Washington Irving and his two manuscripts, Tales of a Trav- 
eler and Bracebridge Hall, which mounted up to $1,100 and $1,315, 
respectively, while a letter from Sunnyside brought $32. La- 
fayette's letter to Patrick Henry fetched $50 in short order. A 
moment later and Lincoln's manuscript, a page from his last annual 
message, rose grandly to $450. One of Longfellow's letters then went 
at $25, and McKinley's first inaugural, with autograph presentation, 
$20. A short lull and Cotton Mather's manuscript sermon (with 
others) brought $100. Five minutes more, and Thomas Moore's 
Epicurean shot up and rested not till it struck $725. Another five 
minutes and the weird name of Poe introduced a startling list, begin- 
ning with Tamerlane in manuscript, which brought $801, followed 
by six other specimens of his neat hand, bringing $790, and closing 

2,j2 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

with his own copy of Eureka, annotated in his own hand, which soared 
away to $530. Ten minutes later Pote's Journal of his Captivity in 
Quebec brought $110. A lapse of five minutes and the Wizard of the 
North is before us, Sir Walter Scott's History of Scotland, and is 
eagerly taken after a long run at $1,600. A letter of Simms at $36 
and eight narrow memorandum books of Southey at $100 let us down 
to a quarter of an hour of common things, when we are summoned 
to a majestic series of documents and letters of George Washington, 
fourteen in number, which brought $3,725. One of these letters 
brought $1,065 — tne one t0 Benjamin Harrison. Another to Governor 
Brooke, of Virginia, on the establishment of a university, $465. 
From that high tableland we descended to a lower level on a letter 
of John Wesley at $9, two items of Walt Whitman at $22.50 and $150, 
and an autograph of Whittier at $36. The engravings closed the scene 
at quarter past eleven, and we rubbed our eyes to see if we had been 

While the regret was great that this magnificent collection 
could not be kept intact and made the possession of the Amer- 
ican University, as a memorial to Bishop Hurst, it is gratifying 
to know that in its dispersion many private collections were 
enriched, and thirty-one libraries accessible to the public added 
to their treasures hundreds of valuable volumes. The public 
libraries which secured selections are: 

No. of No. of 

Pieces Sale Items 

Library of Congress, Washington, D. C 1,025 354 

Boston Public 240 154 

Forbes. Northampton, Massachusetts 229 41 

Marlborough (Massachusetts) Public 146 10 

Watkinson, Hartford, Connecticut 128 54 

American University 64 2 

General Theological Seminary (Episcopal) New 

York 50 16 

Yale University 24 10 

Pennsylvania Historical Society (Philadelphia).. 21 7 

Columbia University 20 5 

Essex Institute, Salem, Massachusetts 16 7 

New York State 15 15 

Rhode Island State 15 2 

I 'ennsylvania State 14 14 

Prizes for Public Libraries 373 

No. op No. op 
Pieces Sale Items 

Brooklyn (New York) Public 12 9 

New York (city) Public 11 10 

Cossitt, Memphis, Tennessee 9 7 

Harvard Law School 8 4 

New York Historical Society 7 6 

Carnegie, Pittsburg 7 3 

University of Michigan 6 6 

Haver ford (Pennsylvania) College 6 2 

Princeton University 4 4 

State of Alabama, Department of Archives and 

History 4 4 

Iowa State 4 2 

Derby (Connecticut) Public 4 l 

Cornell University 3 3 

Maryland Historical Society 2 2 

Providence (Rhode Island) Public 2 I 

District of Columbia Public I I 

New Bedford (Massachusetts) Public 1 I 

Total 2,098 757 

Of the books from Washington's Mount Vernon library 
two went to the Xew York Public; Washington's Account 
Book of Household Expenses during his second term as Pres- 
ident was secured by the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 
and Washington's letter to Governor Brooke of Virginia rec- 
ommending the establishment of a university in the Federal 
City was purchased for the American University. 

Of the Franklin Imprints the Library of Congress secured 
35, of which 29 were Colonial Laws of Pennsylvania; the 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 21, the chief item being 
the Poor Richard Almanac for 1739; the Boston Public, 20; 
the Pennsylvania State, 14, all being Colonial Laws; and the 
Harvard Law School, 3, two being Laws of New Castle, 
Kent, and Sussex. 

Five Xew England Psalters were bought by the Boston 


John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

Public. Of the Mathers Congress took 8. including Cotton's 
Souldiers Counseled and Comforted, and Christianus per Ig- 
nem ; Boston. 4 ; and the Forbes, 1, Hades Look'd Into. Of the 
New Kngland Primers the Essex Institute bought 3 ; Congress. 
2; Forbes, 2; and the Boston, 1. Of the native Indian Lan- 
guages of America Congress acquired 210; Boston, 82; the 
Watkinson, 25 ; and Yale University, 3. 

The Aitken Bible; the New England Historical and Gene- 
alogical Register (177 numbers); the Sower Bible, first edi- 
tion; two Incunabula: Schofrer's Decretals of Gregory IX, 
Mainz. 1473. and one of Wolf's, Lyons, 1500; and an Illumi- 
nated MS. of the Fifteenth Century went to the Forbes. 

The Roger Sherman Almanac for 1761. the Proposed Book 
of Common Prayer, Philadelphia, 1786; three of John Cotton's 
books, 59 early newspapers, the Sunday Service for Meth- 
odists, first edition, 1784, and second edition, 1786, Jesse Lee's 
Short History of the Methodists, and 10 volumes of the Meth- 
odist found a home in the Library of Congress. 

Columbia University bought the thirteen-volume set of the 
American Museum. Boston Public captured sixty early Bos- 
ton and other Massachusetts newspapers. Princeton Univer- 
sity took two Incunabula — the "R" Printer's Dion>sius de 
Burgo, Strassburg, 1470, and Peter Schoffer's Turrecremata 
(Expositio Psalteri), Mainz, 1474. Sixty volumes of Travels 
went to the Marlborough Public; two letters of Horatio Gates 
and one of President Hayes to the New York Historical Soci- 
ety; fifteen volumes of General Conference Journals (Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church") to Yale University; and sixty-three 
volumes of the General Minutes of the Annual Conferences, 
forty-seven being the morocco-bound copies used by Bishop 
Hurst in his episcopal tours and containing many entries in 
his own handwriting, came to the American University. 

The Bishop parted with two of his treasures at private sale 

The Pedestrian 375 

during the last two years of his life — one being Hawthorne's 
manuscript of the Blithedale Romance for $1,600, the other 
a copy of the Bay Psalm Book of 1640 for $2,500. He 
spent many an evening or fragment of a day in fondling the 
precious volumes, now giving a loving touch to a long-sought 
and newly acquired favorite, or tenderly opening and by smile 
or spoken word caressing one long in his possession, as if 
these dwellers on his shelves were creatures endowed with life. 
Who will dare to say they were not ? 


The Pedestrian 

Bishop Hurst differed from most of his boyhood mates and 
from the majority of his race in that he was not content with 
the ordinary accomplishment marking exit from infancy and 
entrance upon childhood, "learning how to walk." He took 
several courses in the post-graduate cultivation of that art and 
became a proficient in pedestrianism. His first advances in 
this direction were the frequent trips on foot from " Piney 
Neck " to Cambridge and return during his early teens while 
attending the academy. His college life at Carlisle was inter- 
larded with many an hour of this exercise, which he found 
a strong ally in the conquest of his inherited asthma in the 
favoring air of Carlisle, and occasionally a more extended tour 
to the mountains about the Cumberland Valley strengthened 
him in the love and practice of this lifelong habit. His favorite 
tramping grounds in Europe were in the Harz Mountains, 
among the snow-capped peaks and picturesque vales of Switzer- 
land, where he made three foot journeys, and the charming 
scenes of the Tyrol. His tours through Rockland, Orange, 

376 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

and Sullivan Counties in southern New York, among the White 
Mountains, and in the Blue Ridge near the junction of Vir- 
ginia. North Carolina, and Tennessee were each memorable 
in their recuperative effects upon his health. These several 
extended tramps stand out in his life a testimony to his own 
consistency in taking to himself the advice which he freely 
gave to others. But more important than these occasional 
and historic jaunts, and more characteristic of the steady spirit 
of his strong life, was his constant habit of walking every day, 
in storm or in sunshine, for an hour or two or more, preferably 
with a companion, but alone if none appeared. Mrs. Hurst 
writing in 1869 to her brother Wellington, when he was in 
poor health, said : 

You must walk a great deal ; that is the only way Mr. Hurst keeps 
his health. When he does not walk three or four hours he droops 

How he walked even when he was riding is known by 
scores who have traveled with him by boat. Dr. D. A. Jordan, 
of the New England Southern Conference, says : 

My own recollection of him is of a tireless walker. On the Fall 
River Line he walked with me one night, it seemed to me, half the 
distance between the two cities, and the " long cliff walk " at Newport 
was to him a bit of gentle exercise. Often when I think of him I 
am reminded of Thoreau's humorous statement that the oldest family 
in the world are the " Walkers." 

The Rev. De Witt C. Challis, who walked with him in Bul- 
garia in 1884, writes: 

He was a careful observer, and manifested that degree of curiosity 
which makes a traveler interesting to the people he visits. He loved 
to walk about the streets and markets by day or by night, and I 
found him a pleasant companion on such excursions. 

The Rev. Dr. Buckley says 

His Love of Walking ^77 

He walked for the love of that form of motion. I never knew him 
to say that he was tired. He saw everything in nature; abounded 
in historical statements about many places that his companions had 
never heard of; was particularly entertaining in describing his hun- 
dreds, if not thousands, of miles of walks in Europe, including nearly 
every country, could make himself comfortable anywhere, but pro- 
tested vigorously when imposed upon by hotel keepers, or any other 
persons with whom he dealt. At no time did he show signs of 
impatience with his companions. The trip to White Top (1873) was 
accompanied by many hardships, which were described by Dr. Eggles- 
ton in a long letter published in the American Agriculturist. He 
was as ready to hear as to talk, and in the matter of information, 
suggestion, and humor had both the blessings of giving and receiving. 

When this man who for sixty years had taken and given 
pleasure in walking with his fellows, the lowly as well as 
those of high degree, was no longer able to keep on his feet long 
enough to walk a quarter of a mile, his frequent word of 
earnest invitation, and sometimes in the imperative, was, 
" Come, let us go." Go he would, and go he did. In his 
going he made others go, and in his going from us and the 
labors he accomplished his works do follow him. In a most 
real sense he walked with God on earth and, we believe, still 
walks with him. 


The Guest 

His usual preference when away from home was to secure 
his lodging room and food at the regular hotels, as being the 
most economical of time and productive of good results for 
the work. But when, for reasons satisfactory to others who 
were in charge of entertaining, he was assigned to a private 
home, he was a guest whose presence gave pleasure while his 
visit lasted, and left lasting impress for good. Without lay- 

37^ John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

ing aside the courtesy due from a guest he could on occasion, 
especially if he was at a preacher's house, make quiet sugges- 
tion of possible improvements. Dr. Jordan says : 

A gentle reminder of his love for orderly arrangement is indicated 
by a remark he made once when visiting my home in Providence. He 
scrutinized my collection of books and said : " I like your books. You 
have a very good collection, and I like the arrangement of them 
more or less." 

Dr. W. R. Goodwin, of California, writes : 

Bishop Hurst was one of the most enjoyable men as a guest that 
I ever entertained. Up early in the morning, he would be off for a 
few miles' walk and back in good time for breakfast. 

His host at Carthage, Missouri, in 1881, Mr. David R. 
Goucher, says : 

It was a pleasure to entertain Bishop Hurst, and he greatly endeared 
himself to us during his visit. 

Of his arrival and visit of a week in Johnson City. Tennes- 
see, in 1885, his host and hostess, Mr. and Mrs. J. L. Grant. 
tell respectively : 

When we lived in Elizabeth, New Jersey, in 1863, John Fletcher 
Hurst came to Water Street Church as pastor. My father, Elihu 
Grant, was then bookkeeper at the Methodist Book Concern in New 
York. We all took a great liking to Mr. and Mrs. Hurst. He arrived 
here on the midnight train from Baltimore. I knew him as he stepped 
off the train, though I had not seen him for twenty-one years. I 
did not introduce myself, but, calling him by name, told him he 
was the man we were looking for. Taking his satchel, we started 
for home on foot, as the distance was short. Before we reached the 
house he stopped short and demanded where I was taking him. I 
told him it was only a few steps farther, so we proceeded. On enter- 
ing he asked that he might retire at once, being very tired. I stepped 
toward him and offered to take his coat and hat, saying I could do 
that much for our old pastor. He turned and said, " Please tell me 
who you are." As I explained we shook hands warmly and, taking 
a chair, he said, " I am not nearly so tired as I thought I was." His 

A Delightful Guest 379 

time was almost wholly occupied often to a late hour with the business 
of the Conference. Yet he found time to interest himself in the 
children's studies and amusements. Looking over their schoolbooks, 
he said, " Your grandfather and I didn't have interesting and beautiful 
books like these to study." Nearly every day after school as our 
ten-year-old son would start out for chestnuts the Bishop would 
call out to him as he passed his open door and make a guess how 
many he would find. On his return he would call him in, and ask 
how near his guess was. He said the chinquapins reminded him of his 
boyhood home in Maryland, and the good times he enjoyed getting 
them. He also told the children how the word chinquapin was spelled, 
as it was a new word to them. One day he had the lad with his arith- 
metic among the learned doctors and elders, and had a professor 
from Grant University working problems for him. Another time he 
was laughing with our little four-year-old girl over some beans she 
had planted and dug up to see if they were growing. He stopped 
to sympathize with her over a wounded finger. At the table when we 
usually had him to ourselves, he was very genial, and often related 
incidents of his travels in a very entertaining though unassuming 
manner. He was a thoughtful guest. One of my choicest souvenirs 
is a little card that he sent me, in a letter to my father-in-law, 
in the following March. The card has a cross surrounded by pressed 
flowers from Jerusalem. I was much impressed by the affectionate 
tenderness of his parting blessing to my father-in-law, who was in 
affliction at that time. 

In March, 1898, while holding the New York Conference, 
he was entertained by Mr. J. M. Cornell, who says : 

A very delightful guest he was, never absorbed in his work so that 
he could not take a deep interest in all that concerned each member 
of the family during his stay with us; always the familiar friend; 
cheerful and upright in his conversation, and as kind and considerate 
to the youngest member of the family as he was to the older ones. 

His classmate in college and friend, General James F. Rus- 
ling, says: 

He spent a week with me, as my guest, when our Bishops met 
at Trenton, in the fall of 1900. It was a rare pleasure and delight 
to me and my family to have Bishop Hurst under our rooftree. He 
came to us with a great trunk, filled largely with books and papers, 

380 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

and with all the absorption of " Bishops' week " he yet found time to 
read and write. He told me that his constant motto was, " No day 
without its line," and by keeping to this he had by little and little 
accomplished his many books. What a charming week that was — 
how delightful and suggestive along every human line ! We talked 
and gossiped much each day. and far into the night, on every human 
subject almost, and of old days at Dickinson. Of course, we talked 
much about the American University. It was then heavy on his 
heart, but clear in his mind, and he felt sure God would yet carry 
it through — if not in his lifetime, then afterward. He longed to see 
it opened, and its halls thronged with young men and women, the 
best in America, and he confidently believed God would order it all 
right, whatever happened to him. He was then feeble in health, 
but strong of soul and purpose, and looked and talked as Moses or 
Elijah might have done in their last years. 

Dr. M. F. B. Rice, of Baltimore, whose door, the last one 
of a preacher to receive him as a guest, swung open to him on 
a Sunday in June. 1901, writes: 

It was a great pleasure to have him in my home ; even the smallest 
of the children delighted in his coming. When for the last time in 
my home he took my little boy of five summers upon his knee, laid 
his hand upon his head, pressed him to his bosom, and, turning to 
me, said, as a tear stood in his eye : " I trust that God will not take 
him from you. You will never know how much you love him until you 
lose him." He was a true friend, stronger in affectionate attach- 
ment than appeared on the surface. 

He has entered his Father's house, which is large and has 
many rooms. He is a citizen where no inhabitant wanders 
beyond the precincts of home or is dependent on his fellows 
for hospitality. Yet he has by multitudes whose friendship he 
kindled on earth been received into everlasting habitations. 

Texts and Subjects 381 


The Preacher and Platform Speaker 

For forty-three years he was a preacher of the gospel of 
Jesus Christ. A careful estimate based on written and printed 
data leads to the conclusion that he preached about 2,500 ser- 
mons, from about Goo different texts, besides a large number 
of miscellaneous addresses of a sermonic or hortatory nature. 
Of 125 texts used from the Old Testament 26 are from the 
historical books, 58 from the poetical, and 41 from the pro- 
phetical. Of 347 from the New Testament 54 are from 
Matthew, 15 from Mark. 46 from Luke, 41 from John (gos- 
pel), 22 from Acts. 28 from Romans, 38 from Corinthians, 
10 from II Timothy, 19 from Hebrews, 20 from Revela- 
tion, and 54 from the remaining epistles of Paul and others. 
The subjects of some of the sermons which he repeated from 
time to time in different churches were : The Hope of Israel ; 
The Prodigal Son ; The Worship of One God ; Revival of God's 
Work; The Natural Man; The Choice of Moses; Culture of 
the Conscience ; Sowing and Reaping ; Religion in the House- 
hold; The Ascension; Partial Knowledge; Promise of the 
Spirit; The Sword of Christ, which he later named succes- 
sively Christ a Sword-Bearer, The Combative Power of Chris- 
tianity, and Christianity a Combative Force; The Christian's 
Possessions ; Priority of Religion ; The Great Feast ; God's 
Glory Reflected in the Gospel ; Christ's Promise to a Small 
Company, or the Great Presence; The Friendship between 
Christ and His Disciples, or the Development of the Servant 
into the Friend; The Greatness of Serving God in Little 
Things ; Preparing to Follow Christ ; The Strong Man Slain ; 
Christ the Object of Universal Search ; The Solitude of Christ ; 
Conversion a Creation ; Mystery of the New Birth ; Obedience 

382 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

and its Rewards ; The Immeasurable Christ ; and The Joy of 
Heaven over a Repenting Sinner, or Sympathy between 
Heaven and Earth. The Rev. Joseph Courtney says of his 
sermon at the Lexington Conference in 1895: 

He emphasized how those who were called to administer the gospel 
should adjust themselves mentally and spiritually to the teaching of 
the Scriptures, and illustrated this from his own experience : " I had 
educated myself for the work of the ministry, because I fully realized 
my call to that work, but in the settlement of my father's estate two 
colored men fell to me as slaves. While they were in my possession 
as such I was greatly hampered in my ministerial work, and did not 
get relief until I had provided for their freedom. That being done, 
I received the full consent of my conscience to give myself wholly 
to the gospel of the blessed Saviour." That sermon made a great 
impression for good upon the ministers of the Conference and the 
great congregation. 

Dr. D. D. Thompson in the Northwestern Christian Advo- 
cate says: 

As a preacher he was scholarly, instructive, and edifying. He met 
the requirements of his office in preaching at his Conferences and 
on other great occasions with such impressiveness as to command the 
respect of his audiences, more by the force and intelligence with which 
he presented truth than by the magnetism of voice and manner. His 
matter was always fresh and interesting. He was evangelical in 
spirit, sound in the faith, and loyal to the best standards of gospel 
experience and doctrine. 

Dr. James T. Hanna writes: 

His sermons were scholarly, yet had point, pathos, power, common 
sense, gospel, and religion in them. 

Dr. W. P. Banks says of his Conference sermon at Dowell- 
town, Tennessee, in 1894: 

His sermon on Sunday was a masterly effort, and yet it was so 
simple that a certain old colored brother here, who could not read 
a word and who heard him through a window, could repeat a large 
part of it up to within a few months of his death, nine years afterward. 

On the Platform 383 

In converse with Alanson A. Craw, a classmate in the 
Genesee Conference, the subject of Bishop Hurst's preaching 
came up. He said to the writer : 

His sermons are not popularly ranked among the highest in orator- 
ical quality. I never heard him preach but once, and that was at our 
session at Lima sixteen years ago. His subject was, "The Joy in 
Heaven over One Sinner that Repenteth," and the impress abides 
with me to this day. Judged by its effects, it was a great sermon. 
To me he is a great preacher. 

His lectures and platform addresses partook of his general 
literary quality in possessing weighty content with fresh and 
enlivening treatment. He might have become celebrated on 
the rostrum had he been willing to devote his time and energy 
to that end. His occasional consent to meet the people in this 
capacity gave us such lectures as " Masks." " The Revenges 
of History," " How England became a Protestant Nation," 
and " The Bible and Modern Discovery," all of which were 
cast in a classic mold but were warm and quick with the life- 
blood of an earnest worker seeking among the records of past 
events and the deeds of departed men incentives to high and 
noble living in the present age. His addresses to the young 
ministers upon entering the traveling connection were often 
studded with terse and pithy expressions of practical wisdom. 
On one occasion he did not refrain from using a serio-comic 
illustration to set forth an important principle in the practical 
conduct of life, drawn from his own costly experience as the 
victim of a prank. The story is thus told by Dr. Levi Gilbert 
in the Western Christian Advocate : 

He was to hold a Conference in the far West. On his arrival in 
the mining town he went to his host's and was dressing for dinner 
when he was waited upon by a committee of the presiding elder, the 
local pastor, and some prominent members of the church there, who 
would listen to no excuses, but demanded that he should go with them 
immediately to see a certain editor of the city paper and insist upon 

384 Jo fix Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

an immediate retraction. The Bishop mildly asked what was the 
matter and the meaning of the whole business. Whereupon they pro- 
duced a copy of the evening journal which spoke of the opening of 
the Annual Conference and of the arrival of the Bishop. " When the 
grip of Bishop Hurst was opened," it added, " it was found to contain 
a pack of playing cards and a flask of whisky." " There ! " cried the 
irate committeemen, " you must come with us and demand from this 
editor a full apology for this outrage !" 

"Gentlemen," said the Bishop, "I cannot go with you and ask 
that the statement be denied." 

"Can't? Why not? You must. It is an insult to you and the 
church ! " 

" But, gentlemen, I can't. The editor has simply told the truth. 
When I opened my grip, after getting here, there were in it a pack 
of cards and a flask of whisky." 

The practical joker who had " fixed " the Bishop's baggage on the 
train, and afterward put the paper onto the prank, had got the good 
Bishop in a predicament where his only defense could be, " Gentle- 
men, do you really believe that of me ? " 

Dr. Buttz says : 

He was at his best as a platform speaker. He had a genius for 
platform addresses. Some of his public utterances on the platform 
have been the most effective to which we have ever listened, and he 
never appeared on the platform without interest. He often presented 
choice illustrations and made a profound impression upon his hearers. 
His last formal public address was at the late Ecumenical Conference 
in London, which is reported to have been one of remarkable scope 
and power. 


The Writer for the Press 

The article for the weekly paper, or monthly magazine, or 
the more stately review, was for many years the easy and 
almost daily work of his pencil. No man of his day kept 
a sharper or hroader outlook on the world of religious litera- 
ture and philosophy than did John F. Hurst. His discernment 

In the Periodicals 385 

and descriptions of issues, of men and their principles, of opin- 
ions and their tendencies, and the necessity for public portrayal 
and discussion of both individuals and their doings began, as 
we have seen, in his college life. While teaching at Ashland he 
wrote for the Ladies' Repository, February, 1856, an account 
of a day at Cooperstown, and thereafter made frequent contri- 
butions to that monthly, especially on his European travels, one 
being A Foot Tour through the Tyrol, in two articles, and an- 
other a series of three in 1872, on Out of the Highways in the 
Fatherland. He also published several articles in Golden 
Hours, of which one was The Stone Image at Lubeck; in 
Hours at Home, one being The Brockhaus Publishing House ; 
and in Hearth and Home, including two articles called Autumn 
Bubbles from Saratoga. 

His contributions to Harper's Weekly were also quite numer- 
ous, chiefly editorials on live topics of the day relating to 
morals, politics, ecclesiastical events, especially those connected 
with Roman Catholicism, art, and letters. He wrote Hannah 
for Harper's Bazar, one in the series of Women of the Bible, 
published later in a volume. Six articles appeared in Harper's 
Monthly, the first being The Palestine of To-day, in 1879, 
another, The Oldest and Smallest Sect in the World (the 
Samaritans), in 1889, and the last. The Salzburger Exiles in 
Georgia, in 1892. To the College Courant (New Haven) he 
was a contributor for a time, mostly on educational themes, 
while he was teaching in Frankfort, though one of his articles 
was on the Bombardment of Strassburg. 

The Sunday School Times, whose editor. Dr. Trumbull, was 
a great admirer of the Bishop, drew to its pages a dozen or 
more important and illuminating papers, such as Imperial 
Power and the Early Church and The Pagan Estimate of 
Childhood. In the Chautauquan for several years the fruits 
of his pen were often tasted, of which the Labor Problem in 


386 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

Germany, the National Jewish Movement, and Walks about 
Old Athens are samples. An occasional article from his pen 
has appeared in the Homiletic Review, the Ladies' Home 
Journal, and the Sunday Magazine. 

The enterprising proprietors of the Independent laid hold 
upon his talent for many years in securing from him articles 
on special topics, such as the Paintings of Munkacsy, and a 
Nuremberg Home, and sometimes a series, as in the case of 
his striking discussions of Mexican schools, literature, and 
science, following his trip to that country in 1887. He made 
a few contributions to the press of England and Germany 
— the German being for the most part reviews of English and 
American theological works. For the Eightieth Anniversary 
number of the Congregationalist he wrote a notable article 
on Eighty Years of Congregational History, and for Progress 
(Chicago) he furnished a series of twelve lessons on Church 
History. During the editorship of Gilbert Haven he occa- 
sionally wrote for Zion's Herald. 

To the periodical press of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
represented by The Christian Advocate (New York) and the 
family of other Advocates, the Western, Northwestern, Cen- 
tral. Northern, Pittsburg, Michigan, and Buffalo, his contri- 
butions were very frequent, and a few times he wrote for the 
Epworth Herald. During the incumbency of Dr. Daniel Curry 
and Dr. Charles H. Fowler as editors of The Christian Advo- 
cate he furnished editorials quite regularly, sometimes as often 
as once a week, and continued to do so during the first few 
years of Dr. Buckley's long term — always with much accepta- 
bility to the editors and publishers, while his signed articles 
in all named were by no means infrequent. The scope and 
range of these papers were broad and varied, covering almost 
every conceivable subject proper to a correspondent at large. 

His most signal and effective writing for the press was 

Letters to The Methodist 387 

probably that for The Methodist, beginning with its first year 
in i860, and continuing, with but few intervals, to the end 
of that independent sheet in 1882. His name was printed in 
a standing list of special contributors from November 15, 1873, 
to August 31, 1878. At the repeated and urgent request of 
Dr. Crooks, though against his own inclination, he furnished 
from time to time anonymously as many as one hundred and 
fifty stories — mostly translations and adaptations from the 
German and French, for the juvenile department. Literary 
reviews and discussions also appeared from his pen. But the 
letters which he wrote from Germany and from other countries 
on his travels (117 of them in The Methodist) made for him 
a high repute and constituted a most important factor in the 
quickening of the scholarly instincts of many who became 
leaders in American Methodism. The first meeting of one 
of the foreign correspondents of The Methodist with Dr. Hurst 
is described by Dr. H. H. Fairall, of Iowa : 

It was in April, 1871. I had been to Mount Sinai. Returning to 
Suez, as I entered the car for Ismailia I saw a plain-looking man, 
wearing the same kind of tourist hat (white slouch) that I wore. 
Discovering from his appearance that he was an American and glad 
to see anybody from America, I spoke to him, and we soon entered 
into conversation. When he told me his home was at Frankfort- 
on-the-Main I asked him if he knew Dr. J. F. Hurst of the Martin 
Institute. He smiled and said, " Yes." I told him that I had never met 
Dr. Hurst, but knew him well by reputation, as he was on the 
editorial staff of the New York Methodist, and said many compli- 
mentary things about Dr. Hurst. A few days later as I entered 
a hotel at Joppa he passed out. We exchanged pleasant greetings. 
Looking over the hotel register I was surprised to see, " J. F. Hurst, 
Frankfort-on-the-Main, Germany." I said to the clerk, " Where is 
Dr. Hurst?" He replied, "He has just started for Jerusalem." 
Several days later at a bookstore in Jerusalem I met him again and 
said to him : " Now, Dr. Hurst, you have been playing the incognito 
long enough. Why didn't you tell me when I asked you in Egypt 
if you knew Dr. Hurst that you were the individual yourself?" He 
laughingly replied, " I never tell anybody that I am Dr. Hurst." From 

3<S8 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

that day we traveled together, riding horseback side by side through 
the Holy Land, the only two Methodist preachers in the large 

On the Sunday night when the bomb was exploded in the Wesleyan 
Chapel in Rome we were occupying the same room in the hotel. I 
did not go with him that night, but I shall never forget when he 
returned near midnight and told me of his miraculous escape from 
the wrecked church. 

Seventeen articles from his hand appeared in the Methodist 
(Quarterly) Review as follows: July, 1858, Beranger; April, 
i860. Hours with the Mystics; April, 1862, The Prophets 
and Their Prophecies; April, 1864, Hagenbach on The Later 
History of the Church; April, 1871, The Modern Theology 
of Holland; April, 1876, Lucius Annseus Seneca: The Last 
of the Stoic Philosophers; April, 1880, The Basel Session of 
the Evangelical Alliance; April, 1881, The Place of Congre- 
gationalism in History and Literature; January, 1884, Our 
Periodical Literature ; July, 1886, The Parsis of India ; March, 
1888, Memorials of the Toltec Race; July, 1889, The Reform- 
atory Movements in the Later Hinduism; September. 1889, 
Religious Significance of the Reformatory Movements in Hin- 
duism ; May-June, 1893, Charles the Great: His Relation to 
the Church; September-October, 1896, The Literary Develop- 
ment of Church History; March-April, 1899. Wyclif, the 
Prophet of Protestantism and of the Methodist Itinerancy; 
May-June, 1901, The Counter Reformation. He also wrote 
anonymously many book reviews and criticisms of German 
works for the Review while Dr. Whedon was its editor, 
sending as many as eleven in one month in 1870 — a high- 
water mark — though in March, 1869. he furnished fourteen, 
equally divided between the Review and the Publishers' 

During the fifty years whose interstices of time were thus 
saved by being filled with these products of odd moments and 

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His Verses 389 

broken hours, often at railroad stations while waiting between 
trains, on the deck of a vessel or on an express train, these 
articles — the chinking between the greater stones of his literary 
structures — fell not short of a total of one thousand contri- 
butions to the periodical press, a veritable shower of " leaves 
for the healing of the nations." 


The Maker of Verse 

Not often did he pause in the intense and rushing energy of 
his lifework to put the current of his thought and feeling within 
the curb of meter and of rhyme. The two periods of the special 
activity of his muse were, first, that of his sojourn among the 
Catskills when, as we have already seen, he wrote a Sleighing 
Party and a Farewell to Ashland with a few other verses, and, 
second, during his studies and travels in Europe. In both of 
these contiguous stages we may well suppose the discovery of 
his heart in the bright day of love that had risen upon him had 
at least a contributory office in the effusions of his verse. 
Surely we detect among these simple lines, found in his diary 
for 1857 an d written while he was for the first time in a strange 
land, a tender strain of longing for " Piney Neck," as he vainly 
tries to hide his own personality under the guise of what he 

" The Old Sailor's Story 

" There stood a little building once 
Beside a forest far from here. 
'Twas there I spent my early youth ; 
I had no care and knew no fear. 

390 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

" Such was my home ; and home is much, 
To him who dares to boast such joy. 
Here I once passed bright, sunny hours, 
A light-haired, blue-eyed, laughing boy. 

" And in one corner of our yard 
There was a beautiful oak tree; 
I've swung upon its friendly arms ; 
No little joy that was to me. 

" And down the gentle slope beyond 

The fast-fixed whitewashed garden pales, 
There flowed a busy little brook ; 

Here oft I trimmed my boats with sails. 

" A large round stone all smoothed by time 
Stood on the borders of that stream; 
There I have passed the summer hours — 
To me it's now a fading dream. 

" I've sat upon that old smooth stone 
Amid the song of many a bee; 
I've hoisted all the oak-leaf sails 

And sent my short-lived boats to sea. 

" My father was so kind at home, 
In war was very bold, 
And by the winter evening fires 
What charming tales he told ! 

" My mother ! O, I love her yet ! 
What loving words she said ! 
And always when I'd done my prayers 
She kissed me to my bed. 

" My sister, too, was kind and dear, 
And as I stood upon the shore 
She read to me of sailor boys; 
I always love her more and more. 

" I see again her bright black eyes, 
I see her long and flowing hair; 
How often has she played with me ! 
How full of love, how free from care !" 

A Mnemonic Rhyme 391 , 

His first Atlantic voyage must have lent to him the imagery; 
in which he pictures the experiences of adversity, when in the 
same Journal he recorded these lines under the name of 

" Life's Storms 

" Tis not upon the main alone 

That storms arise and billows heave, 
When moon and stars, themselves afraid, 
The sea and sky in darkness leave. 

" But oft there is a greater storm, 

Though deep within the human breast, 
Than ever raises quiet wave 

To mountain seas with foamy crest. 

" Your elbow neighbor knows it not ; 
He little dreams that in your heart 
A sweeping tempest prostrates all — 
Your rudder gone, and lost your chart. 

" How many beings pass away 

Whose life has been a stormy one. 
Few nights had they a polar star, 
And fewer days saw they the sun." 

In this same little book we also find a poem based on his 
Easter at Rome, 1857, entitled The Old Worshiper, and con- 
sisting of 143 lines of blank verse. Some lines to the old 
Church of Saint Blaize in Brunswick and to the castle at 
Heidelberg belong to this same romantic period. During his 
pastorate at Irvington he had what he called his Palestine class 
and for its delectation he wrote some verses which he called 
Bethlehem. It was little more than a rhymed and semi-metrical 
weaving of some useful facts in the history, topography, and 
statistics of that interesting town, in five stanzas. The two 
stanzas here given close this mnemonic device for the assistance 
of the studious minds in his congregation and Sunday school : 

^9- John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

" 'Twas David's birthplace — at first shepherd boy 

At Bethlehem, Bethlehem. 
To play on his harp was his greatest joy 

At Bethlehem, Bethlehem. 
Here Christ was born, the evangelists say, 
And the star led the wise men all the way 
To the spot where Christ in a manger lay 

At Bethlehem, Bethlehem. 

" Come now, everyone, let your voices swell 

In Bethlehem, Bethlehem. 
And after we have stood by David's well 

Near Bethlehem, Bethlehem, 
We'll leave the people for rudeness well-known, 
The three thousand souls of this famous town — 
With a long, lingering look we must now go down 

From Bethlehem, Bethlehem." 

In December, 1859, he published another poem in the Ladies' 
Repository entitled Have a Thought. The first two of its eight 
stanzas are : 

" A pilgrim stood one autumn day 

In hallowed Westminster; 
He gazed on emblems of decay 
Till twilight spread her mantle gray 
O'er tombs to England's richest clay. 
Turning to leave that scene so weird, 
From tongues unknown these words he heard, 

' Have a thought, have a thought.' 

" Here sleeps the king of golden crown, 
Now dust and scepterless; 
Here subjects reign who kings have grown — 
The Kings of thought Time cannot drown. 
Rulers and ruled oft change their place 
When once they've run life's dreamlike race. 
Have a thought, have a thought." 

His latest and perhaps his best indulgence of the muse was 
that found in the Independent of September 5, 1889: 

To the Autocrat and the Friend 393 

"Our Immortals at Fourscore: Whittier axd Holmes 
" Long have they walked our dusty paths ; 

But by the notes which they have caught 
From land and sea, and by their thought 
Of Brotherhood in all our strife, 
And by their rhythmic charm of life, 
These singers rare have sung some cheering lay 
At every footfall of their fourscore way. 

" Our Laureates of the Loving Heart 
Their ministry have just begun ; 
No autumn tint, or setting sun, 
No faltering step, or failing speech ! 
But onward as the ages reach 
Wider shall grow the Autocrat's fair land, 
Richer the harp-notes from the good Friend's hand. 

" No realm may limit their warm minstrelsy ; 

Where wrongs abide, 'neath pine or palm 

Chains it shall smite, and passions calm; 

In homely hut or hall of king 

The chambered Nautilus shall sing 

For aye its story of the sea ; 

While o'er the fighting of the free, 
To help the day of doubt and storm to save, 
Brave Barbara's flag shall never cease to wave." 


The Teacher and the Friend of Youth 

His mingling of the offices of a personal friend with the 
functions of a teacher was a lifelong characteristic — one that 
pervaded his life not only as an instructor in institutions pro- 
fessedly existing for the training and teaching of students, 
but in a high degree permeated also his work as an author 
and even as a presiding officer in the sessions of Annual 

394 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

To the force of his example as the writer of histories he 
added the spoken word of advice, encouragement, and at times 
of earnest exhortation, to those who gave promise of excellence 
in the same direction, and to young authors in general he 
extended warm sympathy in their beginnings and helpful 
criticism on their productions both before and after publi- 

His presidency of Conferences often assumed a shape that 
led some, especially strict observers of the letter of parlia- 
mentary law, to wonder at his toleration and even promotion 
of discussion of measures upon which the body seemed ready 
to vote. While he was an open antagonist to mere obstruction- 
ists and their policies of delay, he often threw the door open for 
inquiry and reply on points that he thought some did not under- 
stand. His preference in all such instances was to bring out 
both question and answer from members of the body as an 
educational process for all who were present — especially for 
the younger men who needed to know the reasons for acts and 
procedures familiar to those of longer experience. It was 
not an uncommon thing for him even in the rapid dispatch 
of routine business to allow a halt on what some thought a 
trivial matter, and even to toss it up with a challenge for an 
explanation, which usually resulted in a sifting of the wheat 
from the chaff and a new insight into the merits of the case. 
He always took time to teach, not only from his habit, but 
from his constitutional instinct and conviction that it was more 
important to learn and to teach than to make the parliamentary 
wheels revolve swiftly. Dr. Levi Gilbert says : 

We remember him as an inspiring and informing teacher, in the 
days of our theological training. His was the method of the teacher. 
His pulpit was another classroom. But his sermons were highly 
instructive, and conveyed great spiritual truths under finished literary 

How He Caught a Boy 395 

Professor M. D. Buell, of Boston University, wrote him on 
September 22, 1894: 

Do you remember getting into the train at Visp in August, '79? 
You had come down from Zermatt and had two young men with you. 
That was your characteristic. You have always been interested in 
young men. 

A writer in the Christian Union of January 30, 1890, said: 

His wide travel and keen powers of observation have made him 
equally facile in affairs and in thinking. But he delights in literature 
and in study, and is making upon many younger minds an impression 
of the value of wide reading and generous culture which must add 
much to the quality of the higher mental and spiritual life of the 
church of the future. 

Dr. J. M. Meeker, of the Newark Conference, writes: 

He was my mother's pastor in Elizabeth when I was a boy about 
fourteen years old. One day while at play with my companions, 
rushing out from my hiding place to the street, I ran in front of him 
and he caught me in his arms. After a few pleasant words about 
catching me, he asked my age, said he was about my age when he 
gave his heart to Jesus, and urged me to do likewise and unite with 
the church. I did not feel very pleasant over being embraced by 
the minister on the street, but I never could get away from the 
suggestion that he made, and soon after he left I was converted. He 
was the first one who ever spoke to me concerning my soul's salva- 
tion. He never lost interest in me. Under God. I owe much for my 
salvation and place in the ministry to the faithful pastor, wise coun- 
selor, and true friend, Bishop John F. Hurst. 

Dr. George H. Dryer in a letter to Bishop Hurst from Rome, 
April 30, 1897, said: 

The encouragement of your letters to me in Germany has been 
an inspiration to me to complete my work. 

Bishop John E. Robinson, of India, says : 

On a Sunday afternoon during a session of the New York Confer- 
ence he addressed a large meeting in old Thirty-fourth Street Church. 

396 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

1 was a young business man at the time, without special interest in 
church matters, but I was much impressed with some things he said. 
Among the utterances that took fast hold of my mind was this: 
God seldom calls rich young men into the ministry, and when he 
does call them they are not always ready to obey." I heard him 
speak again at a meeting of the Evangelical Alliance in Saint James's 
Church, Harlem. The gracious, catholic spirit expressed in his 
chaste, scholarly address drew me to him in a way I cannot describe. 
Within a few months I was facing the solemn call of God to forsake 
business and devote myself to the ministry. When I had fought my 
way through to a decision I instinctively felt that Dr. Hurst was a 
man from whom I would be certain to receive helpful counsel and 
sympathy. I was not mistaken. Nor can I forget with what friendly 
sympathy he entered both by personal interview and correspondence 
into the consideration of my call to the foreign missionary field. 

The Rev. E. H. Smith, of the Baltimore Conference, says : 

We think of him as the refined scholar, a prince among men, a 
builder for the advancing years ; but get a closer view, get very near 
the man, feel his generous heart-throb, know him as a confiding 
friend, enter into the atmosphere of his chaste, spiritual life, and the 
impression of his character is still deeper, his value still greater. 
Conscious, as such a man must have been, of extraordinary mental 
attainments, his modesty was proverbial, almost excessive. A spirit 
like his seemed incapable of egotism, arrogance, or unkindness, hence 
the circle of devoted friends was extensive. Such a strong personality, 
young men, seeking strength, loved to confide in and lean upon; nor 
was that confidence deceived. 


In Council in the Chair, and in the Field 

Large portions of his time and strength were of necessity 
given to meeting those to whom he was officially related in 
the conduct of the varied interests under his care. Leaders, 
stewards, and trustees while he was a pastor; faculties, trus- 
tees, students, alumni associations, committees of finance and 

A White Light over the Discussion " 


education, while he was a teacher in Germany, president at 
Drew, and chancellor in Washington; cabinets of presiding 
elders, representatives of the laity, the semiannual sessions of 
the Board of Bishops, and the annual njieetings of the General 
committees on missions, on church, extension, and freedmen's 
aid; besides the numerous loc^l* special, and interdenomina- 
tional organizations for religious, educational, literary, and 
charitable objects w jtn w hich he was connected in responsible 
ways, made cons* Lant draft on his resources of information and 
wisdom. Dr ( now Bishop) Berry said of him at a meeting 
01 the Mi« )S j onar y Committee: 

lsnop. Hurst is more rarely heard, but it is a rare treat to listen 

w er ^pie does speak. He knows so many things which are not common 

P ro J\erty that his remarks often seem like a series of confidential 

relations. They throw a beautiful white light over the discussion, 

a 'iid cause all to perceive more distinctly what ought to be done. His 

jrief speech on our great building at Rome was a gem. 


x The Rev. D. C. Challis says : 

He was always the champion of Bulgaria in the General Missionary 
Committee. More than once his speeches turned the tide of opinion 
in our favor. On one occasion he spent nearly a whole night in the 
Mercantile Library gathering material for a speech he made the 
following morning by which he gained enough votes to carry us over 
another annual crisis. 

Dr. W. H. Hickman, of Chautauqua, writes: 

In the fall of 1893 I was having a great struggle over relocating a 
church in Terre Haute, Indiana. The city and stronger membership 
had largely moved away from the old mother church, Asbury. I 
was unwilling to do anything that seemed to be a retreat or yielding 
territory. I had consulted many church officials, and they differed. 
I went to the Missionary Committee meeting in Saint Paul with a 
purpose of submitting the whole scheme to one of our Bishops. I 
met Bishop Hurst in the hotel. We talked the matter over, when 
he promptly said : " Don't locate your church where you have no 
future. If you want to make a church of power, the location has 

398 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

much to do with it. There are some people that will advise you to 
stay among the weak. We must do that ; but there are ways to reach 
the weak and deserted from the standpoint of the strong church. 
By all means locate vour church where you will get hold of a staying 
membership and peopleV .rank. If you would affect the city, put your 
church in the best locality you Can find." The First Methodist Church 
of Terre Haute is located on the best street and in one of the best 
localities of that thriving city, as the iK s . ult of Bishop Hurst's advice. 
In presiding over a Conference there was -^sweetness, a dignity, and 
a kindliness that won the respect of all. He had\ none of the P eda g°g ue 
spirit and methods; none of the spirit of handii^S down from the 
throne. He met all men on a level. He behaved as 1 J? man who had 
been called from the floor, among his brethren, to preside" over P eers - 

Dr. J. St. Clair Neal, of Baltimore, writes: 1 

Bishop Hurst impressed me as the most democratic of the pressi/! n ^ 
officers I have met officially. There was never the faintest suggest' 011 
of the proud prelate. He was never too dignified to enter into wj 
humor of life, and his chaste humor was frequently heard in the 
confidences of private conversation. 

Dr. Buttz, of Newark Conference, says : 

We recall his presiding at this, his home Conference, and the 
manner in which he conducted its affairs. He was not largely inter- 
ested in the details of legal administration, but he carried the Con- 
ference with a poise and quietness that kept a constant good feeling 
in the body, and yet with a successful facilitation of the business. 
His tenderness toward us and his interest in us in this position cannot 
be forgotten. 

The Rev. G. E. Hiller, of the Central German Conference, 

says : 

Bishop Hurst was a very impartial, conscientious, and painstaking 
administrator. It was a remarkable thing that under the gentle and 
mild manner of that scholarly and polished Christian gentleman there 
was hidden such an indomitable will. Since the days of Bishop Janes 
we have not had a firmer hand in the episcopacy than that of John 
F. Hurst. 

Bishop William Taylor had great confidence in Bishop 


The Scholar and the Seer 399 

Hurst's executive ability, and once solicited his aid in these 
words : 

My dear Brother: I know that you have extraordinary ability in 
a quiet way of bringing extraordinary things to pass. If you will 
bring my missions in South America into direct relation to our 
church, as I propose, it will result in the glory of God, and the peace 
and progress of our church work. 


The Scholar and the Christian Gentleman 

When Bishop McDowell was Secretary of the Board of 
Education of the Methodist Episcopal Church he wrote of 
Bishop Hurst : 

In his dealings with the members of the Board on the occasion 
of the annual meetings or of special committee meetings he showed 
uniform courtesy and thoroughness and a keen understanding of all 
the problems with which the Board has to deal. He was himself a 
splendid example of the Christian scholar. 

Dr. Claudius B. Spencer said in 1898: 

Bishop Hurst is an illustration of that which is so often seen in 
the episcopate in England, where great scholarship, combined with 
evangelical temper and administrative ability, is a requisite for 
ecclesiastical preferment. 

When he was presiding at the Northwest Indiana Confer- 
ence in 1889, Dr. (now Bishop) D. H. Moore said editorially 
in the Western Christian Advocate : 

He is our great scholar. He is also our seer. None is more alive 
to the needs and duties of the present; yet he also companions with 
the men that are to be. A hundred years from now Methodism will 
have just begun to reap the harvests he has sown. Barns and store- 
houses bursting with plenty will justify his present plans. No man 

400 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

loves to be loved more than he; and none is truer to those who wear 
the white stone of his confidence. He is impatient with littleness, 
and scorns duplicity. He stands uncovered before a genuine man, 
lettered or unlettered, rich or poor. 

Dr. W. S. Edwards, of Baltimore, said: 

His preeminence, as I interpreted him, was in the scope and thor- 
oughness of his scholarship, and in his fine use of it as teacher in our 
schools and as writer for the press. 

Mr. Edmund C. Stedman, the poet, writes : 

It once was my good fortune to share a railway seat with him on a 
short trip. He was kind enough to talk somewhat freely with me, 
and I was impressed by his charm of manner, his high cultivation, and 
his enthusiasm for whatsoever things are lovely and of good report. 
We were both interested in classical studies, and I soon found that 
he was a fine Greek scholar — as, indeed, his works have made evident. 
He then was a plain D.D., and I was gratified afterward to note his 
elevation to the bishopric. 

Dr. J. M. Buckley says : 

His foundation in the dead languages and in German had been so 
well laid that when he took the time to do so he could write both 
correctly and elegantly, and could converse so as to transact business, 
in seven languages, and in four of them fluently. 

Dr. A. W. Greenman writes : 

I especially enjoyed his free and helpful companionship in my trips 
with him (in Mexico) in visitation to the work then under my care. 
His advice and information regarding some lines of study in which 
I was particularly interested have been of the greatest value to me. 
He was a scholarly and dignified Christian gentleman, meeting the 
demands of his high calling and responsible position with all fidelity 
and patience, and with such a brotherly and manly spirit that made 
it a constant delight to be with him. 

Bishop Alexander Mackay-Smith, of Philadelphia, says : 

I highly honored him as one of the best of men, and our meetings 
were always very pleasant and grateful to me, for he was preemi- 

" A Bishop Indeed " 401 

nently a Christian gentleman. I honor the Methodist Church for 
having possessed such a choice soul. 

The Western Christian Advocate says : 

Bishop Hurst, as the courteous, urbane, cultured Christian scholar 
and gentleman, won the hearts of preachers and laymen. 

Professor Marcus D. Buell wrote him, April 25, 1891 : 

I desire particularly to express my appreciation and gratitude for 
several acts of kindness you showed me yesterday (at Troy Confer- 
ence). I refer to your calling me forward for introduction, your 
expressions of regret that I had not sought an opportunity to address 
the Conference, and your kind personal references to me in your 
address. God has given you the grace of thinking also of the things 
of others. 

Dr. J. G. Butler, pastor of the Luther Memorial Lutheran 
Church, of Washington, writes : 

Bishop Hurst lives in my memory as the learned, cultured, quiet, 
unassuming, and broad-minded Christian gentleman. I was not 
thrown much with him, but enough to know him a bishop indeed, 
with strong purposes of heart, consecrating his great life not to 
Methodism alone, but to the kingdom of our Lord, whose faithful, 
suffering, humble disciple Bishop Hurst was. 

40_» John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

"Sunset and Evening Star" 

Waning Health. — Final Sickness. — Sympathy of Colleagues.^- The End 

The return voyage from London to New York ended on 
October 5, 1901, and proved quite beneficial to the Bishop's 
strength. After a day in New York he and his daughter Helen 
came to Washington on October 7, and resumed their home 
life at the Connecticut Avenue house. Among the earliest 
letters to be sent by him was one of sympathy to Mrs. Mc- 
Kinley on October 9, and on the 12th one to Rev. Dr. Bristol 
on the death of the Hon. Matthew G. Emery, expressive of 
his love for the departed and regret that he was not able 
to be present at the funeral. He attended a meeting of the 
Executive Committee of the American University at the office 
on October 16, and another of the Building Committee on the 
22d. On November 2 he met the latter committee again at the 
University site to consider the lowering of the plans of the 
McKinley Memorial Building four feet, which was done. On 
December 1 1 he attended the meeting of the University 
Trustees, and on the next day called with Bishop McCabe and 
Mr. and Mrs. J. F. Robinson, of Rock Island, Illinois, to see 
Admiral Schley. 

On January 13, 1902, the Bishop, Dr. W. L. Davidson, 
Secretary of the University, and the writer visited Senator 
McMillan at the Capitol in regard to the opening of streets and 
other improvements near the University site, and on the 28th 
he attended a lengthy meeting of a special committee at the 
University office from 10 to 12 o'clock. He was very weary 
the rest of the day. He remained at home all of the fol- 

_i O 














At Marion for the Last Time 403 

lowing day, but walked as usual the three quarters of a mile 
to the office on the 30th. His daily walk to the office in 
company with the writer, varied occasionally by a ride in 
carriage or car, was kept up until February 1 1 — the date of his 
last walk to F Street. The next morning we started to walk 
down at 10 :20, but his strength failed him at L Street, and we 
came back with difficulty, though he took a ride with Helen 
later in the forenoon and short walks with his servant in the 
afternoon. His last ride to the office was on February 20. 
Bishop Walden happened to be there at the time. 

He continued his rides about the city and short walks as 
far as Dupont Circle and other near points. On March 5 some 
muscles on the right side of his face showed slight paralysis, 
but he took his ride and walk. On Sunday, April 6, he suf- 
fered another light apoplectic stroke at six in the morning, 
and could not speak for about an hour. He kept his bed the 
rest of that day, but recognized those about him and spoke a 
few words in the late afternoon. The services of a trained 
nurse were necessary on and after April 9. His three sons 
were informed of his second attack, and John, of Denver, came 
on the 1 2th, Carl from Vienna the 19th, and Paul from San 
Francisco, where he had arrived from the Philippines, the 21st, 
by which time he was again able to converse and ride and walk 
for a short distance. He greatly enjoyed the presence of all 
three. On April 29 Bishop Mallalieu called, and on May 18 
Dr. J. M. Buckley had a brief conversation with him, both of 
which interviews much pleased the Bishop. 

On June 6 he started for his loved Marion, in company with 
Helen, his niece Miss Anne M. Kurtz, and the nurse. They 
arrived the next day, having a stay of three hours in Boston. 
He stood the journey well, and the change helped him in many 
ways. He remained in Marion until October 28, and reached 
Washington on his return the following day. The journey 

404 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

was a hard one for him, and from its effects he recovered 
slowly. His strength began to decline again ; he was losing 
sleep, and it was decided to find a quieter neighborhood for a 
time. After a look at several houses in different suburban 
localities, the kind proffer of Air. Aldis B. Browne of the use 
of his country villa, ' Cedarcroft," about nine miles from 
Washington in the town of Bethesda. was accepted for a 
month, and the transfer of the family with all the servants 
was made on November 29, the Bishop riding in a carriage 
without any seeming injury. Here the broad piazza and good 
sidewalks afforded him fine opportunities for walks in the sun- 
shine and the breathing of the fresh country air. Through 
December he gained in strength, physical and mental, and was 
so comfortable at New Year's that after consultation with his 
physician, Dr. Z. T. Sowers, it was decided to stay longer at 
" Cedarcroft." 

Through January and February, 1903. his strength alter- 
nately declined and increased again, but the losses were greater 
than the gains. He became very thin in flesh, and through 
March could walk about the house only as he had help. An- 
other light shock came about 5 o'clock on the morning of 
April 14, but later in the day he was assisted downstairs and 
back again toward night to his room in the sunny southeast 
corner. At 1 a. m. that night a severe attack, followed by 
another lighter one, rendered him unconscious and confined 
him for the first time to his bed. He recovered consciousness 
and recognized those about him on the 17th, but could not 
articulate. He grew weaker day by day. On the 27th as the 
writer left him at 4 p. m. he said " Good-bye " audibly in re- 
sponse to a parting word. An affirmative reply to a question 
from his daughter Helen a few hours later was his last spoken 
word. He gradually sank into a semi-stupor on the 29th. 
which increased to unconsciousness on the 30th. His respira- 

Across the Bar 405 

tion and pulse decreased slowly through Friday, May 1, and 
quite suddenly about 11 a. m. on the 2d, from which he rallied 
a little. On Sunday the 3d there was evident loss of strength 
after 10 a. m., and especially after 10 p. m., when his breath 
became very faint. Paul arrived at 5:30 p. m. from Fort 
Thomas. At 12:40 a. m. on May 4 quietly he breathed his 
last and entered into his rest. So nearly was his wish fulfilled 
that he might die on the anniversary of his mother's death. 
By his side were his daughter Helen, his son Lieutenant Paul, 
his niece Miss Kurtz, Miss Nichols, the faithful nurse, and the 
writer. John came at noon, and Carl, who was in Vienna, 
cabled his sympathy to the sorrowing group. 

Few indeed were the expressions of Bishop Hurst in the days 
of his health or sickness in regard to his own decease, but 
these were all marked by a calm and silent trust in the Saviour 
whom he loved and served. How he looked forward to the 
hour of his departure may be seen in the words he wrote upon 
his arrival in New York, September 5. 1885, after recognizing 
the familiar faces of friends who had come to the wharf to 
meet him and his family after an absence of more than a year : 
" I thought of the later landing, and on the shining shore, when 
the number will be larger who await your coming, and will 
welcome you to a better home, and another Hand will wipe 
away all tears/' 

During the days of his waning strength the kind words of 
sympathy and affection sent by the Washington City Meth- 
odist Preachers, the Washington Annual Conference, and other 
bodies, greatly comforted him, and he was profoundly moved 
by the repeated messages of brotherly affection, both indi- 
vidual and collective, which came to him from his colleagues 
in office, as they assured him of their tender regard, their 
sense of loss in his absence, and their readiness to take his 
share of the episcopal work. Bishop Fowler, who knew better 

406 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

than himself how much worn he was before he went across 

the sea, wrote him on September 3, 1901 : 

I shall be free during the time for holding your Conferences. I 
want you to stay in Europe with Helen. Rest and have a good time 
and let me hold your Conferences. I will be happy to know you are 
gaining strength by rest. 

Bishop Fowler took his two Conferences in Tennessee, 
though Bishop Hurst was in this country. At the Bishops' 
meeting in Cincinnati, Bishop Fowler wrote him again, Octo- 
ber 30 : 

Dear Bishop Hurst: I am glad to know that you are happily rest- 
ing at home. The warmest interest in you is felt and expressed by 
the Board. In view of the statement that your physician does not 
think it safe for you to meet with us at this session, the Board 
feels that we must give you opportunity to protract your rest a little 
longer, and has decided not to assign any Conferences to you for the 
coming spring. The Board will be glad to add a footnote stating 
that upon the advice of your physician you ask to be excused from 
Conference work for the spring. It is from the warmest affection of 
your colleagues. Kindly telegraph me authorizing such footnote for 
the plan. I join with all your colleagues in sending love to you and 
offering prayers to God for your health and happiness. 

To this his answer was by telegram, November 1 : 

Prefer assignment of two or three Conferences. Hope to be able 
to attend them. Will accept decision of Board. 

From Bishop Warren's heart and hand their message came 

at their next meeting: 

Chattanooga, Tennessee, May 1, 1902. 
The Board of Bishops received through Bishop Mallalieu your 
" cordial and affectionate greetings " and his report of your general 
health. They have delegated me to return an expression of their 
personal interest and affection. We take up our usual lines of work, 
get the usual reports, and have our customary concern for the welfare 
of the general church. In all our anxieties we miss your clear judg- 
ment. We pray for your comfort of body and the peace of God that 
passeth all understanding in your heart. 

Bishop Merrill's Prayer at Meadville 407 

Their last message, too late to be communicated to him, was 
from the same fraternal spirit : 

Meadville, Pennsylvania, April 30, 1903. 
Dear Bishop Hurst: Your brothers in session send you cordial 
greetings, praying that the divine presence may abide upon you 
abundantly according to the fullness of his grace. We miss you 
greatly, as also Bishops Bowman and Foster. The reports of the 
Bishops show that the church is in peace and is growing in grace, 
power, and benevolence. We shall be glad to receive any word from 
you at any time. 

Never was there a more solemn or impressive session of these 
consecrated and devout leaders of the church than the one held 
on Saturday morning, May 1, 1903, in Ford Memorial Chapel, 
of Allegheny College, Meadville, Pennsylvania. A messenger 
boy brought two dispatches at the same time. One announced 
the death of Bishop Foster ; the other, that Bishop Hurst was 
dying. The Bishops were overwhelmed with grief. The 
Philadelphia Methodist says: 

They sat in silence with bowed heads and the burden of their hearts 
was relieved only when Bishop Merrill, who so recently had been 
near the gates of death, said in tones of deep emotion, " Let us pray." 
For an instant he paused, but with strong effort becoming self-poised 
he poured forth a prayer such as seldom flows from mortal lips. 
The current of the good Bishop's thoughts was calm and clear as 
crystal ; his mind was wonderfully vigorous ; his sense of loss exquisite 
and pathetic. As his heart turned toward the dying Hurst the tides 
of affectionate sympathy and earnest supplication swept over the 
company, and when he lifted his voice in holy triumph the veil 
seemed to have rent, and the air was redolent with the fragrance of 

408 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

The Obsequies 

Addresses by Bishops Fowler and McCabe. — Memorial Services 

Thursday, May 7, was the day of the funeral. A brief 
service was held at " Cedarcroft " at noon, with a few friends 
present besides the family. The writer of this life-story read 
the thirty-ninth psalm from the Bishop's copy of the Ritual 
presented to him by his colleagues at the time of his conse- 
cration in 1880, and the Rev. Dr. Wilbur L. Davidson, Sec- 
retary of the American University, offered a most tender 
prayer, which brought great comfort to the stricken group of 
children. The funeral cortege reached the Metropolitan Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church at two o'clock. The honorary pall- 
bearers who were all present were: Mr. Justice Henry B. 
Brown, of the Supreme Court of the United States ; Mr. Daniel 
Denham, of Elizabeth, New Jersey ; Mr. Charles C. Glover, of 
Washington; General James F. Rusling, of Trenton, New 
Jersey; Mr. Charles Scott, of Philadelphia; and Dr. Z. T. 
Sowers, of Washington. The active pall-bearers who served 
were: Judge Thomas W. Anderson, of the Supreme Court of 
the District of Columbia; Mr. Aldis B. Browne, of Washing- 
ton; Rev. Dr. David H. Carroll, of Baltimore; Dr. Royal S. 
Copeland, of Ann Arbor, Michigan ; Mr. Andrew B. Duvall 
and Mr. Benjamin F. Leighton, of Washington. 

Bishop Foss read the sentences from the Scriptures as the 
procession moved up the west aisle. After all were seated 
the choir sang, " Lead. Kindly Light." Dr. Frank M. Bristol 
conducted most decorously the services at the church. Bishop 
Bowman read the ninetieth psalm from Bishop Hurst's copy 

Bishop Fowler's Address 409 

of the Ritual, and Dr. Charles W. Baldwin read the New Testa- 
ment lesson from the fifteenth chapter of First Corinthians. 
Dr. Henry A. Buttz. President of Drew Theological Seminary, 
who had just come from the funeral of Bishop Foster, offered 
a very feeling and comprehensive prayer, marked by the spirit 
of worship, gratitude for the gift of the departed one to the 
church, intercession for his colleagues, the University, the 
church, the institutions he had served, the students he had 
taught, the friends he had made, and especially for the dear 
ones of his home, and closing with " Our Father who art in 
heaven." The choir sang. " Nearer, my God. to Thee." In 
accordance with the desire of Bishop Hurst, expressed long 
before his decease. Bishop Charles H. Fowler made the funeral 


I find it difficult to stand here in this hour. It would suit my feelings 
better to sit there with these children. It is a sad thing to lose a 
friend with whom we have walked for a quarter of a century. In 
early life we make friends ; later we make acquaintances. It is sad to 
lose these friends. The ranks are being decimated about us. I am 
sorry this man is dead. 

It is strange how we change places. Not long ago I expected this 
man to talk for me as I entered the narrow house : but to-day I am 
to talk a little for him. I cannot open my heart here. I must confine 
the little tribute I give to him to the things that are felt in common 
conviction and judgment concerning him. When I see him I can tell 
him what was in my heart about him. I will only say this: That if 
it were necessary I would be glad to put my hand through the veil 
and grip his hand to let him know that I am standing by. 

Methodism is familiar with Bishop Hurst. There is nothing about 
his life that is private. She knows him altogether. She knows his 
form, his face. He was nearly, or possibly quite of average size, 
compact, put up for work. He had a good-sized head, not specially 
large, but so rounded and filled out at every point that it was always 
impressive. It was fashioned quite like the head of Sir Walter Scott. 
Possibly when you first looked at him you might not be impressed 
with any great idea of the forces he carried, but when you studied 
him carefully I am sure he would abide with you as a picture of power. 

410 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

Bishop Hurst was the embodiment of work. He did not stride along 
with great leaps and bounds, occasionally turning around to see how 
far he had come ; but he pushed straight ahead, steadily on, all the 
time. Like a pack animal, he would take a load as big as himself 
on his shoulders, and wade right on through the mud, up to his eyes, 
never hesitating. The character of the highway did not enter into 
his calculations; he simply went on. 

He worked ! He had that peculiar and wonderful genius that has 
been defined as an infinite capacity for work. Nature is the great 
example that he seems to have followed in his work. Nature now 
and then blazes out at the peak of a volcano, and rumbles and mutters 
under the shaking bosom of the earthquake. But she is not working 
then. She is resting. She is merely turning over on her uneasy 
couch to find rest. You cannot measure Nature's work by these 
convulsions. Nature works all the time, pulling down the mountains, 
digging out the rivers, and filling up the seas. She works all the 
time, scattering her seeds of life everywhere, driving out her great 
argosies of moisture, wheeling forth her vast resources of nourish- 
ment. Work ! That is the example that Bishop Hurst followed. 
He seems to have caught fully the truth taught by the old Greek 
slave, when he said, " The tortoise always wins." In 1868 Roscoe 
Conkling in a speech before the National Republican Convention, 
placing General Grant in nomination for the Presidency, said: "You 
ask whence comes our candidate. He comes from Appomattox, with 
the arduous greatness of things achieved." Bishop Hurst comes to 
the summit of his power with the arduous greatness of things 

I would like to read to you a list of some of the works he published 
— a little indication of his work. I will ask you to be patient, and will 
ask the preachers not to condemn themselves as I read the list. 

(Here he read a list of the books written by Bishop Hurst.) 

Need I say anything more about his work? This great library 
that has been wrought out by his pen is only a by-product of his 
industry. Many a manufacturing establishment has grown into wealth 
and power by utilizing and saving elements and materials that its 
rivals have allowed to go into the waste. This abiding treasure, this 
great intellectual fortune bequeathed to mankind, has been rescued 
from spare moments, a by-product. Indeed, it is wonderful that so 
much should have been accomplished. His life was full of arduous 
duties, in the regular order of his movement, which had the right of 
way. Lecturing to crowded and important classes on great subjects; 

His Work at Drew 4 1 1 

directing and caring for important bodies of students ; preaching to 
exacting churches; raising church debts; rescuing imperiled institu- 
tions, that have been intrusted to his care, from danger and peril ; 
doing much that tires the average man ; carrying the burdens and 
performing the multiplied works and duties of the episcopal office — 
these were the things that had the right of way in his life. While 
these things tire out and exhaust the energies of most men who handle 
them, he kept step with his peers in his high and exalted duties, and 
wrought in his spare time the wonderful things I have mentioned. 

Let me emphasize one or two things he has done. One of his 
achievements was the resurrection of the endowment of the Drew 
Theological Seminary — practically the resurrection of the Seminary. 
This came as a regular duty, but was, in reality, quite a by-product. 
He was occupied in the quiet work of the lecture room, and in the 
easy administration of the institution, when suddenly a landslide in 
Wall Street swept Daniel Drew into the sea of bankruptcy, and with 
him went the endowment of Drew Theological Seminary. There was 
a school full of students that must be taught and kept together ; there 
was a Faculty that must be kept together and fed, and there was an 
endowment that must be created. In that critical moment all eyes 
turned to John F. Hurst. He knelt in the hall of that old mansion 
and prayed long enough for the trustees to strap this new burden on 
his back, and then he went forth rejoicing that he had new worlds 
to conquer. Patiently and quietly he went from door to door, and 
from city to city, representing the great interest intrusted to him. 
I remember well how he talked about the institution and its impor- 
tance, about the work done by its graduates, about the beauty of the 
site the institution owned and its value, about the great work it had 
done for the church. I remember he talked a little — just enough for 
spice — about the prejudices of the former owner of the mansion, who 
loathed the " fanatical " Methodists, and the prophecy of a poor old 
woman who had been pushed from its halls. I remember how he 
talked of the fact that the church owned that site and that mansion, 
and every one of those trees, with the squirrels leaping among their 
boughs. He said, " It is ours, and it shall shortly be richly endowed." 
The Conferences heard him gladly. The preachers and laymen be- 
lieved him. The foundation was laid in the faith of the church, and 
after months and months of tireless and unremitting toil the endow- 
ment was completed. This was about half a by-product. It shows 
well how he did the work in hand; and I sometimes think that I 
would be glad if some of the rest of us could take up some side work, 
and see if it would not stimulate us in our regular work. 

412 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

Let me touch upon another work of his that was purely a by- 
product — the American University. This was a vision hung up before 
him by unseen hands. It was definitely urged by the mother of these 
stricken children. He pushed toward that vision with unfaltering 
and unwavering faith through all the years. When he had once 
entered upon the enterprise and had secured the site he was surprised 
to find that some wise men in high places felt it necessary to stand 
somewhat against it. It was thought by some that it would interfere 
with other colleges and universities. Other universities could spring 
up, and other colleges, and nobody seemed to think there was any- 
thing against them ; but this university was born in a storm center, 
assaulted on every side. Yet it had such an ancestry, it was brought 
forth by such a man, that it gained victory and dominion. Bishop 
Hurst went straight on, just as if nothing was happening — and nothing 
was happening. He pushed steadily toward the one goal, and just 
as that father on the battlefield at Gettysburg stood over the wounded 
body of his son, parrying the bayonets aimed at his breast, and striking 
down the assailants that sought to destroy him, so Bishop Hurst stood 
over his last child, the American University, and parried every weapon 
thrust at it, and gave it room and time in which to rise and stand. 
It is a fitting monument for him. 

His instinct was for books. He took to books as naturally as a fish 
takes to water. If you wanted to find him in a strange city you needed 
only to go to the old bookstores. He could scent a good or rare book 
as readily, as correctly, as a bird dog scents the presence of a bird. 
He had a great and rich private library, and he understood its con- 
tents. He was a scholar. He was a superior preacher. He was in- 
structive, interesting, and upbuilding. He was a lecturer, wise in 
his classes, not to be turned from on the public platform. He was a 
linguist of unusual ability. He could conduct the ritual services in 
nearly all the languages of modern Europe, and he talked freely in 
many of them. His literary ability is shown by the list of his pro- 
ductions which I have read in your hearing. He was much in evi- 
dence in the magazines and in the weekly papers. He was a writer 
of clearness and point. He had a happy use of the best sort of English, 
and so handled it that his sentences conveyed clearly his idea. He 
was a worker in all things. 

Indeed, it seems to me a sad thing that he is taken from us, and 
we are called upon to mourn with the church which has been smitten 
first on one side and then on the other. In the field of our intellectual 
life two brilliant constellations have been swept from our firmament. 
In the southern hemisphere, when the day fades, and the curtains of 

Bishop Foster and Bishop Hurst 413 

the night are folded about the trackless sea, the voyager naturally 
turns to the silent chart above him, and his eye seeks that wonderful 
constellation, the Southern Cross. When he finds it the ocean is 
instantly transformed, and it seems to be crossed and recrossed by 
highways, the bark on which he sails seems solid and certain as the 
land itself, the darkness loses its terrors, the specters of the deep 
vanish, for he has his eye on the chart of that southern hemisphere. 
That constellation locates the lines of the universe for that southern 
hemisphere. In this northern hemisphere we have another constella- 
tion, the Great Bear, known from childhood as the Big Dipper, riding 
around in the heavens, and pointing always to the Polar Star. And 
when in the mists, or in a flurry of star dust, the Polar Star wanders 
away out of the field of vision, the Great Bear, with a scent like a 
bloodhound, scents out the wandering Polar Star and fixes it anew. 
Then the traveler knows at once, on land or on the sea, where his 
pathway lies. That constellation marks the chart of this northern 
hemisphere. Down by the equator there is a belt about eighteen 
degrees wide, in which both these constellations appear and give 
their light and guidance to the traveler. 

We of the church have been traveling in this equatorial belt these 
years, illumined and guided and strengthened by two great constella- 
tions, Bishop Foster and Bishop Hurst, the two greatest scholars 
American Methodism has produced. But they are taken out of the 
fields of our vision in a day. We shall seek for them with our eyes 
in vain. Bishop Foster illumined one hemisphere ; Bishop Hurst was 
the steady light of another. Bishop Foster was the embodiment 
of genius. He blazed athwart the heavens with a brilliance never 
excelled. Bishop Hurst pushed on, shining with the steady beams 
of a great intellect. Bishop Foster we admired, and we were proud 
of him on account of the throngs that followed him. We followed 
Bishop Hurst knowing that we should come to a safe anchorage. 
Bishop Foster blazed like the wheels of Ezekiel's chariot ; Bishop 
Hurst flowed on like the river in the vision of the Revelator. They 
were both great, with wide influence, and enduring in their fame. 
Together they toiled side by side, year after year, in the same institu- 
tion. Together they struggled with the same great problems of human 
destiny. Together they passed out into the great Beyond, to rise to 
newer and mightier enterprises. Let us repeat their industry, emulate 
their characters, cherish their memories, knowing that in them we 
have an inheritance of intellectual wealth and of divinely transformed 
character that may make us rich for many a generation. 

414 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

Bishop Charles C. McCabe, Chancellor of the American 
University, also made an address, which he preceded by leading 
the people in singing the verse, " I would not live alway." 

We never feel the poverty of language so much as when we try to 
utter words of comfort in such an hour as this. Silence, utter silence, 
as we sit around this bier, seems more befitting than any words of 

(Here he cited a very choice selection of the Scriptures, 
especially the words of Jesus to his sorrowing disciples.) 

There is comfort enough in these divine words to assuage the grief 
of a suffering world. Bishop Hurst inspired love in the hearts of 
those who knew him best. How his children loved him, how his 
friends loved him, and how the whole church has looked on during 
these weeks and months of his illness, while his faithful daughter 
Helen ministered at his side ! How the prayers of thousands of 
families and congregations have ascended for him ! Our whole 
church are mourners with you to-day. But we not only loved Bishop 
Hurst, we admired him, and we may say with David, " A prince and 
a great man has fallen in Israel." 

If you measure greatness by great things accomplished. Bishop 
Hurst was a great man. I have watched his career with enthusiastic 
devotion for thirty years. He first attracted my special admiration 
when he rescued Drew Theological Seminary from financial ruin 
after the panic of 1873. It took a brave man to undertake the seem- 
ingly impossible task of raising $300,000 after a panic which had 
wrecked the business of the country. Charles Scott, of Philadelphia, 
who wrought with him in that successful effort, can bear witness 
to his amazing industry and persistency and courage in that apparently 
hopeless work. I came in contact with Bishop Hurst again in 1884. 
A few friends sent me to Europe for a little rest, and in company 
with Dr. D. H. Carroll and wife, of Baltimore, we visited old Upsala, 
in Sweden, where Bishop Hurst was presiding at the Conference. 
He showed me a petition he had just received from two Finnish sailors 
who had been over to London, and there in a revival meeting had 
been converted, and now they wanted a Methodist pastor sent to 
Helsingfors. There was only one difficulty; there was no money that 
could be used for such a purpose. That matter was soon arranged, 
however, and Rev. B. A. Carlson was sent. He planted the mission 
in Finland, and now, owing to the farsighted wisdom of Bishop Hurst, 

Bishop McCabe's Address 415 

the Methodist Episcopal Church stands at the front door of the 
Russian Empire ready to go in and occupy the land. 

(Here he told the story, already given in a preceding chap- 
ter, of the planting of the Singapore Mission.) 

Bishop Hurst's greatest achievement was the planting of the Amer- 
ican University. When I saw him toiling at that gigantic task, at 
an age when other men seek repose, I could not stand it, and I 
made the journey all the way from the West here to take his hand 
and say, " Bishop Hurst, I am with you, I will stand by you." I 
never shall forget the expression with which he wheeled and grasped 
my hand, and said, " Thank God, thank God, I feel stronger than I 
did ; " and I helped him with all my might. The story of the planting 
of the University is familiar to you. Some incidents could be told 
illustrating the zeal and energy with which he prosecuted the work. 
On a trip to Europe he became acquainted with Mr. Hart A. Massey, 
of Toronto, a princely man. The Bishop unfolded his plan of the 
American University to him, and a few years afterward, when Mr. 
Massey died, it was found that his will contained a bequest of fifty 
thousand dollars for the University. Again, during an unusually 
stormy month in one of our recent winters, on his arrival home from 
a wearisome journey, he received intelligence of a good man in the 
valley of the Mississippi, whose heart was warm toward the project 
of the University, and whose pastor desired Bishop Hurst to preach 
for him the following Sunday. While yet the winds were blowing 
and the snow was blocking trains he started for the West. At Rock 
Island, Illinois, he was the guest of Mr. J. Frank Robinson. One 
of the results of this trip and sermon was a cash gift of twenty-five 
thousand dollars and a large share in a will, which will bring an 
increase of many thousands of dollars to the endowment of the 
University. Brother Robinson, since that day, has gone home to 
heaven, but his wife has taken his place upon our Board of Trustees, 
and she has for our enterprise the same enthusiastic love as her 
departed husband. 

There is no danger that the name of John F. Hurst will be forgotten. 
A mission once planted is immortal. It never can be given up. 
Finland and Malaysia will hold that name in reverent remembrance, 
while as long as this republic lives the American University will 
never allow the name of its founder to pass from the memory of man. 

Many of the leading clergy and citizens of Washington were 

4i 6 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

present, and also delegations from Baltimore, Philadelphia, 
Newark, and New York. The benediction was pronounced 
by Bishop Foss. The interment at Rock Creek Cemetery was 
private, and was conducted by Dr. (now Bishop) Luther B. 

Special memorial services were held for Bishops Foster and 
Hurst by the Board of Bishops in Ford Memorial Chapel, 
Allegheny College, on Tuesday morning, May 5. Bishop 
Andrews presided. Bishop McCabe announced the hymns, 
Bishops Merrill and Mallalieu spoke on Bishop Foster, and 
Bishops Foss and Fowler spoke on Bishop Hurst. Another 
service was held at Drew Theological Seminary on Monday 
evening, May 18, at which addresses were made by Bishop 
Mallalieu on Bishop Foster and by Bishop Foss on Bishop 
Hurst. A similar service was held by the Methodist ministers of 
Boston in Bromfield Street Church on Monday, May 25, when 
Rev. Dr. Franklin Hamilton presided. Dr. Luther T. Town- 
send made an address on Bishop Hurst, Bishop Mallalieu spoke 
on Bishop Foster, and Dr. L. B. Bates made remarks concern- 
ing both. The Preachers' Meeting of Chicago paid similar 
tribute to the two departed leaders of the church. Another 
joint memorial service was conducted under the auspices of 
the New York Preachers' Meeting at 150 Fifth Avenue, on 
Monday, June 1, where addresses were given by Drs. Buttz 
and Buckley. Dr. Buttz also made the address on Bishop 
Hurst at the memorial services of the Newark Conference, 
March 23, 1904, and at the General Conference at Los Angeles 
in May of the same year. 

Tributes from Associations 417 



From the high tributes of affection and esteem for Bishop 
Hurst and his work which came from associated groups of men 
we select a few of the more pointed expressions, representative 
of many more : 

The Washington Methodist Preachers' Meeting: By his profound 
scholarship, his thorough knowledge of public affairs, and his wide 
reputation as an author, Bishop Hurst has given strength and promi- 
nence to Methodism in the capital of the nation. 

Washington Methodist Preachers' Meeting of the Washington Con- 
ference: His lofty ideals, finding embodiment in the American 
University, are worthy of the emulation of all progressive churchmen, 
and should fire their ambition and stimulate their exertion to push 
his cherished plans to speedy completion. 

Baltimore Preachers' Meeting: This great man had the prophet's 
eye and the leader's force. Other mighty men of our church had 
come and gone before he came to the Capital city. To them had 
appeared the vision of a university; but the vision faded. He, too, 
saw and tried to put it away. He knew what labor it would require, 
and that it would, as he often said, cost blood; but the vision would 
not away. At last, with indomitable courage and unflagging zeal, 
with a faith that saw the unseen and stumbled not at impossibilities, 
he put his hand to the enterprise, and literally wearing his life away 
with incredible labors he never let go till compelled by broken health. 

Baltimore Preachers' Meeting of the Washington Conference : Our 
beloved Bishop will live in precious memory in the many books he 
has written ; in the American University, which he conceived, planned, 
and developed; in his ministrations as a Bishop of the church; in 
the impetus he gave to ministerial education ; and in his Christian 

Philadelphia Preachers' Meeting: As a preacher he was clear, 
instructive, concise in statement, and cogent in argument. While 

418 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

philosophy, science, and the fine arts were occasionally used to embel- 
lish and enforce biblical truths, he in the main preached plain, practical 
sermons, the effectiveness of which was due to their matter and not so 
much to their manner of delivery. 

Newark Conference Methodist Preachers' Association : We think 
of him as possessing one of the most genial and lovable spirits that 
ever graced the membership of our Conference ; and as the very 
popular president of the Drew Theological Seminary, so dear to us by 
association and its good works ; and the heroic and successful efforts 
he made to save this very valuable institution in the hour of its peril 
have always commanded our admiration. We think of him as the 
great historian, the preeminent scholar, and the founder of the Amer- 
ican University. 

Methodist Preachers' Meeting in New York city: Before his eleva- 
tion to the episcopate he was one of our most useful and valued 
members. His wide scholarship, his Christian courtesy, and kindly 
considerateness made him beloved by all, and his removal is a common 

Buffalo Preachers' Meeting: The Methodist Episcopal Church has 
lost one of its foremost leaders, a seer whose vision recognized great 
opportunities for planting and endowing institutions of learning, a 
scholar whose pen has enriched the historic literature of his denom- 
ination, and a Christian whose character, noble spirit, strenuous life, 
and public services have impressed themselves indelibly upon his 

Chicago Preachers' Meeting : His sermons were models in style and 
always scholarly and edifying. His acquaintance with ancient and 
modern literature was almost amazing. His books will continue to 
have place in the libraries of students for many years to come. As 
a Bishop he was industrious, painstaking, and successful. 

The Director and Teachers of the Martin Mission Institute, Frank- 
fort-on-the-Main : We feel constrained to voice our sincere consid- 
eration of the pure and noble character of the dear departed, who 
with his rich gifts of heart and spirit for many years has served 
the church and brought it to its present condition, in the various 
offices as preacher, teacher, president, author, and faithful Bishop. 
Especially are we under obligation for great gratitude to him for his 
successful labors as teacher in this institution and for the warm 
interest which he has since cherished for our work in Germany and 

Trustees of Drew Theological Seminary: He came to the Seminary 
when it was in prosperity, but suddenly the waves of misfortune broke 

Elements of His Power 419 

over it, and the institution found itself without endowment; instead 
of giving way to despondency he at once gave himself to the restora- 
tion of that which was lost, and with heroic energy and great wisdom 
he rallied Trustees and friends to its support. So ably did he carry 
out this work that the Seminary successfully weathered the storm 
and has gone forward with the impulse then given it. 

Alumni Association of Drew Theological Seminary: We pray that 
to us may come the spirit of emulation that will lead us to complete 
many of the great things which he began so well for the church of 
God. His scholarship, authorship, and the results of his great execu- 
tive ability are our legacies forever. We appreciate the work he did 
for our beloved Seminary and for the church at large. 

Trustees of the American University: Though his personal pres- 
ence be withdrawn, his work and his influence are vastly more than 
a record and a memory. They are an inspiration to us in all our 
present endeavor, and such they will continue to be to our successors. 
He has moved on and up to his crown and his palm. His work on 
earth will also go forward to its broad, beautiful, and glorious culmi- 
nation. He was in the line of the prophet and the seer, and his 
largest service to the world will appear in later times when the 
centuries shall have given the mighty initiating impulses of his mind 
and heart opportunity to find their full fruition. 

The General Conference Memorial by Dr. Henry A. Buttz: Two 
threads seem to run through the entire life of Bishop Hurst, his 
entire devotion to Christian literature and to religious education. 
These were the dominant characteristics of his career. It may not be 
easy with absolute confidence to mention the elements of his power 
and success. We may mention, however, some of them. First, he 
saw things largely. He looked at things in their broader outlines, 
and not so much in detail. This enabled him to project great enter- 
prises and to plan largely. He had the gift of vision for higher 
things and for great enterprises. Another element that entered into 
his success was hard work. He was one of the hardest workers 
we have ever known. By day and night he toiled. This is proven 
by the work he did along literary lines as well as in public affairs. 
The power to do many things and to do them well was one that he 
possessed in a large degree. Most of us can do one thing only at a 
time. Bishop Hurst had the rare power to turn his attention from 
one thing to another manifestly with equal success. Another element 
was his unflinching perseverance. After entering upon a task he knew 
no discouragement, or if he knew it he never expressed it. He struck 
boldly for results, and results came. The last thing I shall mention is 

420 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

his personal address. He was a most fascinating man in his relation 
to persons. He won them easily and held them tightly. And this 
personality, I think, entered very largely into the success of Bishop 


From the Press 

A few choice excerpts from some of the more notable edi- 
torials and contributed articles of the religious press demand 
a place in this record : 

The Christian Advocate — editorial by Dr. J. M. Buckley: 

An inventory of his achievements might easily justify a reader 
unaware of the dates which bound his appearance and disappearance 
among men into the belief that he must have been numbered among 

Taking all the circumstances into account that (the recovery of 
endowments at Drew) was perhaps the greatest achievement of the 
kind in our history. During this struggle a committee of laymen 
and ministers at the General Conference of 1876 waited upon Presi- 
dent Hurst, offering him their enthusiastic support and that of those 
whom they represented, if he would be willing to consent to become 
a candidate for one of the most important offices in the church, for 
which he was admirably fitted, and which would have been congenial 
to him. He promptly responded that he would never voluntarily leave 
Drew Theological Seminary until it had as large an endowment as 
he thought it had when he accepted the position as president. 

He had a gift for finding and acquiring unusual knowledge and 
employing it with rare felicity for illustrative purposes. As his mind 
was naturally discursive except when pursuing a practical end, as 
a preacher he was more effective with the manuscript than without 
it. Many of his discourses would have required only a little more 
vigor in delivery to elevate them to a commanding height. When he 
preached without notes he sometimes excelled in pathos, but was often 
too uniform in style and not sufficiently direct to capture popular 
attention. In two forms of public address he had few equals : platform 
speech on historical themes, and extempore speech in such bodies 
as the General Missionary Committee. Many are the times when 

Editorial Estimates 421 

under such circumstances we listened to him with equal interest in 
his matter and manner. If he could have delivered the four or five 
divisions of his sermons as a succession of platform speeches, John 
F. Hurst would be ranked among our greatest pulpit orators. This 
discursive character of his mental operations sometimes embarrassed 
him in parliamentary emergencies as well as in the work of the 
Cabinet ; but on other occasions, when his powers were fully concen- 
trated, he was a model presiding officer. 

When in company or comparatively free from care he was a 
most charming companion. It was our fortune to form his acquaint- 
ance under pleasing circumstances. He had but recently returned 
from his first residence abroad, and we called to obtain suggestions 
for our first visit to Europe. The easy and leisurely way in which 
he communicated them made a lasting impression. 

A vein of humor ran through his familiar conversation. One of 
his professional colleagues had such a distaste for outdoor exercises 
that Dr. Hurst felt it his duty to try to induce him to accompany 
him on one of his walks. The promise to do so soon was kept, and 
on the windiest day of the season he presented himself, and a rather 
dusty walk was taken. Months afterward on a similar day the pro- 
fessor called to propose a walk. President Hurst looked up and said. 

" Dr. , don't you choose rather a blustering day for your annual 

walk ? " 

Bishop Hurst's method of life did not furnish as many opportunities 
to enter into the secret of his religious experience as that of many 
others. But in conversing with him under favorable circumstances 
we have found that his individual consolations, his methods of judging 
the state of the church, and especially his views of Providence were 
such as only a religious experience could attest and vivify. 

Western Christian Advocate — editorial by Dr. Levi Gilbert : 

Bishop Foster and Bishop Hurst have both passed away since our 
last edition went to press. Their departure forcibly reminds us of 
the deaths on the same day of Presidents John Adams and Thomas 
Jefferson. The church is indeed bereft. The double coincidence is 
very striking — that they should have passed away so nearly together, 
and that the Board of Bishops should have been in session at the 
same time. As founder and first chancellor of the American Univer- 
sity, Bishop Hurst has erected for himself a memorial which will 
endure for many generations. This great project he leaves to the 
church as his legacy. It must be our duty to take it from his 

422 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

hands and carry out his high designs with a liberal and undaunted 

Dr. Jesse Bowman Young in the Western : 

He might well have taken as his life's motto the old maxim. 
noblesse oblige — rank confers obligation. He showed from the start 
of his work that he had the conviction that the man who is educated 
owes a great debt to others; his added discipline and increased 
knowledge have been given him to better his equipment for service. 
The thorough preliminary training which helped to fit him for his 
manifold tasks deserves to be emphasized. A glance at this phase 
of his life ought to indicate to young people, as well as to parents and 
teachers, the truth that it pays in every way to take time to secure 
a thorough educational equipment. Without that equipment young 
Hurst would, of course, have made something of himself, for he had 
an indomitable will and an alert mind; but, nevertheless, without it 
he would have been left far in the rear by better educated men, 
and he could never have done the work or attained the eminence 
which are now an inseparable part of his record. He had a quick, 
fertile, responsive soul, and no opportunity for intellectual fellowship 
and for mental stimulation by communion with kindred spirits was 
ever wasted on or by him. His History of the Christian Church, to 
which he gave many years of toil, won for him among other denom- 
inations, as well as in his own communion, hearty recognition. His 
work in this special realm will long remain as one of the memorials 
of his scholarship, his historical acumen, his spiritual insight, and his 
invincible literary industry. 

Central Christian Advocate — editorial by Dr. C. B. Spencer : 

He had the grace of God in his heart; his expectations of great 
things for the kingdom of God never forsook him; his courage was 
born of hope and faith; his finer qualities, his love of poetry, of art, 
of hymns, and his devotion to Jesus Christ in childlike trust and 
tenderness, waved their pure light over his closing years. He will be 
remembered as the church knew him in his strength, consumed with 
zeal, learned, catholic, eloquent, pure. 

By Professor John Alfred Faulkner in the Central : 

He was a traveler, a man of the world, versatile, genial, a lover 
of scenery, of foreign lands, of the picturesque, of literature, a 

Professor Faulkner and Doctor Wortman 423 

scholar, a man of letters, a divine, an organizer, a farmer of literary- 
products, under whom were constantly working many writers. He 
was a fine linguist, interested in many learned things, in rare editions 
and old, in books, a collector of Americana, who rummaged old book- 
stores in Mexico and Germany for bibliographical treasures. But 
he was much more. He was an idealist, a prophet, who saw a great 
future in a humble beginning, a great scholar in a bashful boy, 
a great literary enterprise that would enrich the learning of the 
world by members of the church which had been despised by its 
sisters for its poverty in scholarship, a great university in the 
foothills around Washington. He not only was a seer, but he had the 
power to transform vision into reality. Bishop Hurst's last work 
was a great school for post-graduate research in Washington. That 
a man of sixty should take the Herculean task upon his shoulders 
of building up a great university out of nothing but his own faith is 
something almost heroic. 

The Christian Herald : 

Bishop Hurst had a profound belief in the necessity of an educated 
ministry. His election to the episcopacy was a fitting tribute to his 
character, energy, and devotion. It did not, however, change the 
bent of his mind. 

The Christian Work and Evangelist: 

It is a marvel that one upon whose time so many demands were 
made could turn out such a vast amount of literature as he did, and 
it was all good. 

Dr. Denis Wortman, his companion in Switzerland in 1867, 

in the Christian Work and Evangelist : 

I shall never forget the forenoon when Hurst and I met after our 
separate routes in the Finstermunz Pass, whose rolling rocks down 
the precipices Bonaparte's army had such occasion to remember. 
How we cheered and cheered for the United States, and for Grant, 
and for Mexico ! For news had only lately reached us of the shoot- 
ing of Maximilian in Mexico, a defeat of Napoleon, a sorrow to 
Austria. That evening at a village hotel on Lake Constance we 
supped with a number of Austrian army officers with any amount of 
gold trappings. Fierce were their denunciations of America ; burning 
their threats. But by and by Hurst gave it to them in German, while 
I now deem I alarmed them yet more by such German as they had 

424 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

never heard before; so we had the patriotic fight out, and Hurst and 
I unanimously voted that we beat. That faded Amherst German of 
mine, how Hurst used to admire it ! At Meran he gave me great 
encouragement to its use. The morning rolls had been tasted by 
the mice and found desirable. I called the waiter's attention to it, 
and mildly suggested in German that we would just as soon have it 
fresh and untasted by the mice. In fact, I expressed my sentiments 
strenuously. The waiter answered me in a very badly broken English. 
I spurned his intimation that I did not speak the German well. I 
reminded him very forcibly that my Deutsch was better than his 
infantile English. Hurst contained his admiration, though his eyes 
glowed with it ; but I doubt if he ever forgot how he afterward 
remarked, " Well, Wortman, you do speak good German when you 
get mad ! " 

In those Alpine rambles with the young professor and promising 
young author I learned to love him very much. He was so genuine, 
so hearty, so ambitious to do the best. He was as good a climber 
as he was a student. He was as warm in his friendships as ardent 
in his profession. He had a certain warmth, geniality, bonhomie, 
which made you feel at once that he took an interest in you, would 
do anything he could for your pleasure or your good. His letters 
indicate the same; he had time to write out his heart as well as 
the bare news. He always had time for his friendships. Take him 
all in all, were I to have a bishop, I feel I should want no one, and 
could hope to find no one, who would blend more wide learning, apt 
teaching, generous thinking, practical helpfulness in almost any line, 
and sweet Christian oversight than Bishop John F. Hurst. 

The University Courier — editorial by Dr. W. L. Davidson : 

The American University will be his most enduring monument. 
Only those who knew him best will ever know just how much of toil 
and absolute sacrifice he made for this child of his brain and heart. 
Just before his final sickness came, he expressed a wish that when 
he was dead and gone his body might rest in the grounds of the 
American University. Nothing could be more appropriate. When 
actual work is commenced, and the present loneliness and insecurity 
of the place shall have passed away, his body should be taken to 
the hilltop which he loved. The American University as a whole 
will, of course, be his memorial. His name will stand identified with 
it through all the ages to come; but it seems fitting that in some 
specific way there should be a distinctive and suggestive memorial. 

Tributes from Many Hearts 425 

Why not a beautiful marble chapel, with mortuary wing, which in 
the years to come might be enlarged, and by tablet, tomb, and bust 
become the Westminster Abbey of Methodism? He has left us a 
rich legacy, which we must jealously guard, and see to it that it grows 
in our hands. 


Personal Appreciations 

The most compact man I ever saw. — W. T. Farley. 

His criticisms were kindly and helpful. — D. C. Challis. 

A brotherly man, who could put his arm around a Methodist 
preacher without feeling that he was lowering himself. — Henry 

He was so genuinely sincere, so sweetly courteous, so full of true 
Christian sympathy, that to know him was to love him. — R. B. 

I was impressed with his natural dignity and rare sweetness of 
demeanor. There was nothing perfunctory about the man. — Henry 
M. A I den. 

He once said to me, " It makes a man large to deal with large 
things." He was the brains of nearly every company I ever saw him 
in. — G. H. Humason. 

His geniality, his kindness and courtesy, as well as his wide 
knowledge of the world, made him a very interesting companion; 
and this was not only in his vacation moods, but always. — Richard 
Watson Gilder. 

John F. Hurst ! Good friend, brave heart, generous soul, hail and 
farewell ! Surely, in the hereafter — sometime, somewhere, somehow 
— as God wills — we shall meet and greet each other again, and part 
no more forever ! — James F. Rusling. 

Eminently companionable would most fitly describe him. The 
warmth of his smile was a benediction, the soulful tones of his voice 
in brotherly greeting were an inspiration, and his quiet, genial humor 
was better than medicine. — George E. Ackerman. 

He was graciousness and gentlemanliness itself. I never found 
him otherwise. A man without pretense, thoroughly genuine, free 
from small importances of lesser minds, absorbed in his work, and 
bent on doing the best he could for everybody. — James Mudgc. 

426 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

I ever found him, in the home, in travel, in the junk shops and 
secondhand bookstores which we haunted together, broad-minded, 
genial, brotherly, simple-hearted, receptive to truth from any and 
every source, a delightful friend and companion whose memory will 
ever be a heritage of blessing to me. — /. C. IV. Coxe. 

His ubiquitous scholarship and sagacity preserved his knowledge 
from the faults and foibles of the mere academic. Bishop Hurst was 
preeminently a wise man as well as a learned man, and he was 
peculiarly fitted to introduce to the Methodist Episcopal Church the 
ascertained results of reverent Christian scholarship. From the be- 
ginning to the end of our acquaintance a fatherly tenderness and a 
charity which never failed marked the intercourse with which he 
honored me. — S. Parkes Cadman. 

The embodiment of intellectual refinement. — Arthur Copeland. 

His work will praise him in the churches. — William Koeneke. 

Posterity will accord him a very high place. — George V. Leech. 

Coming years will add luster to his brilliant genius. — /. B. Trimble. 

His patience was remarkable. His sermons were full of gospel 
meat. — W . R. Goodwin. 

Bishop Hurst stood for a ministry thoroughly prepared and thor- 
oughly consecrated. — Robert Bagnell. 

He possessed the readiest apprehension and the most retentive 
memory of anyone I have known. — Gilbert H. Winans. 

He was a man of immense reserve force, and much greater than 
his humility could consent to uncover to ordinary vision. — Gordon 

When he surrendered his trust a " tall cedar " fell. He was able, 
cultured, amiable, clean, and true. Men of this type are rare. — George 
W . Atkinson. 

He read men and things correctly and soon. He was kind but fear- 
less. His episcopacy was built on the man, not the man on the 
episcopacy. — Leroy A. Belt. 

He was cordial, and in a sense open — yet he kept his own secrets; 
and I think that most will agree that no one ever heard him unbosom 
all his thoughts. — Jesse L. Hurlbut. 

I feel a profound regard for his memory because of the superlative 
excellence of the man himself as a thinker, a writer, and stimulator 
of young men. — Samuel P. Craver. 

He was a singularly pure, simple, modest man, having a great 
wealth of character and learning, which he seemed anxious to hide 
behind a very lovable personality. — Samuel P. Lacey. 

He sought no flattery, was a stranger to arrogance and pride, 

As He Was Known 427 

halted at no barriers in the accomplishment of what he had in hand. 
He was always genial, gentle, and tender. — John F. Richmond. 

A chairman — he could hold an army in line; a judge — he could tell 
a man at a glance; a thinker — he was a well full and running over. 
Mere words could not move him. You had to say something to move 
him. — L. M. Moores. 

Bishop Hurst was a man of intense and pure ambition ; tremendous 
energy, with a will that was almost irresistible. He was systematic, 
studious, optimistic, persevering. To these qualities he owes the 
success of his life. — John H. Vincent. 

One of our ripest scholars. One of the keenest judges of men, and 
one of the most farseeing persons, with whom I have ever come in 
contact. He knew how to enlist forces in the interests of his wise 
and far-reaching plans. — Ezra Tinker. 

These are the three most conspicuous characteristics as I saw them 
in Bishop Hurst: his hatred of all sham, his unquenchable zeal to 
make himself useful, and his unshakable determination to carry out 
what he had conceived as right. — G. E. Hiller. 

Bishop Hurst had in large measure the qualities of the ecclesi- 
astical statesman. This, in a preeminent degree, led him to found 
the American University. The church will long honor him as the 
statesman, the scholar, and the Christian Bishop. — /. W . Bashford. 

He was ever the kind friend, the sympathetic adviser, the farseeing 
statesman, the scholarly preacher, the versatile writer, the able in- 
structor, the wise administrator, the profound historian, the good 
Bishop, and the pure-hearted and loving Christian man. God gave 
him rare gifts, and he cultivated them assiduously. — Frank B. Lynch. 

He was the man of affairs, with an easy, simple manner which did 
not at once suggest the strength and tenacity of character which a 
closer acquaintance revealed. His most marked characteristics were 
great industry, the practical bent of his mind, a very clear sense of 
values, the power of organization, and good business judgment. — 
/. F. Phayre. 

The fine poise of the Bishop's mind, his wide and accurate schol- 
arship, his cosmopolitan sympathies, his almost prophetic vision with 
respect to civic and ecclesiastical affairs, the translucent simplicity of 
his nature, together with his genial comradeship — all these impressed 
and delighted me as the qualities of a rare and beautiful spirit. — 
James B. Kenyon. 

The leading phase of the Bishop's personal presence was his quiet, 
self-possessed modesty — something quite different and distinct from 
weakness or cowardice. When walking with him and engaged in an 

428 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

easy conversation, one never thought of being unduly familiar with 
the Bishop — not because he awed one into a fear of himself, but 
because of the native dignity that was his. — P. C. Johnson. 

He called on me perhaps half a dozen times at my Committee Room 
in the Capitol, or I met him in the corridors and we walked a little 
way together. He always talked, so far as I now remember, about 
rare books, in which he seemed to take a special interest as a col- 
lector. I knew that where he was there would always be a pillar 
of the church and a pillar of the state, a steadfast and unmoved 
supporter of every good word and work. — George F. Hoar. 

In the joyous days of my earlier fellowship I found him true and 
kind and helpful ; in the later years of stress and storm when God only 
knew the awful depths through which he passed he was as brave, 
steadfast, and heroic as mortal man could be. No Spartan was ever 
braver, no Christian more heroic. The more I knew him, the more 
I admired, reverenced, and loved him. — Willard F. Mallalieu. 

These things impressed me: 1. His immense industry; he never 
wasted a moment. 2. He was as systematic as he was industrious. 
3. His thoroughness. 4. His unfailing courtesy to those who wrote 
to him. 5. His intellectual charity. 6. His conscientiousness. He was 
not always affable; indeed, some of us thought him at times hard, 
and somewhat autocratic, but he was carrying heavier burdens than 
weighed upon us, and he was fundamentally just, and desired above 
all things to do right. — George B. Smyth. 

He was possessed of an extraordinary equipoise of mental faculties. 
This characteristic, together with his vast treasures of knowledge 
and experience, gave him perfect ease, whether he was upon the 
rostrum, in the pulpit, or the presiding chair. His Conferences were 
controlled with felicity because of his perfect control of himself. 
Being in the presence of Bishop Hurst, whether as president of a 
body of select men or as a social companion, one felt that he was 
with a lofty mind walking in the high places of the universe. — 
Seth Reed. 

Bishop Hurst was a born gentleman, a ripe scholar, a great his- 
torian; quiet in manner, fixed in purpose, a true friend, a very 
instructive preacher. His diction was faultless, and his references 
to points of travel and incidents by the way, his descriptions of the 
countries he visited, the men he knew, the trend of affairs, the aspects 
of the political, literary, commercial, and religious movements were of 
a world-wide character, and the prophecies of the outcome gave a zest 
to his conversation. Few men measured up to his standard of right- 
eousness; he hewed to the line. He was catholic in spirit, gentle. 

Ideals and Ambitions 429 

genial — but uncompromising in his loyalty to Methodism. — S. W. 

We from early years were conscious of sharing each other's ideals 
for our church, and we silently rejoiced whenever either found new 
modes or new successes in bringing those ideals nearer to the longed- 
for realization. In his remarkable work as a productive scholar I 
took peculiar pride, and when at last it became a certainty that his 
inspiring service was at an end I experienced anew the sense of keen 
bereavement which came over me when years before the sad message 
came that John McClintock was no more. How I wish the good 
Bishop could have lived to see some new Leland Stanford or new 
Rockefeller able and ready to join him in giving tangible and enduring 
embodiment to the supreme vision and hope of his life! — William 
F. Warren, from Rome, March, 1904. 

Fine-grained, delicate in sensibilities, and keenly sensitive, it was 
not easy to know him; best known, he was most prized. He was 
undemonstrative, yet always moving toward some great accomplish- 
ment. Quiet, contemplative, self-contained, yet with brain and heart 
ever inspired by some grand ideal, to the realization of which, in pas- 
sionate devotion, he gave himself unreservedly, unflinchingly, with 
concentration and constancy. He lived and communed with historic 
centuries and people, yet he was a man of his times, busy with 
the affairs of his age and gifted in planning for far futures. Work 
on a scholarly plane seemed not to weary him. He was a painstaking 
administrator, a passionate student. He was the man of the pen ; 
he loved it as the warrior loves his sword, and he wielded it as 
mightily. — George W. leer. 

I shall never forget a day almost continuously associated with him 
in Berlin. The night before I had just arrived after more than a 
year in surveying various lands. Stepping to the piazza the following 
morning before breakfast, whom should I find but Dr. Hurst quietly 
waiting for me? I gladly gave up everything else to join him for 
his last day in Berlin. His work to-day was brief calls and looking 
up historic spots and verifying items of interest; he attended to it all, 
and made it delightful, informing, and permanently advantageous to 
me. From that unexpected glimpse of Dr. Hurst, observing his pains- 
taking system and sharing his fellowship under distant skies, down 
to the end of his brave, unfinished life, I watched his high ambitions 
for the church which had made him one of her chiefs; I felt his 
sorrows, and was appalled by the fatal break, so apparently before his 
time, and then his passing into the silence when vast interests needed 
him and were seemingly entitled to him here. But it is a proud 

430 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

remembrance that he was no merely great official of the church, nor 
yet one buried in many duties and studies; not a walking critic nor 
a dignified measurer of men. He was truth-loving, fearless, and 
fraternal, and of the just and deserving he was a prompt and unfor- 
getting champion. It is easy for us to remember him. — Charles S. 

When he was well along in his work for the American University, 
which must ever be regarded as his chef-d'oeuvre in life, I once 
asked him why he did not resign his office as Bishop, and give himself 
wholly to that work. His reply was, " I would certainly do so if 
I did not feel that I can do more for the University in the office 
than I could do out of it." That answer gives one a very good 
insight into the dominating characteristic of the man, namely, a 
purpose to win in his work at whatever cost. I sat with him twice in 
his Cabinet, and had occasion to note the fact of both his sincerity 
and fearlessness. On one of the occasions he appointed a brother 
to the eldership of the leading district of the Conference against the 
written protest of every pastor within the bounds of the district; in 
the other case he did the same thing in spite of the protest of his 
entire Cabinet. In both cases I now believe he was right, although 
that implies that in one of the cases I was in the wrong. His literary 
work would have answered him for a lifetime, if he had done nothing 
else; his work at Drew alone would have made him noted; he 
filled the office of Bishop with admirable efficiency; while his magnum 
opus, the American University, should put his name among the 
immortals. — /. F. Chaffee. 

Two characteristics, usually mutually exclusive, were equally pres- 
ent in Bishop Hurst: an absorbing passion for books, and a singularly 
accurate knowledge of human nature and the consequent power to 
influence men. The former made him no worm, hiding himself in 
the hole he had eaten into his books ; but filled his soul and life with 
the aroma and poetry of knowledge. Great facts and truths distilled 
in sweet speech on his lips. High and low heard him gladly. Open- 
ing men's hearts with the golden key of knowledge, he anointed their 
eyes with the salve of truth, and made them see his visions and under- 
stand his plans and believe with their fortunes. In our ministry he 
stood on an eminence of his own : a composite of literary, scholastic, 
and executive ability of the most remarkable character, aureoled with 
unaffected piety. — David H. Moore. 

"Our Peerless Pioneer" 431 


Salem, 1834- 1903, Bethesda 

From Salem to Bethesda, thy cradle and thy bier, 
Thy struggles marked by trophies shine, triumphs for each year. 
From " Peace " to " House of Mercy " thy life to millions blest, 
Farewell, thou tireless toiler, who knewest not how to rest. 

So oft thy love drew near me to share with me a part, 
Thy going leaves me orphaned, twice fatherless my heart. 
With courage apostolic, keen scout on truth's frontier, 
Thine eye kept ceaseless vigil, our peerless pioneer. 

When dread disaster boded to stanch and gallant Drew 
Engulfment quick and hopeless for passengers and crew, 
Thy grit and grip gigantic the straining helm held true; 
She idled in no dry dock, in brine her new keel grew. 

Thine ardor for the gospel, with faith that always wins, 

Sent Carlson's warm evangel to frozen Russia's Finns. 

Thy daring in the Orient, thy greater Eastern Shore, 

Stretched cords, and lo ! brave Oldham plows deep in Singapore. 

Thy work was ever triple, to see, to speak, to do ; 

Swept round the globe thy vision and scanned the ages through. 

Both past and future blended to light thy fires of hope, 

O doer, prophet, seer, our tel-kaleidoscope. 

Thine eyes full-orbed, translucent, like Chesapeake's own blue, 
Not mirrors mere, were lenses to let God's light shine through. 
From seer to overseer, from high to station higher, 
The voice of God and people drew on thy heart of fire. 

Thy years brimful of labors, as calendared by men, 

Cut short by zeal and heart-grief, struck not threescore and ten; 

Yet measured by achievement, of deeds to count the sum, 

Thy life's full tale is pregnant with a millennium. 

Bent ever on thy calling, thy force sometimes gave shock 

To men of faith more tardy, who chanced its course to block. 

For hate thy haste misreading, eliding core and soul. 

Some erewhile judged thee wrongly, small part for noble whole. 

432 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

Thy penwork was thy byplay, thy overflowing store ; 
Of books maker and lover, thy love for men was more. 
Not theory, but practice, the touchstone of thy ken ; 
No brooding, hiding hermit, brave man among strong men. 

Thy latest, greatest concept, on Washington's fair height 

To plant this home of learning, this fortress for the right ; 

O man of faith and action, teacher and friend of youth, 

Here science blent with worship shall speed man's quest for truth. 


I. Books and Pamphlets 

Why Americans Love Shakespeare. Catskill, N. Y., 1856. 

History of Rationalism, Embracing a Survey of the Present State 
of Protestant Theology. Scribner's, New York, 1865. Triibner, 
London, 1866. Revised edition, Methodist Book Concern, New 
York, 1 ox) 1. 

Martyrs to the Tract Cause: A Contribution to the History of the 
Reformation. Methodist Book Concern, New York, 1872. 

Outline of Bible History. Methodist Book Concern, New York, 1872. 

Life and Literature in the Fatherland. Scribner's, New York, 1875. 

Outline of Church History. Methodist Book Concern, New York, 
1875. Revised edition, 1879. 

Our Theological Century. Randolph. New York, 1876. 

Seneca's Moral Essays, with Notes (jointly with Henry C. Whiting). 
Harper's, New York, 1877. 

Christian Union Necessary for Religious Progress and Defense. 
Methodist Book Concern, New York, 1880. 

Bibliotheca Theologica : A Bibliography of Theology and General 
Religious Literature. Scribner's, New York, 1883. 

Theological Encyclopaedia and Methodology (jointly with George R. 
Crooks). On the Basis of Hagenbach. Methodist Book Con- 
cern, New York, 1884. Revised edition, 1894. 

The Gospel a Combative Force: A Sermon. Methodist Book Con- 
cern, New York, 1884. 

Short History of the Reformation. Harper's, New York, 1884. 

John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 433 

The Success of the Gospel and the Failure of the New Theologies. 

(Sermon before New York Conference.) Ketcham, New York, 

Short History of the Early Church. Harper's, New York, 1886. 
Short History of the Mediaeval Church. Harper's, New York, 1887. 
The Theology of the Twentieth Century. Missionary Society of the 

Methodist Episcopal Church, New York, 1887. 
Short History of the Modern Church in Europe. Harper's, New 

York, 1888. 
The Wedding Day. Henry H. Otis & Sons, Buffalo, N. Y., 1889. 
Short History of the Church in the United States. Harper's, New 

York, 1890. 
Parochial Libraries in the Colonial Period. American Society of 

Church History, New York, 1890. 
Indika : The Country and People of India and Ceylon. Harper's, New 

York, 1 89 1. 
Short History of the Christian Church. Harper's, New York, 1893. 

(In German, Cincinnati, 1895. In Spanish, Nashville, 1900.) 
Literature of Theology: A Classified Bibliography of Theological 

and General Religious Literature. Methodist Book Concern, 

New York, 1896. 
Journal of Captain William Pote, Jr., During His Captivity in the 

French and Indian War from May, 1745, to August, 1747. Dodd, 

Mead & Co., New York, 1896. (De Vinne Press.) 
Irenic Movements Since the Reformation (a Lecture). In Church 

Unity. Scribner's, New York, 1896. 
History of the Christian Church. Two volumes. Methodist Book 

Concern, New York, 1897-1900. 
Upon the Sun-road: Glints from the Sermons of Bishop John F. 

Hurst, edited by Viola Price Franklin. Revell, Chicago, 1901. 
The New Hearthstone : A Bridal Greeting. Western Methodist Book 

Concern, Cincinnati, 1901. 
The History of Methodism. 7 vols., illustrated. Methodist Book 

Concern, New York. (British Methodism, 3 vols., 1902. 

American Methodism, 3 vols., 1903. World-Wide Methodism, 

1 vol., 1904.) 
John Wesley the Methodist. By a Methodist Preacher. Methodist 

Book Concern, New York, 1903. 

II. Translations 

Lange, J. P. Commentary on Paul's Epistle to the Romans. Scrib- 
ner's, New York, 1869. 

434 John Fletcher Hurst — A Biography 

Hagenbach, Karl R. History of the Christian Church in the Eight- 
eenth and Nineteenth Centuries. 2 vols. Scribner's, New York, 

Van Oosterzee, J. J. Apologetical Lectures on John's Gospel. Clarks, 
Edinburgh, 1869. 

III. Supervising Editor 

(With George R. Crooks.) The Biblical and Theological Library. 
9 vols. (12 projected.) Methodist Book Concern, New York, 
1 878- 1900. 

(With six others.) A Series of Denominational Histories of the 
United States. 13 vols. Issued under the auspices of the Ameri- 
can Society of Church History, New York, 1892-1897. 

IV. Associate Editor 

Johnson's Universal Cyclopaedia. All articles relating to Methodist 
biography, history, and doctrine. 8 vols. New York, 1892-1895. 


Notations in this Index refer mainly to the subject of the Biography, 
but in many instances cover events, places, objects, and qualities relat- 
ing to other persons mentioned. 

Aar glacier, 92. 

Abaco Indians, 10. 

Abbotsford, 215. 

Abdomen, in. 

Aberdeen, Miss., 352. 

Abilities (see Capabilities). 

Able, 146, 188, 237, 287, 399, 412, 

426, 427, 430. 
Abolition, 30. 

About a Book Auction, 358. 
Abraham, 38, 178, 376. 
Abridgments, ii, 191, 221, 286, 

. 325. 3 2 9, 365- 
Abroad, 69-93, 161-192, 215-222, 

251-267, 293, 353-357, 422- 

Academic, the, 426. 
Academy of Music, New York, 270, 

Acceptabilitv, 97, 100, 107, 114, 

168, 386. 
Accidents, 14, 36, 72, 84, 87, 88, 

101, 107, 134, 245, 257, 344. 
Accomac County, Va., 8. 
Account book, Washington's, 369, 

Accuracy, 124, 224, 225, 273, 326, 

33 l > 33 2 > 427, 43°- 

Achard, Clement, 165, 290. 

Achen, Lake, 175. 

Achievements, 30, 155, 211, 356, 
377- 410-412, 414, 415, 417- 
424, 426, 427, 429-432. 

Ackerman, George E., 425. 

Acorn, the, 112. 

Acquaintanceship, 23, 59, 70, 72, 

79, 97, IO5, 128, 146, 191, 221, 

29 1 * 301, 33i. 334, 344, 347. 
348, 361, 363, 364, 400, 409, 
415, 421, 426, 427, 429. 

Acquapendente, 87. 

Acquiescence, 242. 

Acquirements, 116, 162, 172, 300, 
331, 342. 

Action, man of, 314, 431, 432. 

Active, 15, 23, 83, 137, 146, 238. 

Acts of Apostles, 381. 

Acumen, 422. 

Ad hominem, 82. 

Adam, 33. 

Adams, John, 421. 

, Mr., 151. 

Adaptations, 63, no, 121, 131, 
149. 208, 287, 297, 298, 300, 
3 26 - 377. 3 8 7. 420. 

Adder, the, no. 

Addison, Joseph, 24. 

Address, personal, 420. 

Addresses, 24, 27, 30, 31, 36, 44, 
46-48, 54-57. 62, no, 119, 
127, 130, 134, 138, 171, 194, 
199-201, 206-209, 2I 7, 218, 
220-222, 227, 235, 236, 241- 
243, 245-247, 249, 250, 262, 
268, 269-273, 277-279, 281, 
282, 289, 290, 292—294, 304- 
309, 316-319, 323, 325, 329, 
333^ 33 6 -346, 349-351, 353, 


397, 409-416, 420, 421, 428, 

430, 43 1 (see also, Speaker, the) . 
Adjustments, 68, 282, 285, 334, 

3 8 . 2 - 
Administration Building. Drew, 

Administrator, 146, 159, 173, 198, 
222, 244, 309-311, 318, 349, 

398, 399, 411, 427. 429- 
Admirals, 357, 402. 
Admiration, vi, vii, 12, 17. 59, 119, 

122, 146, 190, 200, 207, 213, 

240, 242, 288, 293, 296, 324, 

328, 335, 347. 363. 385. 413, 
414, 418, 424, 428, 430. 

43 6 


Admission to Conference, ioo, 104, 
199, 200, 237, 282, 345, 350, 

Adrian, emperor, 254. 

, Mich., 273. 

Adriatic, the, 84. 

Advance, the, 331. 

Adversity, 30, 60, 391. 

Advice, vii, 23, 28, 29, 35, 36, 43. 
45-47. 65-67, 95, 113, 123, 137, 
149, 159, 162, 169, 188, 202, 
216, 242, 258, 262, 275, 314, 
342, 376, 394. 395-398, 400, 

Advocate, the, 348. 

Mollis, 55. 

^Esop's Fables, 366. 

Affability, 236, 247, 259, 291, 292, 
. 2 93- 339. 428. 

Affairs, a man of, 198, 395, 417, 
419, 422, 425, 427-429. 

Affection, vi, vii, 32, 62, 67, 86, 

116, 131, 158, 159, 173, 192, 

250. 253, 259, 333, 337, 354, 

356, 357. 379. 3 8 °. 405-407, 

.414, 417. 424. 43 1 - 

Afflictions, 38, 62, 147, 183-187, 

325. 354- 
Africa, 42, 43, no, 177, 178, 180, 

218, 256, 257, 263, 264, 387. 
Agassiz, Louis, 368. 
Age, his, 420, 431. 

of Reason, 44. 

Aged, home for, 349. 

Agnew, Dr., 162. 

Agra, 259. 

Agreeable, 177. 

Agreements, 19, 36, 61, 109, 116, 

126, 131, 136, 145, 148, 153, 

188, 190, 191, 227, 334. 
Agricola, 41. 
Aground, 118. 
Aguilar, Rev. Mr., 277. 
Aiken, S. C, 57. 
Aikman, Robert, 153. 
Aims, 17, 40, 67, 119, 136, 150, 153, 

i7 2 . 3*4. 321, 33 1 , 412. 
Air, open, 74, 162, 167, 170, 182, 

213, 308, 375, 404, 421. 
Aitken Bible, 374. 
Alabama, 294, 314, 339, 373. 

Archives and History, 373. 

Conference, 294, 314, 339. 

Alarm (see Fears). 

Albany, N. Y., 63, 68, 118, 143, 

i45. 372- 

. Ore., 244. 

Albert, Prince, 79, 232. 

Albion College, 339. 

, Mich., 339. 

Albis, 92. 

Albula River, 166, 174. 

Albums, 86, 132. 

Alcestis, 41. 

Alcoves, 208. 

Alden, Henry M., 425. 

Aldines, 366. 

Alertness, 51, 205, 361, 365, 399, 

422, 431. 
Alessandria, 89. 
Alexander, James W., 129. 

, Prince, 254, 255, 262. 

II, 187. 

Alexandria, Egypt, 40, 41, 43, 256, 

263, 264. 

, La., 246. 

, Va., 350. 

Algebra, 28. 

Allaben, Sara C, 57. 

Alleghanies, the, 2. 

Allegheny College, 267, 319, 407, 

416, 421. 
Allerton, la., 235, 236. 
Allusions, 46, 168, 221, 338. 
Almanacs, 366, 369, 371, 373, 

Alone, 139, 143, 258, 265, 269, 270, 

2 95. 376. 
Aloofness, 125. 
Aloud, reading (see Voice). 
Alpenstocks, 166. 
Alps, the, 89, 90, 166, 174, 175, 217, 

218, 221, 375, 423, 424. 
Alt Konig, 177. 
Altar, 26, 97-100, 115, 132, 135, 

181, 241, 261, 300, 304, 322, 

332, 348. 
Altorf, 217. 
Altruistic, 10, 38, 60, 68, 115, 119, 

132, 297, 301, 401, 422. 
Alt's bookstore, Frankfort, 216. 
Alumni, 50, 94, 163, 210, 232, 233, 

396, 411, 419. 
Alvaschein, 174. 
Ambitions, vi, 57, 104, no, in, 

124, 126, 142, 150, 152, 159, 

300. 353. 4i7. 422, 424, 427. 

Amecameca, Mexico, 278. 

Amelia, servant, 184. 

America, 14, 31, 90, 91, 93, 150- 
153, 161-163, 167, 168, 185, 
268, 281, 321, 323, 353, 357, 
361, 362, 366, 369, 374, 380, 

387. 423. 
, steamer, 150. 



American Agriculturist, 377. 
and Oriental Literary Record, 

Bible Society, 137, 138. 

Historical Association, 332. 

history, 14, 226, 322, 332-334, 


Literary Gazette, 163. 

Literature, 329. 

Methodism, 228, 266, 317, 334, 

348, 387, 413. 

Museum, 374. 

Sabbath Union, 336, 346. 

Society of Church History, 

322,332, 333, 338. 

University, vii, 297, 298, 302- 

3°4, 3°7- 3°9- 312-321, 336, 
339-341, 345, 346, 348, 350, 
372-374, 3 8 °, 397, 402, 403, 
408, 409, 412, 414, 415, 417- 
419, 421, 423-425, 427, 429, 

43°. 43 2 - 
Americana, 289, 327-329, 361, 362, 

365-375, 423. 
Americans, 37, 56, 62, 76-78, 86, 

182, 217, 221, 224, 259, 271, 

337, 361, 387. 
Ames, A. H., 156. 
, Edward R., 36, 149, 199, 

200, 230, 312. 

, Nathaniel, 371. 

Amherst College, 424. 

Amon, high priest, 179. 

Amputation, 365. 

Amsteg, 217. 

Amsterdam, 197. 

Anabasis, 28, 306. 

Ancestry, 1-7, 72, 296. 

Ancient Magnificence, 40, 41, 43. 

Andermatt, 217. 

Anderson, Thomas W., 408. 

Auction Company, 368. 

Andover, Mass., 330. 

Andrea, Dr., 184. 

Andrews, Edward G., 235, 282, 416. 

Angels, in, 183, 186, 187, 283, 316. 

Anger, 23, 48, 136, 179, 424. 

Anglers, 286, 360. 

Angles, 22, 78, 360, 365. 

Angleterre, Hotel d , 216. 

Anglo-Saxons, 233. 

Angus, Joseph, 155. 

Ankles, 43. 

Anlage, Mainz, 91. 

Ann Arbor, Mich., 339, 373, 408. 

Anna Lavater, 297, 298. 

Anniversaries, 7, 30, 35, 43, 45, 46, 

59, 62, 71, 89, 108, 119, 127, 

138, 210, 236, 250, 268, 271, 
279, 282, 290, 292, 336, 341, 
386, 405. 
Announcements, 228-230, 264, 267, 

354, 35 8 , 3 6 5, 407 

Annual Conferences (see Confer- 

walk, 421. 

Anonymous letters, 337. 

writings, 114, 127, 285, 385- 


Ansgar's Church, Bremen, 215. 

Anthems, 32, 352. 

Anticipation, vii, 23, 31, 32, 38, 42, 
45, 47, 49, 62, 64, 66, 82, 90, 
113, 115, 117, 123, 133, 140, 
153, 159, 163, 185, 194, 214, 
230, 231, 245, 250, 255, 270, 
288, 292, 299, 306, 308, 397, 

Antiphonals, 363, 370. 

Antiquarian, the, 80, no, 165, 175, 
227, 242, 253, 263, 275, 307, 
321, 334, 358-365, 412, 423. 

Antiquities, 28. 

Antlers, 75. 

Antony, Mark, 113. 

Antwerp, 366, 371. 

Anxieties, 45, 52, 183, 187, 193, 
242, 261, 295, 304. 

Apennines, the, 81, 84. 

Aphorisms, 281. 

Apollo, 30. 

Apologetical Lectures on John's 
Gospel, 188, 191, 192. 

Apologies, 200, 384. 

Apologists, 152, 188, 331. 

Apoplexy, 299, 357, 403, 404. 

Apostles' Creed, 298. 

Apostolic Age, the, 222, 331. 

Appeal, Fletcher's, 101. 

Appeals, 19, 38, 97, 128, 161, 201, 
205, 206, 209, 210, 246, 249, 
251, 259, 273, 315, 354. 

Appearance, 49, 55, 56, 95, 141, 
179, 199, 200, 203, 380, 387. 

Appetite, 43, 45, 46, 104, 108, 126, 
138, 220, 359. 

Apples, 9, 46, 92, 220. 

Appletons, 333. 

Appointments, 24, 53, 101, 104, 
113-117, 121-123, 127, 128, 
132, 133, 143-145, 148-150, 
158, 159, 163, 164, 236, 239, 
242, 246, 247, 261, 264, 266, 
267, 310, 311, 337, 342, 353, 

Appomattox, Va., 410. 



Appreciations, 24, 31, 116, 130, 168, 
172, 200, 207, 219, 234, 280, 
283, 294, 299-302, 306, 319, 
321, 326, 342, 344, 347, 350, 

353. 357. 3 6 °. 3 62 . 3 6 3. 376- 
380, 382-384, 394-401, 409- 
415, 417-432. 

Approval, 23, 43, 65, 144, 318. 

Apricots, 9. 

Aptness, 271, 306, 309, 321, 342, 

349. 35°. 424- 
Aquackanonck, 118. 
Arabia, 30, 42, 387. 
Arabian Sea, 260, 267. 
Arabic, 179, 180, 367, 370. 
Arbitration, 307. 
Arbogast, Benjamin, 61, 63, 65. 
Archaeology, 228, 229. 
Archimandrite Polycarp, 256. 
Architects, 126, 201, 308, 326. 
Architecture, Lamps of, 125. 
Ardent (see Earnest). 
Arfvedson, 361. 
Argument, 38, 39, 82, 122, 273, 315, 

. 35o, 417. 
Anans, 106. 

Arise, Young Man, 100, 102. 
Aristocratic, 37, 38, 70, 215. 
Arithmetic, 17, 28, 379. 
Arizona Mission, 345. 
Arkansas Conference, 246. 
Arlington Hotel, Washington, 304. 

House, Ocean Grove, 233. 

■ ; Minn., 342. 

Armies, 1, 6, 30, 71, 101, 181, 207, 

2 55. 423. 427- 
Arminians, 155, 200, 326. 
Arminius, James, 326. 
Armory, the, Dresden, 80. 
Arms, 8, 17, 87, 88, 108, 247, 269, 

395. 425- 
Arno, the, 86. 
Arnold, Thomas, 137. 
Arona, 89. 
Arrests, 261, 262. 
Arrivabenus, George, 367. 
Arrogance, 235, 396, 426. 
Arrows, 15, 16, 92, 126, 321. 
Art, 16, 30, 31, 35, 54, 73, 80, 85, 

86, 89, 124, 174, 215, 277, 297, 

3°8, 334, 358, 363. 367, 375- 
Arth, 92, 217. 
Arthur, William, 312. 
Articles (see Press, writing for the). 
Articulation, 105, 106, in, 290, 

403, 404- 
Artists, 85, 86, 80, 182, 207, 308, 


Arts, 48, 59, 107, 297, 308, 358, 385, 

418, 422. 
Aryans, 271. 
Asbury, Francis, n. 

Church, Terre Haute, 397. 

Ascension, the, 117, 381. 
Asceticism, 83. 

Ashland Collegiate Institute, 55. 
,N. Y., 52-62, 66, 297, 385, 

. 389- 

Asia, 16, 30, 33, 42, 43, 149, 177- 

181, 201, 25!, 255, 257-260, 

263-269, 271, 322-325, 379, 

385. 387. 388, 392, 395, 415, 


Minor, 255-257, 263. 

Aside Views and Touches, 358-401. 

Assembly, New York State, 296. 

Asses, 84, 211, 243, 257. 

Assiut, 178. 

Associate editor, 326. 

Association, books of, 366, 369-371. 

Assumption, 57, 249, 309. 

Asthma, 6, 12, 20, 21, 28, 375. 

Astor Library, 115. 

Astronomy, 297. 

Athenaeum, the, Boston, 143. 

Athens, 43, 181, 261, 320, 386. 

Atkinson, George W., 426. 

Atlantic, the, 8, 9, 27, 40, 68-73, 
151, 161, 162, 167, 194, 215, 
218, 252, 262, 303, 304, 355, 
357. 3 6 2, 39 1 . 402, 406. 

Attacks, 6, 20, 86, 155, 183, 189, 
212, 249, 299, 303, 331, 357, 
403, 404, 412. 

Attainments, 267, 347, 396, 422. 

Attention, 14, 22, 49, 79, 88, 97, 
103, 146, 153, 202, 224, 236, 
273. 275, 276, 311, 419. 

Attractiveness, 30, 56, 86, 146, 159, 
214, 296-298, 359, 369, 396. 

Auburn, N. Y., 386. 

Auctioneer, 370, 371. 

Auctions, book, 358-361, 368-374. 

Audiences, 14, 24, 30, 54, 56, 62, 
109, no, 115, 206, 221, 231, 
232, 236, 247, 280, 290, 292, 
3°6, 351, 382. 

Augsburg, 175, 367. 

Augusta, Ga., 294. 

Augustine's Confessions, 104. 

Auld Lang Syne, 30. 

Aureole, his, 430. 

Aurora, Guido's, 89. 

Leigh, 109. 

Austin Conference, 273, 274, 308. 

Austria, 81, 83, 84, 162, 171, 177, 



254, 280, 320, -30, 355, 375, 

385, 403. 405. 423- 
Austrians, 256. 
Author (see Writing). 
Authors Club, 339. 
Autobiographic, vi, 358. 
Autocrat, the, 393, 398, 428. 
Autographs, 179, 309, 327, 341, 348, 

363, 368-372, 374. 
Autumn, 153, 163, 183, 193, 194, 

235, 244, 247, 262, 263, 294, 

297. 3°3. 305. 3 2 3< 337-340, 

342, 345. 349. 35i. 354. 379. 

3 8 5. 392, 393. 397- 

Bubbles, 385. 

Average, his, 245. 

Avon, the, 57, 93, 218, 263. 

Awake, Awake, Arm of the Lord, 

98, 102. 

, Thou that Sleepest, 114. 

Awkwardness, 277 
Ax, 167. 
Ayes and Nays, 162. 
Ayr, Scotland, 215. 
Ayres, James, 127. 

, Samuel G., 330. 

Aztecs, 276, 277. 

Baalbec, 260. 

Babies, 13, 69, 86, 127, 145, 180. 

Babylon, 33, 43, 207. 

Baccalaureates, 48, 305. 

Bacchus, 46. 

Bachelor of Arts, 48. 

Backsheesh, 180. 

Backsliders, 32. 

Bad Pfaffers, 166, 174. 

Baden Baden, 174. 

Baggage, 21, 72, 85, 88, 176, 178, 

258, 260, 341, 379, 384. 
Bagnell, Robert, 426. 
Bailey, Gardner, 19. 
— , Lydia A., 150, 157. 
Nathan J., 150. 

, Thomas C, 49. 

Baillie, Joanna, 24. 
Baker, Frank, 346. 

, Osmon C, 36. 

City, Ore., 244. 

Balbus de Janua, 364, 370. 
Baldwin, Charles W., 291, 315, 409. 

, Stephen L., no, 160. 

Balkan mountains, 254, 255. 

Ball, 16, 17, 35, 36. 

Ballots, 99, 162, 165, 231, 236, 397. 

Balm, 42, 280. 

Baltimore, Lord, 10. 

Conference, 99, 168, 195, 199, 

200, 280-282, 301, 396, 398, 
400, 426. 

Baltimore, Md., 3, 4, 17, 35, 37, 44, 
47. 52, 54, 60, 64, 65, 68, 94, 
103, 150, 168, 205, 206, 230, 
248, 280-282, 299, 301, 304, 
305, 312, 343, 344, 355, 373, 
378, 380, 398, 400, 408, 409, 
414, 416, 417. 

Preachers' Meeting, 417. 

Bampton Lectures, 368. 

Bancroft, George, 368. 

, Jane, 295. 

Bangor Theological Seminary, 327. 

Banias, 179, 180. 

Bank of England, 215. 

Bankruptcy, 208, 209, 230, 234, 
320, 411, 418. 

Banks, 204, 205, 215, 254. 

, Louis A., 273. 

, W. P., 338, 382. 

Bannister, Henry, 228. 

Banquets, 80, 206, 250. 

Banquette, 85, 87. 

Baptisms, 105, 127, 277. 

Baptists, 272, 315, 346. 

Baraboo, Wis., 247, 349. 

Bareilly, 252, 259. 

Bargains, 19, 61, 85, 314, 360. 

Barley, 9, 76. 

Barlow, Edward F., 202. 

Barmen, 223. 

Barnes, Albert, 124, 125. 

Barns, 55, 399. 

Barnum, Phineas T., 368. 

Barrett, Frank N., 150, 151. 

Bartlett, William A., 77, 78, 80, 81, 
89, 123, 157, 316. 

Bartolommeo di Libri, 367. 

Basel, 165, 174, 191, 217, 218, 220— 
222, 227, 287, 367, 388. 

Bashford, James W., 283, 294, 295, 
300, 317, 427. 

Baskets, 216, 255, 337. 

Bastilles, 107. 

Bates, L. B., 416. 

Baths, 70, 72, 92, 139, 140, 166, 
169, 170, 174, 175. i77. x 79» 

213, 221. 

Bats, 208. 

Battlefields, 2, 72, 135, 412. 

Baumann's Cave, 76. 

Bautain on Extempore Speaking, 

Bavarian Mountains, 171. 

Bay Psalm Book, 375. 

Bayard Street Church, New Bruns- 
wick, N. J., 133. 



Bayonets, 412. 

Beacon, 123, 317. 

Beans, 106, 379. 

Beard, 232. 

Bears, 346. 

Beatitudes, 345. 

Beauty, 6, 12, 13, 26, 31, 40, 43, 

53. 59- 7i. 7 2 > 75. 76, 87, 88, 
90, 116, 125-127, 140-142, 145, 
154, 157. ^3, 166, 171, 175, 
181, 185, 194, 203, 207, 208, 

210, 212, 214, 216, 217, 240, 
247. 2 53. 255. 2 58, 270, 273, 
275. 2 7 6 - 28 3, 289, 293, 294, 
296-301, 306, 308, 313, 318, 
319, 321, 322, 334, 342, 344, 
345. 35°. 352, 35 6 - 357. 3 62 - 

3 6 3. 3 6 7. 37°. 379. 39°. 397- 
400, 411, 419, 425, 427, 431, 

43 2 - 
Beck, Samuel, 293. 

, 180. 

Beds, 6, 10, 58, 70, 71, 76, 78, 85, 
88, 112, 127, 140, 144, 184, 
216, 220, 225, 238, 257, 258, 
260, 298, 390, 403, 404, 410. 

Beecher, Henry Ward, 119, 358. 

Beefsteak, 78. 

Beer, 70, 130. 

Beers, Henry A., 326. 

Bees, 362, 390. 

Beetles, 139. 

Begging, 76, 85, 86, 115, 138, 180, 

211, 236. 

Beggs, F. S., 240. 

Beginnings, vi, vii, 10, 13, 24, 33, 
36, 38, 41, 42, 47, 52, 59, 74, 
94, 101, 105, 119, 129, 132, 134, 

J 5 2 . 153. i55. J 56, 162-164, 
168, 171, 190, 193, 200, 228, 
2 37. 252, 264, 295, 298, 306, 
312, 316, 321, 323, 329, 334, 
387. 393. 394. 4i4, 419. 422, 

Beiler, Samuel L., 320, 321. 

Beirut, 180, 260. 

Belfast, Ireland, 215. 

, Me., 77. 

Belgium, 177, 366. 

Belles-Lettres, 29, 53, 54, 366, 367. 

Belleville, Kan., 336. 

Bellevue, Washington, D. C, 313. 

Bellows, Henry W., 119. 

Bells, 33, 57, 78, 113, 139, 277. 

Belt, equatorial, 413. 

Belt, Lerov A., 293, 426. 

Belts, 178^ 276. 

Ben Hassan, 178. 

Benches, 95, 119, 216. 
Benedict, Read, 146, 151. 
Benediction, 88, 137, 159, 181, 235, 

310, 317, 416, 425. 
Benefits (see Gains). 
Benevolence, 109, no, 114, 116, 

132, 170, 199, 203, 208, 295, 

Bennett, Charles W., 194, 228, 229. 

, "Father," 99. 

Benson, Perry, 6. 

Bent of mind, 15, 21, 270, 423, 427. 

Benton, Stephen O., 291. 

Bequests, 2, 3, 5, 415. 

BeVanger, 100, 105, 107, 388. 

Berea, O., 243. 

Bereavements, 6, 7, 12, 13, 147, 

183-187, 418, 421, 429. 
Bergen, Norway, 251-253. 
Berlin, 60, 80/168, 177, 184, 216, 

217, 252, 253, 262, 320, 429. 
Bernina Hospice, House, and Pass, 

Bernes, 8, 9, 253. 
Berry, John S., 23. 

, Joseph F., 397. 

Berryville, Va., 280. 

Bethany, 316. 

Bethel, Pa., 102. 

Bethesda, Md., 1, 404, 408, 431. 

Bethlehem, 106, 316, 391, 392. 

Bethune's edition of Walton's 

Angler, 286. 
Between the Logs, 293. 
Bewildered, 58, 195. 
Bible, 38, 54, 126, 180, 216, 222, 

253. 2 9 8 > 35°, 351. 381-383. 
385, 408, 414. _ 

History, Outline of, 224, 226. 

Lands, 327. 

Society, American, 127, 138. 

study, 29, ^^, 36, 70, 124, 

125, 132, 134, 175, 224, 228. 
Bibles, 307, 341, 366, 367, 369, 370, 

374. 3 8 4- 
Biblical and Christian Archaeology, 

228, 229. 

and Theological Library, 228, 

229, 286, 423. 

criticism, 192. 

Hermeneutics, 228. 

Bibliographers, 328, 329, 360, 361, 

364, 3 66 - 
Bibliography, 243, 285, 286, 325, 

3 2 7- 33°, 33 1 - 359. 3 6 °. 366, 

369, 423. 
Bibliomania, 364. 
Bibliophile, the, 358-365. 



Bibliotheca Theologica, 243, 285, 

286, 327. 
Bicycles, 340, 344. 
Bidding, 360, 361, 369-372. 
Bier, 431. 

Big Dipper, the, 412. 
Bilious fever, 42, 144. 
Bill of fare, 70, 74, 75, 78, 131, 140, 

141, 167, 179, 180. 
Billups, "Farmer," 15. 
Bindings, 109, 365, 367, 371. 
Bingen, 91, 164. 
Binghamton, N. Y., 77. 
Biography, v, vi, 17, 50, 105, 125, 

126, 129, 174, 197, 218, 227, 

3 2 6, 333-335. 365. 3 66 - 37°. 

371, 388, 431. 
Bird traps, 17. 
Birds, 9, 10, 14, 17, 91, 113, 201, 

214, 255, 412. 
Birmingham, England, 93. 
Birthdays, 45, 46, 108, 167. 
Births, 1, 3, s, 12, 13, 45, 103, 108, 

127, 130, 156, 167, 173, 174, 
207, 214, 241, 248, 281, 296, 
320, 321, 341, 354, 381, 392, 

420, 422, 431. 

Bishop, 14, 36, 50, 116, 144, 146, 
173, 198-200, 210, 211, 231- 
285, 290-295, 303-311, 314, 

3i5. 336-357. 363. 382, 397- 
401, 406, 408, 411, 414, 415, 
417, 418, 421, 423, 424, 426- 

Bishops, 6, 11, 23, 27, 33-35, 36, 
47, 94, 98, 100, 105, no, 116, 
120, 122, 130, 150, 154, 157, 
160, 165, 167, 168, 173, 181, 
193, 194, 198-201, 206, 208, 
209, 211, 215, 216, 226, 228- 
233,242, 244, 246,247,250, 251, 
2 59. 263-267, 270, 271, 273, 
274, 282-284, 290, 294, 296, 
3°°- 3°3, 3 12 , 3 r 4, 3*5. 3 X 7~ 
319. 323. 324, 33 2 - 336, 337- 
340, 341, 343, 344, 346, 348- 
353- 363. 379. 380, 386, 395, 
397-400, 402, 403, 405-416, 

421, 427, 428, 43°. 43 1 - 
Bishops-elect, 231, 232, 290, 340. 
Bishops' meetings, 211, 272, 303, 

304, 309, 317, 337, 343. 349. 
353. 379. 380, 397, 406, 407, 
Black art, the, 274. 

Forest, the, 82. 

Hills Mission, 247. 

Tom, 17, 105, 382. 

Blackberries, 9. 

Blacksmiths, 84, 115. 

Blacksnake, 140. 

Blackstone, William, 49. 

Blair, Mrs. Henry W., 295. 

Blair's Rhetoric, 123. 

Blakeslee, William E., 160. 

Blandness, 200. 

Blank verse, 391. 

Blanks, 60, 136, 229. 

Blarney Castle, 215. 

Bleaching factory, 122. 

Blessings, great,' 4, 135, 143, 238, 

Bletsch, Jacob, 237. 
Blind, 38, 144. 
"Blinds," 14. 
Bliss, Daniel, 260, 261. 
Blithedale Romance, The, 44, 375. 
Blodgett, C. W., 249. 
Blond, 20, 49, 232. 
Blood, 173, 207, 265, 321, 331, 359, 

383. 417- 
Bloodhound, 413. 
Bloomfield, N. J., 121. 
Bloomington, Ind., 338. 
Blows, 134, 183, 184, 270, 357. 
Blue Grotto, the, 89. 

Ridge, the, 28, 40, 313, 376. 

Ridge Conference, 337. 

Bluefish, 9. 

Blues, the, 32, 42, 119. 

Blunders, 83, 104, 137, 209. 

Blunt, 103. 

Board of Education, 274, 399. 

Boarding, 14, 21, 23, 25, 35, 41, 53, 

55, 73. 78, 79. 202. 
Boardman, George D., 315, 316. 
Boat, walking on, 376. 
Boats, 9, 63, 64, 68-72, 81, 83, 84, 

89, 91-93, 118, 

150, 151, 161, 
194, 208, 

25o- 2 53. 
359. 376, 389. 


I3 1 . I 45. 
170, 176, 

214, 215, 
328, 351, 



43 *■ 

Body, 34, 36, 103, 104, 159, 167, 
185, 199, 280, 320, 404, 406, 
412, 424. 

Boehm, Henry, 200. 

Boiling Spring, N. J., 118, 119. 

Springs, Pa., 98, 102. 

Boladore, 175. 

Bollandist, a, 224. 

Bologna, 85, 86, 252. 

Bomb, a, 181, 182, 388. 

Bombardment of Strassburg, 3S5. 



Bombay, 257, 258, 260, 263. 

Bonaparte, 35, 80, 85, 105, 423. 

Bonbons, 127, 167. 

Bonds, 203, 204, 206. 

Bonhomie, 195, 424. 

Bonn, 164. 

Bonnar Cashi, 256. 

"Bonnie Brook," 5, 60, 103, 112, 

138, 248. 
Book buyers, 358, 360-375. 
notices and reviews, no, 112, 

114, 163, 386-388. 
Book-borrowers, 41, 59, 125. 
Book-hunter, 18, 327, 358-365, 423. 
Book-lover and antiquarian, 18, 

358-365, 423, 430, 432. 
Books, vi, 14, 17, 20, 21, 24, 29, 

33-36, 41, 42, 44, 47-49. 59. 


79, 8i 

[ . 93- 



































3° 2 . 

















428, 430, 432. 

Booksellers, 322, 359-364. 
Bookshelves, 41, 363-365, 375. 
Bookstores, no, 132, 175, 215-217, 

223, 238, 275, 327, 359-363, 

387, 412, 423, 426. 
Boole, W. H., 307. 
Bootblack, the, 81. 
Booth, J. F., 131. 
Boots, 195. 
Boppard, 91. 
Bormio, 175. 
Borneo, 265. 
Borrowing, 41 
Boston, Mass. 

148, 154, 

171, 229, 

316, 326, 


409, 413, 



















I 36, 



. 416, 
-, rf. Y., 271. 

Public Library, 372-374. 

Recorder, 154. 

■ — — Review, 155. 

School of Theology, 148, 163, 

228, 229, 273, 289, 320, 330, 
362, 363, 395, 401, 429. 

— University, 345. 

Boswell, James, 365. 

Botany, 297. 

Bothnia, Steamer, 215. 

Bottigen, 224. 

Bourbons, 30. 

Bowdle, William J., 23, 28. 

Bowman, Thomas, 251, 340, 407, 

Bows and arrows, 15, 16, 92, 126. 
Boyhood, 5, 7, n-20, 247, 281, 340, 

375, 379, 389, 39°- 
Boys, 7, 14-20, 22, 23, 27, 43, 54, 

73. 75, 82, 99, 118, 136, 139, 
243, 255, 265, 271, 379, 380, 

39°, 395, 407, 423- 
Bozeman, Mont., 244. 
Bracebridge Hall, 24, 371. 
Bradford, William, 369. 
Bradshaw's Hotel, Cambridge, 11. 
Brain, 108, 154, 164, 312, 320, 321, 

424, 429. 
Brains, 425. 

Braisted, "Father," 145. 
Brass, 16, 107. 
Brave (see Courage). 
Bray, Thomas, 322. 
Brazil, Ind., 25, 292, 293, 399. 
Bread, 75, 79, 81, 141, 167, 180, 

203, 220, 254. 
Break, the, 355, 357, 429. 
Breakfast, 56, 70, 74, 75, 84, 92, 

125, 132, 134, 136, 138, 140- 

142, 170, 215, 236, 248, 256, 

258. 299, 378, 424. 
" Breaking in," 96. 
Breast, 23, 38, 67, 185, 269, 380, 

391, 410, 412. 
Breath, 20, 21, 104, 236, 299, 365, 

404, 405. 
Breda, 215. 
Bremen, 64, 73, 144, 145, 148, 149, 

161-171, 175, 188, 190, 194, 

215- „ 
Breviary, Roman, 371. 

Bricks, n, 181. 

Bridal Greeting, A, 333. 

Bridges, 87, 359. 

Bridgeton, N. J., 272. 

Bridles, 17, 278. 

Brienz, Lake, 92. 

Brigden, Thomas E., 333. 

Brighton, England, 72. 

Brilliance, 53, 250, 306, 347, 370, 

412, 413, 426. 
Brindle, James A., 25, 26, 28, 29, 

241, 242. 
Bristol, Frank M., 402, 408. 
British Methodism, 334, 335. 

Museum, 303, 364. 

Quarterly Review, 156. 

Broad-minded, 24, 50, 164, 209, 



212, 224, 227, 237, 252, 286, 

307. 33 1 - 356, 384. 395- 4oi, 
419, 424-427. 
Broadway Tabernacle, New York, 

3 26 - 35i- 
Brocken, the, 74-76. 
Brockhaus's, 217, 385. 
Brogue, 95. 

Broken Bow, Neb., 279. 
Bromfield Street Church, Boston, 

Brook, the, 390. 
Brooke, Robert, 372, 373. 
Brooklyn, N. Y., 123, 131, 169, 170, 

212, 248, 279, 280, 358, 373, 


Public Library, 373. 

Brooks, C. A., 309. 

, W. H., 344. 

Broome County, N. Y., 142. 
Brotherhood, 280, 281, 393. 
Brothers, 158-160, 173, 195, 196, 

237, 240, 252, 258, 259, 279, 
280-282, 294, 307, 311, 317, 
343, 346, 400, 405, 406, 417. 
418, 425, 426, 430. 

, Franciscan, 363. 

Brown, Henry B., 408. 

, Henry N., 339. 

, Professor, 1 09-11 1. 

Browne, Aldis B., 1, 404, 408. 

Browning, Elizabeth Barrett, 109, 

, Robert, 368. 

Brunet, C. J., 364. 

Brunswick, 69, 73, 74, 7 6 . 79. 35 8 . 

359. 39i- 
Brushes, 70, 176, 297. 

Brute, a, 243. 

Brutus, 109, 113. 

Bryan, James, 26. 

, J. R., 127. 

Bryant, William Cullen, 92. 

Buchanan, James, 368. 

Bucharest, 254. 

Buckley, James M., 206, 212-214, 
241, 251, 252-254, 271, 274, 
280, 290, 299, 300, 341, 376, 
386, 400, 403, 416, 420, 421. 

Buffalo Christian Advocate, 386. 

District Conference, 269. 

, N. Y., vii, 251, 255, 268-274, 

279-285, 291, 294, 297, 299, 
322, 328, 329, 340, 353, 354, 
386, 418. 

Preachers' Meeting, 418. 

Buffaloes, 253. 
Bukowski's Local, 361. 

Bulgaria, 252, 254, 255, 262, 376, 

Mission, 252, 254, 255, 397. 

Bully, a, 20. 

Bunyan, John, 35. 

Buoy, Charles W., 343. 

Buoyancy, 270. 

Burdens, 26, 83, 100, 136, 139, 184, 
206, 211, 247, 271, 295, 303, 
309, 312-314, 320, 321, 332, 
359, 380, 407, 410, 411, 428. 

Burdett-Coutts, Baroness, 357. 

Bureau of Ethnology, 361. 

Burlingame, Mrs. Anson, 172. 

Burlington, la., 240, 351. 

Burma, 264. 

Burns, Francis, no. 

Burroughs, John, 55. 

Burt, William, 226. 

Business, 10, 21, 35, 48, 52, 60, 61, 
114. 133. !35. i3 6 . J 39» 148, 
153. l6 3- l6 5. *9 8 . 2 °5. 2 37. 
239, 245, 257, 275, 277, 291, 

2 9°- 3°5. 3 X 4. 3 r 5. 35 2 . 3 6 °. 

3 6l > 379. 394, 39 6 . 39 8 . 4i4. 

Busts, 86, 425. 
Butler, John G., 401. 
Butler, Samuel, 24. 
Butler, William, 149, 271. 
Butter, 74, 78, 220. 
Buttz, Henry A., 93, 131, 157, 160, 

171, 195, 205, 206, 211, 213, 

219, 299, 301, 384, 398, 409, 

416, 419. 
Buzz-saw, 248. 
Byron, Lord, 24, 85, 92, 106, no, 

257, 366. 
By-products, 410-412, 432. 

Cabin, second, 69, 70. 
Cabinet, 236, 237, 239, 242, 245, 
261, 292, 309, 338, 342, 343, 

397, 421, 43°- 
Cabinets, Dresden, 80. 
Cablegrams, 303, 405. 
Cadman, S. Parkes, 426. 
Caesar, Julius, 28, 74, 113. 
Caesarea Philippi, 180. 
Caesars, Palace of the, 89. 
Cairo, 178, 257, 263. 
Cake, 79, 127, 138, 324. 
Calcutta, 260, 265. 
Calendar, 7, 60, 431. 
California, 96, 244, 245, 280, 345, 

346, 360, 363, 378, 403, 416, 426. 
California Conference, 244, 245, 

345. 346. 



California German Conference, 345. 

Caliphs, tombs of the, 178. 

Call (see Vocation). 

Call to Germany, 148-151. 

Callanan College, 250. 

Calmness, 11, 26, 57, 71, 116, 133, 
i54, 161, 203, 227, 231, 239, 
294, 349, 398, 405, 407, 427. 

Calvary Baptist Church, Washing- 
ton, 346. 

Calvert, Consul, 256. 

Calverts, the, 10. 

Calves, 22, 87. 

Calvin, John, 320. 

Calvinism, 157, 200. 

Cambridge Academy, 19-26, 241, 


Circuit, 26. 

Democrat, 39. 

, England, 218, 321. 

, Md., 2, 5, 10, 11, 14-16, 26, 

52, 62, 64, 67, 94-96, 101, 105, 
135. 236, 241, 248, 268, 269, 

272, 375- 

, Mass., 143, 342, 345, 373. 

Cameron, Mo., 238, 239, 348. 
Camp meetings, 6, 27, 41, 201, 247. 
Campbell, Duncan, 125. 
Campbell, William, 19, 22, 24. 
Campus, vii, 194, 195, 424. 
Canada, 309, 327, 328, 331, 351, 

372, 4i4- 
Canals, 84. 
Candidates, 28, 52, 127, 144, 148, 

149, 164, 199, 202, 214, 230, 

231, 410, 420. 
Candor, 67, 155. 
Candy, 255. 

Cannon-ball rolling, 50, 51. 
Canon, vi. 
Cantaloupes, 9. 
Canton, 111., 342, 343. 
Canvasbacks, 10. 
Canvass, 205, 215, 230, 295, 315. 
Capabilities, 22, 24, 25, 46, 56, 71, 

82, 105, 109, no, 113, 123, 169, 

198, 300, 410. 
Cape Charles, 8. 
Capitols, 31, 81, 88, 214, 248, 321, 

350, 402, 428. 
Capri, S9. 

Captains, 21, 71, 72, 214, 258, 328. 
Captivity of Pote, 327, 328, 372. 
Capua, 109, 194. 
Carbondale, Pa., 241. 
Cards, 64, 70, 379, 384. 
Cardus, Thomas, 283. 
Carefulness, vi, 158, 244, 276, 279, 

304, 311, 323, 331, 332, 376. 
381, 398, 409, 418, 429. 
Cares, 13, 67, 170, 172, 199, 210, 
270, 285, 295, 303, 305, 306, 

34o, 354, 359. 3 8 9, 39°> 39 6 - 

411, 421. 
Carey, John, 369. 
Carlisle Circuit, 94, 96-102, 103, 

Carlisle, Pa., 24, 27-51, 62-65, 73. 

96, 99, 225, 325, 375, 379, 380, 

Carlson, B. A., 414, 431. 
Carlton, Thomas, 132, 150. 
Carlyle, Thomas, 108, 243, 298, 333, 

'368, 371. 
Carman, Albert, 309. 
Carmel, N. Y., 163, 169. 
Carnegie Hall, New York, 351. 

Library, Pittsburg, 373. 

Caroline County, Md., 8, 52, 53. 

Carpenters, 118, 257, 258. 

Carpenter's Point, N. Y., 141. 

Carpets, 45, 115, 161, 207, 208, 276. 

Carroll, David H., 408, 414. 

Carrollton, the, Baltimore, 206. 

Cars (see Railroads). 

Carson City, Nev., 345. 

Carthage, 43. 

Carthage, Mo., 238, 378. 

Cartridges, 276. 

Cash book, Washington's, 369, 373. 

Cassel, 70. 

Cassius, ioq. 

Castles, 72, 74-76, 90, 91, 93, 116, 

174, 175. 215. 216, 218, 263, 

39 1 - 
Caswell, E. W , 201. 
Catacombs, 331. 
Catalogues, 23, 28, 359, 360, 366, 

368, 369. 
Catbirds, 17. 
Catechism, 362. 
Cathedrals, 164, 174. 
Catholicity, 227, 301, 356, 396, 422, 

Catholicon, 364, 370. 
Cato Majors, 366. 
Cats, 95, 138, 255. 
Catskill, N. Y., 53, 56, 62. 
Catskills, the, 53-62, 141, 295, 389. 
Cattlemen, 310. 
Caution, 60, 71, 101, 153, 169, 195, 

238, 275, 350. 
Caves, 31, 55, 76, 89, 106, 107, 174. 

178, 214. 
Cavithey Willis's Creek, 2. 
Cawnpore, 259. 



Caxton, William, 367, 370. 

Cecil County. Md., 8. 

Cedar Rapids, la., 351. 

"Cedarcroft," 1, 404, 408. 

Cedars, 8, 17, 426. 

Celery, 130. 

Cemeteries, 2, 85, 88, 97, 178, 181, 
185, 187, 206, 216, 248, 262, 
270, 278, 291, 293, 294, 299, 

Cennick, John, 20. 

Censor, 29. 

Centenary Church, Des Moines, 240. 

Centenary of 1866, 147, 170. 

Centennials, 147, 170, 226, 267, 352. 

Center, Washington a, 317, 319. 

Centerville, la., 235-237. 

Central Alabama Conference, 314, 

339-. . 
Christian Advocate, 320, 386, 


Church, Newark, 233. 

Conference, India, 259. 

German Church, Minneapolis, 

German Conference, 292, 342, 

398, 427- 
Illinois Conference, 237, 342, 

343. 425- 

Missouri Conference, 348. 

New York Conference, 204, 

279, 426. 
Ohio Conference, 292-294, 

Pennsylvania Conference, 241, 


Provinces, India, 259. 

Swedish Conference, 339. 

Tennessee Conference, 247, 

338. 382. . 
Century Association, the, 339. 
Ceremonies, 80, 88, 235, 339, 340. 
Certificate of church membership, 

28, 41, 105. 
Cestius, 88. 
Ceylon, 306, 323. 
Chaff, 124, 362, 394. 
Chaffee, J. F., 43°- 
Chagrin, 10 1. 
Chained MSS., 366, 370. 
Chains, 59, 66, 121, 266, 270, 288, 

.37?. 393- 
Chair, in the (see Presiding). 

Chairs, 11, 168, 194, 199, 204, 205, 

220, 223, 248, 307, 325, 378. 

Chalk, 71, 72. 

Challenge, 394. 

Challis, De Witt C, 376, 397, 425. 

Chamberlain, N. A., 310. 

"Chamfort," 38, 39. 

Chamouny, 92, 118. 

Champagne Charley, 257. 

Champion, 51, 397, 410. 

Chancellors, vii, 173, 318, 319, 397, 
414, 421. 

Changes, 4, 5, 23, 26, 28, 30-33, 
35. 55. 6o > 61, 64-68, 131-133, 
154, 170, 202, 210, 217, 228, 

231, 239, 242, 245, 247, 248, 
286, 292, 300, 311, 320, 324, 
329. 346, 354, 356, 39 2 . 409, 

Chants, 84, 306, 363. 

Chapel, a memorial, 425. 

Chapels, 30, 46-48, 54-56. 63, 84, 
92, 168, 173, 174, 202, 204, 208, 
224, 263, 274, 278, 306-308, 

321. 353. 355-357. 362, 407, 

416, 425. 
Chapin, Edwin H., 119. 
Chapman, J. A. M., 213. 
Character, vii, 43, 50, 81, 82, 118, 

128, 158, 159, 200, 214, 227, 

232. 244, 301, 307, 343, 353, 
396, 413, 417-419, 423, 426, 

Characteristics, 56, 82, S5, 153, 196, 
226, 300, 343, 371, 376, 393, 
395, 419, 426-428, 430. 

Characters of Shakespeare, 370. 

Charge of the Light Brigade, 209. 

Chariot, 413. 

Charity, 6, 203, 208, 249, 333, 397, 
426, 428. 

Charles City (la.) College, 333, 351. 

Street, Baltimore, 37. 

the Great, 388. 

Charleston, S. C, 2, 280, 281. 

Charlottesville, N. Y., 62-64, 66-69, 
94, 96, 118, 143, 296, 297. 

, Va., 353. 

Charts, 391, 413. 

Chaste style, 337, 396. 

Chastened, 143. 

Chatham, N. J., 107. 

Chatillon, 92. 

Chattanooga, Tenn., 406. 

Chautauqua, N. Y., 397. _ 

Literary and Scientific Circle, 

288, 322. 

Chautauquan, The, 261, 385. 

Check, 108. 

book, 205. 

Checks, 184, 265, 287. 

Cheerful, 20, 30, 49, 229, 234, 254, 
266, 299, 338, 364, 379, 393. 



Cheers, 131, 172, 219, 423. 

Cheese, 179. 

Chemistry, 54. 

Chemnitz, 261, 262. 

Cheops, 257. 

Cherith, 316. 

Cherries, 9, 248, 253. 

Cherrystone oysters, 10. 

Chesapeake Bay, 8, 9, 248, 431. 

Chess, 70. 

Chest, 60, 103, 104, 107, 119. 

Chester, N. Y., 140. 

Chestertown, Md., 273. 

Chestnuts, 379. 

Chew, Henry B., 33. 

Chiavenna, 89. 

Chicago, 111., 225, 238, 331, 333, 

337. 339. 35L 386, 416. 

German Conference, 237, 349. 

Preachers' Meeting, 418. 

Theological Seminary, 287. 

Chickens, 179, 279. 

Chiefs, Indian, 293. 

Childe Harold, 92. 

Childhood, 385, 412. 

Children, v, 3, 5, 6, 12-14, 39, 69, 
70, 81, 120, 131, 134, i3 6 - *3 8 > 
139, 141, 142, 150, 157. l6 S. 
180, 187, 201, 258, 261, 270, 
277, 280, 293, 300, 303, 339, 

353. 354. 356, 358, 379. 3 8o > 

387, 408, 412, 414. 

of the Abbey, 71. 

Children's stories, 129, 131, 136, 

i44. 3 8 7- 
Childs, George W., 163. 
Chin, 236. 
China, 95, no, 160, 224, 266, 267, 

3 2 4- 
Chinese, 245, 264, 337. 
Chinking, 388. 
Chinquapins, 379. 
Chirography, 79, 160, 363. 
Chislehurst, 218. 
Chivalry, 282. 
Chocolate, 220. 
Choice of Moses, 107, 381. 
Choir books, 363, 370. 
Choirs, 32, 84, 106, 137, 252, 269, 

347. 348, 352, 408, 409. 
Cholera, 212. 
Choptank, the, 58. 
Christ (see Jesus Christ). 

, Our Thought of, 145. 

, The Immeasurable, 382. 

at the Grave of Lazarus, 142. 

at Jacob's Well, 142. 

the Liberator, 273. 

Christ the Object of Universal 
Search, 381. 

Christian Advocate, The, 89, 144, 
i54. i55. 162, 167, 168, 173, 
221, 239, 241, 266, 267, 280, 
285, 299, 300, 352, 386, 420. 

Apologists, 331. 

Army, the, 101. 

at Work, 226. 

atmosphere, 127. 

bishop, 424, 427. 

brotherhood, 280, 281. 

character, 13, 50. 

church (see Church). 

Conference, 279. 

consolation, 173, 186, 187, 

270, 421. 

courtesy, 418. 

Doctrine, 228, 229. 

duty, 113, 150. 

faith, 185, 229. 

fervor, 147. 

friend, 147. 

gentleman, 50, 146, 177, 40c, 


heart, 152. 

Herald, 423. 

Intelligencer, 155, 331. 

Leader, 290. 

life, 3, 12, 45, 97, 122, 299, 

3°°. 33 1 - 
literature, 419. 

love, 116. 

man, 401, 427. 

manhood, 295. 

Perfection, 116, 122. 

public, the, 154. 

scholar, 399, 401, 426. 

spirit, 300. 

statesman, 245. 

sympathy, 300, 425. 

Theism, 228, 229. 

Union, 220-222, 227, 395. 

unity, 222, 329. 

university, 318. 

usages, 331. 

womanhood, 295, 300, 301. 

Work and Evangelist, 423, 


worship, 278. 

Christiania, 176, 252, 253, 261. 
Christianity, 44, 108, 145, 224, 228, 

229, 280, 287, 288, 331, 345. 

Christians, 13, 25, 80, 113, 122, 145, 

172, 208, 241, 265, 294, 381, 

401, 418, 428. 
Christian's Possessions, The, 381. 



Christianus per Ignem, 374. 
Christmas, 23, 44, 80, 136, 259, 313. 

Chimes, 227. 

Chronicle, The London, 262. 
Chronicles, 190. 
Chrysostom, John, 113. 
Chubbs, the, 218. 

Chums, 28, 33, 37, 45, 176. 

Chur, 166, 174. 

Church, joining the, 3, 6, 29, 41, 

, the Christian, vii, 28, 32, 

93. 155. iS7. 169, 194, 195, 
207, 222, 226, 228, 229, 283, 
284, 288, 289, 293, 311, 321- 

3 2 3. 325. 329-333. 336, 345. 

386, 395, 409, 419. 422, 426, 


and the university, the, 345. 

Creek, Md., 28. 

Extension, 231, 336, 397 

History, 77, 108, 142, 

i93~ I 97. 2 °4, 
245, 260, 288, 

3 2 9-333. 338, 


164, 168, 
223, 226, 
322, 325, 
388, 422. 

History of the 18th and 

19th Centuries, 137, 188, 190- 

in Europe, the Modern, 191, 

288, 325. 

of England, the, 325. 

Unity, 222, 329. 

Churches, 5, 11, 14, 25, 26, 32, 33, 

38, 63, 64, 73, 80, 81, 83-86, 
88, 89, 92, 94, 95, 99, 100, 103, 
104, 106, 107, in, 115-123, 
129, 132, 133, 137, 

142, 145 
194, 206, 

233. 253. 


305. 3°7. 

344. 348, 
391, 395-398. 
Cicero, 24, 33, 36, 113, 366. 
Cigarettes, 180. 
Cigars, 46, 79. 

Cincinnati, O., 161, 227, 231, 297, 
326, 332, 383, 386, 406, 408. 

Conference, 202, 337. 

Circulation of books, 153, 190, 224, 

226, 227, 228, 323, 326. 
Cities, Ancient, 40, 43. 
City Road Chapel, 263, 274, 307, 

355-357. 362. 
Civic affairs, 40, 293, 296, 417, 419, 























3 l6 > 




Civil Service, 273. 

war, 11, 82, 128, 129, 135. 

Civility, 358. 

Civilization, 213, 271, 276, 288. 

Civita Vecchia, 89. 

Clarence's Dream, 56. 

Clark, Deacon, 213. 

Clarke, Adam, 104, no, 126. 

Clarks of Edinburgh, the, 137, 190, 

Clarkson, C. F., 250. 

Class, young people's, 129. 

book, Salem, 4. 

leaders, 4, 26, 396. 

meetings, 6, 29, 33, 41, 97, 

109, 139, 140, 142. 

room, vii, 195, 196, 394. 

Classics, 18, 24, 31, 78, 86, 87, 247, 
255-257, 273, 383, 400. 

Classmates, 28, 34-36, 3 8 , 41-43. 
47. 49. 5°. 61, 63, 65, 159, 160, 
171, 195, 234, 379, 380, 383, 
384, 416, 426. 

Clay, 8, 10, 392. 

, Henry, 37. 

"Clay's Hope," Md., 5. 

Clean, vi, 180, 426. 

Clearness, 40, 50, 94, 107, 108, 126, 
152, 154-157, 203, 282, 288, 
2 9°. 295, 312, 326, 331, 342, 
349. 35°. 354, 3(>3< 380, 406, 
407, 412, 417, 427, 431, 

Clemens, Samuel L., 371. 

Clergy, 153, 415. 

Cleveland, Grover, 258, 339, 368. 

, O., 308, 340. 

Clever, 75, 91, 103. 

Cliff walk, Newport, the, 376. 

Cliffs, 71, 72, 123, 214, 376. 

Climate (see Meteorology). 

Climax of book sale, 371. 

Climbers, 14, 37, 74-76, 89, 91, 92, 
116, 140, 142, 166, 174, 175, 
177, 212, 244, 257, 275, 287, 

Clinton Street Church, Newark, 

Clio, 365. 

Cloak, 87. 

Clocks, 216, 225, 274. 

Clouds, 6, 89, 183, 230, 321, 410, 

Clubs, 161, 179, 339. 
Clugny, 218. 
Coach and four, 239. 
Coachmen, 83-85, 215. 
Coal, 125, 208. 
Coats, 2, 86, 195, 232, 265, 378. 

44 8 


Cobb, George T., 205. 

Coblenz, 91, 92. 

Cochecton, N. Y., 141. 

Cocoanut shell, 95. 

Code, Civil, 260. 

Coffee, 74, 75. 78, 81, 88, 141, 179, 

180, 220. 
Coincidence, 421. 
Coins, 14, 358. 
Coit, Charles S. and John S., 140. 

, Joshua, 74, 77, 78, 82, 83, 86. 

, Olin B., 215, 218, 221, 300. 

Coke, Thomas, no, 306. 
Colaborers, vii, 221, 226, 227, 286, 

288, 300, 305, 325, 326-328, 

33°. 333. 334, 413. 423- 
Colclazer, Henry, 26. 

Cold, 9, 33, 34, 53. 57, 58, 80, 83-85, 
98, 100, 103, 112, 117, 134, 196, 
2 35. 2 39. 2 48, 260, 270, 319, 

Colden, N. Y., 271, 272. 

Coleridge, Samuel Taylor, 36, 118, 
333- 368, 371. 

Colfax, Schuyler, 241. 

Colgate's soap, 177. 

Coliseum, the, 89. 

Collateral, 205. 

Collars, standing, 41. 

Colleagues, 96, 98, 100, 149, 164, 
193, 195, 198, 204-206, 211, 
219, 234, 235, 301, 303, 304, 

3 J 4, S^^^. 337. 406-409, 

411, 416, 421. 
Collected works, 367. 
Collections, 85, 165, 319-321, 338, 

Collective tributes, 417-420. 
Collector, the, 358-365, 423, 428. 
College, 22-24, 27-51, 54, 59, 79, 

94, 124, 164, 289, 305, 317, 

325. 375- 379. 380, 385. 
Alumnus, Should a, attend 

a Theological Seminary? 199, 

Courant, 385. 

of Government, 402. 

of History, 340, 341. 

Colleges, 19, 78, 88, 156, 163, 201, 

202, 214, 227, 240, 243, 255, 
260, 261, 268, 273, 316, 325, 
339, 342, 345, 351, 373, 407, 

412, 416, 421, 424. 
Collins, Charles, 27, 53, 96. 
Cologne, 164, 367, 370. 
Colonial Laws, 366, 373. 

Period, 10, 322, 325, 366, 367, 


Colonization of the Slave, 290. 

Colony, Roman, 254. 

Colorado, 299, 309, 310, 316, 403. 

Conference, 309, 310. 

Colored man, the, 3, 5, 11, 17, 30, 

38, 82, no, 119, 134, 246, 290, 

„ , 2 93- 

Colston, Alice Orem, 5. 

, Ann Catherine, 1, 3, 5, 6, 12. 

, Anne Hopkins, 5. 

, Elizabeth Bayley, 5. 

, Henry, 5. 

, James, 5. 

, Morris O., 7. 

, Rebecca Catrup, 5. 

, Samuel, 5. 

Columbia, District of, 313, 315, 373. 

, S. C, 341. 

River Conference, 244. 

University, 372, 374. 

Columbus, 0., 214, 342. 

Coma, 299, 404, 405. 

Combative Force, The Gospel a, 
249. 287, 381. 

Comedy, 18. 

Comfort the Distressed, 38. 

Comforts, 38, 62, 183, 239, 270, 
295, 301, 405, 406, 408, 414. 

Commanding, 279, 377. 

Commandments, the, 298. 

Commencements, 37, 44, 47, 48, 
52, 145, 214, 243, 296. 

Commendations, 22, 24, 25, 29, 37, 
115, 168, 189, 190, 191, 223- 
227, 287, 288, 293, 298, 299, 
304, 309, 317, 323, 324, 326, 
328, 330, 332. 

Commentaries (see Exegesis). 

Commerce, 263, 264, 361, 428. 

Commercial spirit, 361. 

Committees, 130, 132, 133, 137, 
138, 158, 161, 165, 171, 210, 
219, 230, 231, 245, 248, 251, 
264, 273, 274, 279, 280, 305, 
308, 336, 343, 344, 352, 355, 

383. 384, 39 6 . 397, 399, 402, 
420, 428. 
Common Life, Brother of the, 282. 

Prayer, 366, 369, 374. 

sense, 201, 382. 

Commonplace book, 24, 36. 
Communicative, 125, 364, 426. 
Communion, Holy (see Lord's 

Como, Lake, 89. 
Compactness, 154, 409, 425. 
Companions, 17, 25, 26, 28, 29, 33, 

37, 39- 48-51, 74, 77-89. 98, 



145, 157, 161, 165, 166, 169, 

170, 177, 196, 212-215, 218, 

225, 244, 248, 249, 254-256, 

259, 270, 277, 278, 284, 293, 

295. 3°°- 3 QI . 3 I 3< 3 X 5. 334, 
3SL 355, 376, 377. 3 8 7. 3 8 8, 
395, 400, 402, 403, 413, 414, 
421, 423-429. 

Comparisons, 35, 95, 123, 154, 281, 
295, 324, 412, 413. 

Compends, 224, 226, 329. 

Complete Angler, 286. 

Completeness, 155, 327, 331. 

Complexion, 20, 221, 225. 

Composite, a, 430. 

Composition (see Writing). 

Concentration, 164, 202, 220, 419, 

Concise, 41, 52, 156, 2S8, 383, 417- 

Conclusions, 156, 251, 314, 381. 

Concordia, Kan., 238, 239. 

Conduct, 22, 24, 50, 12S, 337. 

Confederate imprints, 366, 367, 

Conference week, 104, 116, 127, 
133, 138, 143. 165. 

Conferences, Annual, 104, 116, 127, 
133, 138, 143. 165. 198, 199. 
206, 209, 210, 223, 235-249, 
251-254, 258-261, 264-269, 
272-276, 279-282, 291-294, 
304, 308-311, 336-346, 348, 

353- 374. 3 82 > 393. 394, 39 8 , 

406, 411, 428. 
, Patronizing, 198, 199, 206, 

209, 210, 223, 411. 
Confessions, 17, 60, 90, 104, 105, 

no, 125, 133, 138, 292, 358. 
Confidence, vii, 19, 50, 67, 68, 73, 

82, 94, 135, 155, 193, 198, 238, 

266, 296, 316, 321, 331, 347, 

380, 396, 398, 400, 411. 
Conflicts (see Struggles). 
Congenial, 9, 39, 188, 203, 420. 
Congratulations, 44, 145, 171, 206, 

214, 234, 249, 266, 288, 315, 

Congregationalist, The, 331, 386. 
Congregationalists, 171, 200, 227, 

33i, 386, 388, 426. 
Congregations, 97, 103, no, in, 

117, 118, 121-123, 128, 129, 

135, x 39, 146, 147, x 59. 181, 
182, 196, 215, 240, 242, 269, 
272, 277, 278, 294, 344, 382, 

39 1 . 414- 
Congress, 334, 343, 37 2 "374- 
Congressmen, 37, 241, 250, 273, 


Conies, 37. 

Conjugal love, 66, 300. 
Conkling, Roscoe, 410. 
Connecticut, 77, 288, 325, 362, 372- 

374. 3 8 5- 
Avenue, Washington, v, 354, 

Conner, James W., 19. 
Conquest, Spanish, 289. 
Conquest of Peru, 47. 
Conscience, 11, 156, 312, 381, 382, 

398, 428. 
Consecration, 26, 109, 119, 127, 135, 

142, 150, 202, 234, 249, 295, 

300, 321, 332, 342, 401, 407, 

408, 426. 
services, 231, 232, 251, 290, 

34°, 35 1 . 408. 
Conservatism, 134. 
Conservative, 191, 330. 
Considerateness, 158, 244, 266, 303, 

336, 354, 379, 396, 418. 
Consistency, 376. 
Consolations, Christian, 62, 99, 147, 

173, 186, 187, 270, 421. 
Constance, Lake, 89, 423. 
Constancy, 66, 67, 122, 234, 376, 

425, 429- 

Constantine, 87. 

Constantinople, 127, 181, 254, 255, 

Constellations, 412, 413. 
Consuls, 171, 178, 181, 185, 216, 

254, 256, 262, 263, 355, 359. 
Contacts, human, vii, 83, 93, 147, 

162, 168, 169, 195, 285, 301, 

Contempt, 17, 107, 155, 423. 
Continent of Europe, 83, 156, 162, 

192, 207, 303, 330. 
Continental army, 1, 2, 6. 

Hall, Paterson, 138. 

Contrasts, 69, 71, 200. 
Contributor, special, 387. 
Controversies, 122, 155, 222, 267, 


Convents, 218, 256. 

Conversations, v, vii, 6, 27, 29, 32, 
50, 63, 65-68, 73-75, 79, 82, 
95-97, 99, 105, 114, n6, 123, 
124, 131, 134, 139, 168, 175, 
182, 1S5, 187, 192, 195, 196, 
204, 241-243, 245-248, 257, 
258, 260, 263, 284, 292, 295, 
3° 2 . 3 J 4, 3 J 5> 337. 347. 348, 
35i, 353, 3 6 3> 364, 378-380, 
383. 387. 397, 398, 400, 403, 
415, 421, 424, 428, 43°- 



Conversion, 25, 26, 241, 381, 395. 

Conversions, 25, 26, 100, 105, 106, 
in, 114, 126, 132, 133, 135- 
137, 146, 147, 161, 241, 261, 

29 6 - 35 2 . 395. 414- 
Converts, 98, 105-107, 159, 199, 

293. 3 2 4- 
Convictions, v, 11, 64, 66, 67, 83, 

94, 99, 109, no, 139, 148, 149, 

152, 158, 161, 224, 236, 422. 

Conway, Robert H., 39, 41, 42. 

Cook, Emile, 221. 

.Joseph, 324. 

Cooking, 179, 208, 244. 

Cook's party, Palestine, 180. 

Coombe, Pennell, 37, 94. 

Coombes, George J., 286. 

Cooper, James Fenimore, 47, 371. 

Cooperstown, N. Y., 66, 385. 

Coover's, Carlisle Circuit, 97, 100. 

Copeland, Arthur, 246, 426. 

, Benjamin, 282, 283. 

, Royal S., 408. 

Copenhagen, 176, 252, 254, 261. 

Copperplates, 367, 372. 

Copts, 178. 

Coral beds, 306. 

Cordova, Mexico, 276. 

Cords, ecclesiastical, 431. 

Corey, George H., 299. 

Corinthians, 381, 409. 

Cork, Ireland, 215. 

Corn, Indian, 9. 

Cornbread, 141. 

Cornelius, J. W., 300. 

Cornell, John B., 206, 217. 

, John M., 344, 379. 

College, 240. 

University, 243, 373. 

Corner stones laid, 14, 171, 194, 

Corners, 54, 57, 80, 126, 359, 365, 

390, 404. 
Corning, N. Y., 340, 341. 
Cornwallis, Lord, 2. 
Correction, a, 267. 
Correctness, 125, 272, 273, 400, 412, 

Correspondence, vii, 23, 24, 89, 95, 

96, 103, 148-150, 162, 163, 191, 

204, 218, 274, 305, 355, 359- 

3 6l > 39 6 - 
Correspondents, 168, 185, 232, 236, 

262, 266, 273, 279, 290, 352, 

357, 386-388, 428. 
Cortazar, Mexico, 278. 
Cortelyou, George B., 348. 
Cortez, Hernando, 277. 

Corwin, W. S., 142. 
Cosmopolitan, 427, 428. 
Cossitt Library, Memphis, 373. 
Costello's, Carlisle Circuit, 100. 
Cottage, a Bremen, 148, 161, 167. 

City, Mass., 283. 

Cotton, John, 374. 
Coudersport, Pa., 383. 
Council, in, 332, 333, 396, 397, 399. 
Counselor, vii, 147, 159, 195, 202, 
234, 270, 282, 294, 295, 347, 

395. 39 6 . 427- 

Countenances, 7, 53, 54, 199, 200, 
203, 204, 221, 232, 356. 

Counter Reformation, the, 388. 

Couple, first married, 127. 

Courage, 12, 16, 20, 68, 119, 128, 

!47. r 79. J 99. 200, 202, 204, 

208, 210, 211, 236, 238, 250, 

254, 266, 267, 269, 282, 287, 

294, 306, 318-321, 352, 393, 

414, 417-419, 422, 423, 425, 
426, 428-432. 

Courier, University, 369-372, 424, 

„ 42 S: 
Courmajeur, 92. 

Course of Time, 24. 

Courtesy, vi, 26, 236, 240, 242, 266, 
277, 279, 282, 284, 343, 378, 
399. 401, 418, 425, 428. 

Courtney, Joseph, 382. 

Courts, 310. 

Cousins, 15, 40, 52, 224, 236. 

Coventry, 95. 

Coverdale, Myles, 367, 370. 

Covington, Ky., 342. 

Cowan, Robert E., 360. 

Cowardice, 427. 

Cowes, 72. 

Cowley, Abraham, 24. 

Cowper, William, 368, 371. 

Cows, 75, 139, 180. 

Coxe, J. C. W., 286, 426. 

Coxherd, Mr., 70. 

Crabbing, 9, 14, 15. 

Cradle, 71, 370, 431. 

Craig, Alexander, 160. 

Cramer, Frederick, 342. 

Cramp, Stephen T., 142. 

Cranach, Lucas, 367. 

Cranberries, 9. 

Crane, Jonathan T., 116, 144. 

Crantz, Martin, 369. 

Cravat, 232. 

Craver, Samuel P., 275, 426. 

Craw, Alanson A., 383. 

Creager, Charles E., 238. 

Creation, Conversion a, 381. 



Creator, 320. 

Crefeld, 215. 

Crimea, the, 357. 

Crippen, John T., 240. 

Crises, 21, 22, 58, 64, 203, 208, 234, 

236, 294, 304, 3 IQ . 3 2 °. 344. 

349- 354. 397. 4H, 418, 420. 
Crisis, a Stand, a Victory, a, 203- 

Critic, the, 106, 324, 331, 430. 
Criticised, 23, 35, 48, 105, 107, 108, 

114, 123-125, 134, 137, 143, 

J 99. 2 37. 2 49. 309. 3 2 7. 3 6o > 
361, 43i- 
Criticisms, 44, 47, 56, 71, 143, 189, 
190, 249, 327, 330, 333, 356, 

394, 425- 
Crooks, George R., 28, 119, 131, 
142, 210, 211, 228, 286, 287, 

34i. 342, 387- 
Cross, the, 26, 84, 88, 185, 265, 281, 

343, 379. 
Crowns, 13, 82, 112, 147, 193, 259, 

302, 308, 392, 419. 
Crypts, 365. 
Cuba, 340. 
Cucumbers, 130. 
Cuddebackville, N. Y., 140. 
Culture, 11, 22, 32, 39, 193, 247, 

255. 304, 342, 394, 395. 39 8 > 

400, 401, 426. 

of the Conscience, 381. 

Cumberland (Fort), Md., 2. 

Valley, 34-36, 40, ioi, 375. 

Curiosity, 35, 80, 87, 376. 

Currants, 9. 

Currency, 367. 

Current events, 240, 385. 

Curriculum, College, 41, 50. 

Curry, Daniel, 155, 232, 233, 386. 

Curtis, George William, 147. 

Custom house, 176. 

Customs, 32, 75, 82, 90, 199, 200, 

214, 254, 347- 
Cypress, 8, 88. 
Cyprus, 181. 

Dagmar, steamer, 176, 186. 
Daisy, N. C, 337. 
Dakota Conference, 349. 
Dale, Rev. Mr., 92. 
Dallas, Tex., 273, 361. 
Damascus, 180, 260. 
Danbury, Conn., 350, 362. 
Dance, the, 40. 

Dandridge, Bartholomew, 369. 
Danger, 4, 11, 14, 17, 40, 72, 73, 
84-8S, 179, 181, 1S2, 198, 211, 

244, 304, 339, 364, 388, 411, 

418, 431. 
d'Angleterre, Hotel, 216. 
Daniel, 24, 320. 
Danish, 254, 261, 291. 
Danube, the, 254. 
Danville, 111., 247. 
Dardanelles, the, 256, 263. 
Darkness, 122, 181, 204, 230, 321, 

39i, 4i3- 
Dashiell, Douglas, 25, 26. 

, John H., 299. 

David, 30, 178, 392, 414. 
Davidson, Wilbur L., 402, 408, 424. 
Davies, G. P., 171. 
Davies's Algebra, 28. 

Holland, 115. 

Davis, Jefferson, 368. 

tract, D. C, 314, 315. 

Day, Dr., Mechanicsburg, 96, 97. 

Dayton, O., 325. 

De Colonia. Arfvedson's, 361. 

Deaconesses, 295, 349. 

Deacon's orders, 127, 138, 160, 353, 

3 6 4- 
Dead Sea, 178, 316. 
Dean Richmond, 143. 
Dear (see Love). 
Death, v, vi, 1-3, 5-7, 12, 13, 23, 

35, 37. 38, 41-43. 45-47. 5i. 
59, 60, 62, 89, 100, 105, no, 
112, 113, 121, 125-127, 147, 

152, 154, 159. l6 °. J 73. I 7 6 , 
183-187, 189, 190, 193, 206, 
208, 209, 215, 221, 228-230, 
261, 265, 269, 272, 274, 279, 
282, 283, 295, 299-303, 306, 
310, 316, 321, 332, 339, 341, 
343- 348, 357, 382, 402, 405, 
407, 409, 412, 413, 415, 418- 
421, 423, 424, 426, 429, 431. 

Debates, 25, 29, 30, 35, 56, 165, 241, 
244, 251, 264. 

Debts, 35, 109, 122, 167, 170, 242, 
411, 422. 

Decennial, 346. 

Decisions, vii, 21, 23, 32, ^3> 35. 4©, 
48, 55, 61, 65, 113, 124, 133, 
134, 148, 150, 170, 199, 202, 
220, 236, 251, 254, 264, 293, 
294, 309, 313, 314, 396, 404, 406. 

Decline and Fall of the Roman 
Empire, 44, 45, 369. 

of Romanism, 169. 

Decretals of Gregory IX, 374. 

Dedications, 163, 235, 236, 240, 
250, 272, 273, 275-278, 280, 
289, 338, 345, 35o- 



Deer Park, Md., 2. 

Deerslayer, The, 47. 

Defender, the Dutch, 188, 191, 192. 

Defenders, 38, 39, 116, 118, 122, 

155. 236, 2 45. 3 J 9. 33t>> 397. 

412, 430. 
Deferential, 236. 

Deficiencies, 22, 40, 98, 120, 338. 
Degrees received, 48, 107, 144, 233, 

Deism, History of English, 142. 
Delavan House, Albany, 118. 
Delaware, 8, 11, 26, 241, 242, 273, 

338, 373- 
Avenue Church, Buffalo, 268, 

282, 283, 294, 295, 300. 

Conference, 273, 244. 

, O., 214, 292, 294, 345. 

River, 141, 142. 

Delegates, 200, 205, 220-222, 230, 

231, 249, 290, 306, 307, 356. 
Delicate position, a, 32. 
Delineation, 225, 273. 
Delitzsch, Franz and Friedrich, 

Delivery, 78, 129, 220, 221, 226, 

2 37. 35 6 . 4i8, 420, 421. 
Democratic, 38, 39, 398. 
Demon or angel, 316. 
Denham, Daniel, 408. 
Denman, J. C, 134, 135, 137. 
Denmark, 176, 251-254, 261, 262, 

33?- . 

Mission, 251-254, 261. 

Denominations, 147, 182, 190, 222, 
325. 326, 332, 333, 422, 423, 

Dentist, 248. 

Denunciations, 293, 310, 423. 

Denver, Col., 299, 309, 316, 403. 

De Pauw University, 233, 305. 

Deposit, N. Y., 141, 142. 

Depression, 46, 67, 104, 106, 108, 
119-121, 124, 419. 

Derby (Conn.) Public Library, 373. 

Descriptions, 8-1 1, 34, 39, 40, 51, 
69-92, 115, 152, 156, 166, 167, 
179-182, 185, 199, 200, 203, 
207, 208, 212, 213, 215-218, 
220, 221, 224—226, 232, 235, 
236, 252-261, 263-266, 269, 
275-278, 281, 290, 306, 310, 

3ii. 323. 324, 342-344, 347. 
348, 358, 359, 369-372, 377- 
380, 382-385, 387-392, 395- 
398, 407, 409-415, 423-425, 
Deserts, i^S, 1S0, 257, 287. 

Deserving, the, 430. 

Desires, 19, 21, 22, 27, 28, 32, 35, 
36, 46, 47, 53, 61, 65, 72, 117, 
119, 120-124, 137, 141, 146, 
149, 152, 159, 182, 185, 190, 
227, 231, 238, 242, 245, 264, 
270, 280, 281, 312, 324, 336, 

353- 35 6 , 3 6 °. 3 8o > 3 8 9. 409, 

414, 415, 428. 
Desk, v, 21, 81, 307, 360, 365. 
Des Moines, la., 229, 232, 235-250, 

285, 286, 297, 329, 373. 

Conference, 240. 

Details, 15, 50, 96, 136, 149, 153, 

154, 184, 190, 204, 222, 227, 

244, 267, 305, 326, 341, 398, 

Deterioration, 40. 
Detroit Conference, 273, 339, 425, 


, Mich., 200, 386. 

Development of the Servant into 

the Friend, 381. 
Devil, the, 99, 107, 216. 
De Vinne Press, the, 328. 
Devotion, 12, 26, 49, 60, 67, 100, 

142, 146, 159, 202, 214, 234, 

240, 248, 300, 396, 400, 401, 

414, 418, 419, 420, 422, 423, 

4?5. 429- 
Devotions, 132, 134, 202, 347. 
Dexter, Me., 291, 292. 
Dey Street House, New York, 68, 

Diary (see Journal). 

of Jacob Eliot, 371. 

Diaz, Porfirio, 368. 
Dibdin, Thomas F., 358. 
Dickens, Charles, 103, 366, 370. 
Dickinson, George F., 159. 
College, 23, 27-51, 54, 69, 94, 

107, 124, 144, 225, 233, 325, 

375- 379. 380, 385. 
Dickson, W. A., 334. 
Diction, 125, 126, 157, 195, 221, 

273. 3 26 . 400, 42^8. 
Diet, 35, 70, 78, 126, 127. 
Difficulties, 11, 17, 24, 41, 42, 56, 

96, ior, 107, 120, 123, 137- 

139, 169, 188, 189, 191, 227, 

238, 266, 292, 310, 319, 349, 

403, 414, 427. 
Diffidence, 47, 56. 
Dignity, 11, 49, 50, 57, 78, 200, 203, 

237, 242, 249, 279, 282, 294, 

342, 35 2 , 39 s . 4oo, 425, 428, 

Dilemmas, 80, 113, 344. 



Dillstown, Pa., 99, 102. 

Dinkens, Bird, 213. 

Dinners, 15, 37, 55, 74, 7 8 , 97~99, 

ioi, i2i, 125, 131, 132, 134, 

136, 140, 166, 170, 172, 175, 

180, 208, 215, 216, 220, 238, 

254, 256, 258, 263, 265, 352, 

364, 383- 
Dionysius de Burgo, 374. 

Diphtheria, 269. 

Diplomacy, 361. 

Directness, 38, 119, 136, 155. 

Disappointments, 21, 52, 63-68, 76, 

84, 116, 131, 133.231. 2 35- 241, 

3*9. 355- 
Discernment, 384. 

Disciples, 82, 381, 401, 414- 

Disciplinarians, 23, 53. 

Discipline, 155, 183-187, 270, 422. 

, first, 26. 

Disciplines, 26, 368. 

Discomforts, 77, 178, 239, 248, 250, 

Discord, 239. 

Discouragements, 120, 172. 
Discretion, 86, 165. 
Discrimination, 10, 93, 153, 154, 

226, 300, 346. 
Discursiveness, 197, 420, 421. 
Discussions, 37, 82, 156, 165, 182, 

244, 275, 284, 324, 333, 385, 

386, 394, 397. 420. 
Disgrace, 124. 
Disgust, 101, 134. 
Disosway, Gabriel P., 146. 
Dispersion of library, 368-375. 
Disposition, 7, 13, 20, 38, 47 _ 49. 

50, 82, 158, 198, 348, 399. 
Dissuasion, 58, 65, 247. 
Distances, 2, 13, 20, 37, 72, 76, 79, 

84, 87, 88, 101, 139, 141, 144, 

160, 162, 170, 175, 213, 214, 

236, 242, 248, 252, 257, 259, 

278, 281, 356, 359, 376, 377, 

403, 404. 
District Conferences, 201, 269, 351. 


Disturber, a, 129. 

Diversions, 51, 303. 

Diversity, 9, 10, 16, 140, 203, 211, 

222, 250, 260, 306, 359, 365, 

386, 422. 
Divinity, Doctor of, 144, 341, 400. 
Divisions in church, 138, 310. 
Doctor of Divinity, 144, 341, 400. 

of Laws, 233. 

Doctrinal Theology, 77, 125, 148, 

149, 164, 194. 

Doctrine, Christian, 149, 208, 222, 
228, 229, 287, 326, 337, 368, 

Dodd, John F., 160, 234. 

, Mead & Co., 328. 

Doering, C. H., 171, 215, 216. 

Doge's palace, the, Venice, 84. 

Dogmatics, 148. 

Dogs, 70, 180, 412, 413. 

Dom, the, Brunswick, 73. 

Domes, 85, 88, 89, 308, 321. 

Domesticity, 270. 

Domination, Spanish, 289. 

Donkeys, 87, 211, 243, 257. 

Doors, 38, 58, 107, 178, 180, 181, 
184, 207, 219, 244, 258, 301, 
306, 379, 380, 394, 411, 415- 

Dorchester Circuit, 4. 

County, Md., 1-6, 8, 10-12, 

14-16, 19-26, 34, 39, 40, 48, 
52, 62, 64, 67, 94-96- IOI > io 5> 

135, 236, 241, 248, 268, 269, 

272, 375. 43i- 
Dorset, Earl, 10. 
Dorsheimer, Mr., 98. 
Dothan, 179. 

Doubts, 46, 138, 148, 183, 393. 
Dougherty, T., 96. 
Douglass, Fred, 11. 
Dover, England, 72. 
Doves, 255, 274. 

Dowelltown, Tenn., 338, 382, 406. 
"Down at the cross," 265, 266. 
Doxology, 137, 266. 
Dragoman, 178, 179. 
Dramatics, 56, 61, 62, 121, 289. 
Drawers, 78, 123, 257, 258, 359. 
Dreamer, the, 264. 315, 319-321. 
Dreams, 76, 85, 87, no, 180, 215, 

228, 256, 264, 315, 319, 372, 

39°. 39 *• 
Drenloe, Gap of, 215. 
Dresden, 80, 81, 83, 262. 
Dress, 2, 14, 46, 49, 64, 68, 71, 101, 

136, 139, 140, 195, 213, 232, 

255. 387. 423- 

Drew, Daniel, 163, 194, 203-206, 
208, 210, 211, 233, 234, 411. 

Theological Seminary, vii, 

163, 167, 171, 193-212, 215, 
221, 223, 224, 226-234, 285, 
299. 301, 317. 320, 325, 329, 
33°' 337- 338, 341, 342, 35°. 
397, 409, 411, 413, 414, 416- 
423, 430, 431. 

Drift of Great Books, 364. 

Drives, 63, 66, 118, 127, 140, 143, 
144, 174, 175, 207, 244, 248, 



254-056. 258, 275, 281, 313, 

3*5- 35 1 . 353, 362, 363, 403, 

Dropsy, 42, 43. 
Druses, 260. 

Dry, 44. 5 6 , l8 °- 

Dryden, John, 24, 366, 370. 

Dryer, George H., 395. 

Dry-goods store, 216. 

Dublin, 215. 

DuBois, Pa., 337. 

Ducks, 10, 14, 18. 

Dunes, 277. 

Dunlap, Samuel B., 96, 98, 99, 100. 

Duplicate volumes, 247, 302, 364, 

Duplicity, 400. 

Dupont Circle, Washington, 403. 
Durbin, John P., 165. 
Diisseldorf, 177. 
Dust, 2, 56, 74. 270, 299, 392, 393, 

413. 421. 
Dutch, 188, 191, 192, 208. 
Reformed, 106, 117, 120, 

122, 423, 424. 
Dutcher, Rev. Mr., 140. 
Duty, 29, 34, 47, 120, 125, 149, 150, 

194, 200, 210, 271, 277, 305, 

3 r 3- 354. 421, 422. 
Duvall, Andrew B., 299, 408. 
Dwight, W., 127. 

Eager, 19, 83, 166, 172, 266,360, 372. 

Eagle eye, 338. 

Eames, Wilberforce, 328. 

Earlv Christian Life, 331. 

'Church, 288, 385. 

newspapers, 366, 374. 

printing, 366, 370. 

Earnest. 24, 25, 38, 42, 47, 73, 82- 
84, 99, 119, 120, 122, 123, 126, 
134, 152, 159, 199, 206, 230, 
259. 264, 304, 312, 322, 339, 
340, 343. 353. 354. 361, 377- 
3 8 3. 394, 407, 43 !• 

Ears, vii, 17, 99, 109, 168, 283, 311. 

Earthquake, 410. 

Ease, 21, 46, 146, 156, 199, 206, 223, 
237. 259, 269, 279, 292, 300, 

352, 35 6 , 384. 395. 398, 411. 

421, 427, 428. 
East, the, 178-181, 256-261, 263- 

267, 431. 
Baltimore Conference, 96, 98, 


College, Dickinson, 31, 45. 

German Conference, 173, 242, 

272, 3°4, 344- 

East Maine Conference, 291, 292. 

Ohio Conference, 292, 294. 

Tennessee Conference, 268, 

Easter, 32, 88, 89, 

3 01 - 39 r 
Eastern Shore, Md. 

164, 174, 177, 
, 8-1 1, 15-17, 

27, 41, 47, 48, 
289, 431. 
Easton, Md., 7. 
. Whig, 39, 43. 

82, 100, 281, 

Eating in excess, 34, 41, 45, 46, 126, 

_ I2 7- i35. 138, 141- 
Eaton, Ephraim L., 247. 

, Mrs., 105. 

Ebenezer, Ga., 281. 

Eccentricities, 82. 

Ecclesiology, 162, 172, 226, 284, 

332, 385, 427. 
Echoes, 75, 277, 312. 
Eclipse of conscience, 156. 
Economy of time, 82, 112, 260, 286, 

364^ 377. 380, 388, 389, 410, 

Ecumenical Methodist Conferences, 

305-308, 344, 350, 355-357, 

362, 384- 
Missionary Conference, 350, 


Edifying. 382, 412, 418. 
Edinburgh, 137, 190, 191 

, steamer, 93. 

Editions, no, 153, 154, 
229, 287, 328, 358, 

215, 263. 

188, 227- 

3 6l > 3 6 3. 

365-367. 369. 37°. 374, 423- 
Editor, 193, 228, 229, 326, 332. 
Editorials, 285, 299, 300, 385, 386, 

399, 420-425. 
Editors, no, 112, 114, 116, 119, 

122-124, 131, 142, 147, 154, 

155- J 57- 161-164, 167-170, 

172, 173, 176, 181, 187-194, 
198, 206, 209—214, 218, 222, 
225, 228-233, 241, 251-254, 

267, 271, 274, 280, 282, 286, 
287, 290, 299, 300, 307, 310, 
311, 314, 3 r 7, 3 J 9. 320, 324, 
326, 330-336, 341-343. 346, 
363. 364. 369, 376, 382-388, 
394, 399, 400, 403, 416, 420- 
425, 428, 429. 

Education, vii, 13, 15, 17, 19-25, 
27-51, 60-68, 73, 74, 77-83, 
90, 93, 112, 124, 145, 147-150, 
152, i55. J 56, 161-165, 167- 

173, 193-212, 214, 218, 219, 
225, 230, 231, 236, 243, 240. 

268, 274, 289, 296, 312-321, 



33 2 > 339. 345- 346, 382, 385, 

Education, Moral, 39. 

, Pleasures of, 36, 39. 

Educators, vi, 27, 53, 61, 63, 69, 73, 
77-80, 82, 91, 93, 95, 96, 104, 
137, 144, 145, 148, 155-157, 
160, 163, 168, 171, 175, 176, 
188-198, 201, 205-207, 210, 
211, 214-217, 219, 221-229, 
2 3 I-2 33- 260, 296, 3 l6 > 3*7. 
319, 320, 325, 327, 330, 332, 
333< 337- 340-342, 345. 349. 
35i. 353- 360, 362, 363, 368, 
379. 384, 386, 387, 395, 397- 
399, 401, 406-413, 416, 418, 
419, 421, 423, 425-427, 429. 

Edwards, Arthur, 362. 

, Jonathan, 368. 

, William S., 282, 301, 400. 

Effective, 16, 109, in, 129, 172, 

198, 221, 244, 268, 305, 306, 

343. 35°. 384, 386, 397-399- 
418, 420, 430. 

Efforts (see Worker). 

Eggleston, Edward, 212, 213, 377. 

Eggs, 179, 220. 

Egotistic, 107, 203, 396. 

Egypt, 42, 177, 178, 180, 218, 256, 

257, 264, 387- 

Ehrenbreitstein, 91. 

Eighty Years of Congregational 
History, 386. 

Eisenach, 79. 

Elasticity, 212. 

Elbingerode, 76. 

El Chico, Mexico, 275. 

Elder's orders, no, 130, 160, 244, 
348, 353. 

Elections, 29, 36, 42, 44, 47, 52, 53, 
56, 99, 104, 144, 148, 168, 194, 
198, 205, 230, 231, 233, 234, 
240, 242, 258, 264, 267, 274, 
290, 296, 304, 305, 318, 332, 

344, 347. 352, 400, 4i8, 422, 

429. 43 1 - 
Elector, Hall of Fame, 352. 

Electricity, 356. 

Elegance, 273, 326, 400. 

Elevations, 8, 50, 55, 118, 259, 320, 

Elijah, 316, 380. 
Eliot, Charles W., 345. 

•, Jacob, 371. 

, John, 366, 369. 

Elizabeth, N. J., 133-143, 153, 173, 

297. 378, 395- 408. 

Elizabeth Avenue Church, Eliza- 
beth, 133. 

Christine, 297, 298. 

Elizabethport, N. J., 128-134, 242, 

2 97- 

Elliott, George, 299. 

Ellis, Mrs. C. W., 345. 

Elmira, N. Y., 279. 

Elmore, Jennie La Monte, 151, 298. 

, Mr., 1 16. 

Elocution (see Voice). 

Eloquence, in, 114, 129, 162, 193, 
201, 235, 237, 241, 242, 264, 
290, 306-308, 337, 356, 422. 

El Paso, Tex., 345, 346. 

Eltzholtz, Carl F., 253. 

Elzevir press, 366. 

Embraces, 173, 277, 395. 

Emergencies, 198, 210, 266, 359, 

Emeritus, Chancellor, 319. 

Emery, Matthew G., 402. 

Emory, John, 266. 

, Samuel W., 36, 47. 

Emotions, 23, 26, 60, 61, 72, 84, 85, 
97, 98, 108, 116, 118, 122, 125, 
150, 161, 190, 209, 221, 241, 
242, 246, 265, 269, 281, 293, 
301, 306, 339, 340, 342, 351, 

359. 364, 37°. 389. 405, 407- 

Emperors, 74, 87, 254. 

Ems, 91. 

Encounters, 20, 199, 200, 269. 

Encouragements, vii, 4, 27, 36, 39, 
56, 61, 73, 95, 97, 98, 104, 107, 
108, no, 112, 114, 115, 124, 
159, 245, 254, 280, 315, 317, 
320, 393. 

Encyclopaedia, 77. 

and Methodology, 228, 286, 


Endings, vi, 24, ^t,, 44, 55, 61, 116, 
142, 143, 146, 153, 188-191, 
200, 202, 221-223, 262, 298, 

3°5. 3*5. 321, 323. 334, 354, 
387, 402. 

Endor, 179. 

Endowments, 38, 163, 168, 194, 

199, 204-211, 215, 223, 226, 

23°. 232-234, 312, 319, 411, 
414, 415, 418-420, 430, 431. 

Energy, 16, 26, 29, 82, 143, 150, 

211, 222, 296, 321, 343, 348, 

353. 383. 389. 409, 411, 4i5. 

419, 423, 427, 431. 
Engadine Valley, 166, 175. 
Engagements, 59, 64-68, 243, 354. 

45 6 


England, v, i, 10, 12, 34, 36, 42, 

71, 7 2 , 8 3. 9°. 9 2 . 93- Io8 > x 53. 
161, 207, 215, 218, 227, 257, 
262, 263, 274, 280, 303, 304, 
307. 312. 3 2 °. 3«i 3 2 5. 3 2 7. 
3 2 9. 334, 355-357. 3^ 2 , 364- 
37 2 - 374, 383, 384, 386, 388, 
392, 399, 402, 414. 
English, 19, 28, 54, 61, 62, 70, 86, 
125, 126, 148, 164, 172, 188- 
192, 212, 221—225, 227, 242, 
272, 277, 287, 290, 324, 331, 

344, 349. 35 1 , 386, 41 2 , 4 2 4- 

Channel, 71, 262. 

Literature, 329. 

press, 367, 370, 386. 

Englishmen, 10, 70, 91, 142, 171, 

176, 180, 227, 258. 
Engravings, 367, 369, 372. 

Enjoyment, 15, 17, 22 > 2 3> 3 2 > 3 6 > 
41-44, 46, 47, 60, 66, 72, 83, 
91, 103, 120, 122, 164, 168, 
171, 201, 225, 358, 377-38o, 
395, 400, 403, 406. 

Enlivening, 156, 164, 293, 344, 383. 

Ennalls Springs, 6. 

Ensign, Angeline, 296. 

Entertaining, 32, 82, 141, 377, 379. 

Entertainment, 6, 116, 117, 140, 
142, 143, 168, 303, 306, 338, 

35?- 353, 364, 377-379- 
Enthusiasm, 46, 82, 165, 204, 214, 

3 2 4, 34*, 37°, 37 x , 400,414, 420. 
Enunciation, 105, 106, in. 
Envy, 40, 159, 180, 199, 361. 
Ephesus, 260. 
Ephrata, Pa., 366. 
Epicurean, the, Moore's, 371. 
Episcopacy, 230, 231, 233, 315, 363, 

398, 399- 4i8, 4 2 3, 426. 
Episcopal service, 353. 
Epistles, 127, 188-192, 381. 
Epworth, 262, 307. 

Herald, 386. 

League, 349. 

Equator, 266, 267, 412. 
Equipment, 22, 28, 56, 60, 62, 82, 

93, 109, 115, 120, 149, 156, 

163, 164, 193, 199, 208, 244, 

. 2 59, 33*> 33 2 - 355- 4 22 , 426. 
Equipoise, 428. 
Erasmus, 174, 367. 
Erfurt, 79. 

Erie Conference, 337. 
Erikson, J. M., 252, 261, 361, 362. 
Error, 155. 
Errors, 36, 105, 106, 124, 125, 149, 

155, 195- 

Esau, dragoman, 179, 180. 
Escapes, 14, 34, 87, 88, 101, 127, 

179, 181, 182, 257, 258, 277, 

Escorts, 85, 182, 218, 219. 
Essayists, 24, 36, 42, 50, 108, 365, 

3 66 , 37°- 
Essays, 29, 62, 126, 132, 296, 322, 


Essex Institute, 372, 374. 

Estates, 203, 205, 207. 

Esteem, 4, 24, 50, 59, 114, 118, 126, 
158, 210, 234, 268, 296, 302, 
3 2 4, 347, 348, 382, 398, 405, 
417, 426. 

Esther, 190. 

Estimates, vi, 154, 188, 194, 223, 
318, 381. 

Estrangement of the Masses, 279. 

Eternity, 60, 82, 135, 214. 

Etheridge, J. W., 126. 

Ethical, 296. 

Ethnology, 324, 361. 

Etruscans, 87. 

Etter, J. W., 325. 

Eurasians, 258. 

Eureka, 313, 372. 

Euripides, 41. 

Europe, 1, 10, 12, 31, 34, 36, 42, 
43> 46, 50, 55, 60-94, 103, 106, 
108, 155, 161-178, 181-192, 
207, 212, 213, 215-222, 251- 
256, 261-263, 271, 280, 288, 
290, 297, 298, 303, 304, 307, 
312, 320, 321, 323, 325-327, 

3 2 9, 33°. 333-335, 353-357, 
361, 362, 364, 366-372, 375- 

377, 383-389, 39 1 - 392, 395, 

397, 399- 402, 403, 405, 406, 

412, 414, 415, 418, 421, 423- 

425, 429, 431. 
Evangelical, 155, 191, 289, 304, 341, 

Alliance, 218, 220-222, 253, 

279, 344, 388, 396. 
Evangelism, 112, 120, 356,359,431. 
Evangelistic, 341. 
Evangelists, 120, 267-304, 392. 
Evanston, 111., 243, 337. 
Evening Post, New York, 185. 
Everett, Edward, 101. 
Evidences of Christianity, ^^, 37, 

42, 228, 229. 
Evil, 33, 46, 107, 156, 210, 255, 293. 
Examinations, 2, 37, 44. 47, 48, 99, 

100, 116, 133, 138, 176, 182, 

184, 230, 231, 253, 281, 335, 

357, 361, 328. 



Example, 6, 12, 25, 28, 99, 101, 

124, 145. !59. l8o > 2 59. 3°4. 

306, 342, 357, 366, 394, 410. 
Excavations, 256. 
Exclusiveness, 337. 
Excursions (see Traveler). 
Executive ability, 198, 203, 305, 

344, 399. 419. 420, 423, 427, 

429-43 1 - 
Exegesis, 104, 124, 126, 127, 148, 

164, 188-192, 196, 205, 273, 

368, 374- 
Exercise, 33, 35-37, 42, 51, 74. 77, 

109, 119, 132, 162, 344, 375, 

37<5, 427- 
Exhibitions, 29, 52, 56, 62. 
Exhortations, vi, 97, 99, 104, 137, 

140, 141, 155, 266, 283, 

Exiles, 71, 281, 385. 
Exodus, 102, 104. 
Expansion, 11, 325, 329, 336, 346. 
Expectations, 21, 25, 32, 43, 45, 63, 

64, 66, 67, 71, 73, 94, 96, 97, 

99, 104-106, 121, 127, 133, 135, 

136, 142, 148, 150, 159, 168, 
177, 183, 184, 200, 231, 235, 
275, 301, 317, 383, 384, 409, 

Expenses, 46-48, 78, 109, 127, 129, 
142, 203, 209, 210, 218, 230, 
250, 275, 321, 327, 346, 373. 

Experience, Christian, 25, 26, 82, 
233, 299, 304, 312, 321, 382, 

Experiences, 30, 42, 52, 60, 79, 83, 
93. 95. 103. "5. I2 o, 208, 210, 
224, 235, 261, 266, 270, 291, 
326, 328, 357, 364, 382, 391. 

Explanations, 200, 258, 378, 394. 

Expositio Psalteri, 374. 

Exposition, Paris, 164, 174. 

Hall, Omaha, 316. 

Extempore speaking, 121, 134, 135, 

137. 420. 
Extra-illustrated books, 366, 369, 


Extravagance, 47, 48. 

Eyebrows, 232. 

Eyelids, 200, 359. 

Eyes, v, 5-7, 36, 55, 59, 132, 161, 
164, 167, 168, 179, 194, 204, 
215, 241, 265, 287, 299, 313, 
3*9, 321, 33 8 > 342, 348, 349, 
3 6 °. 3 6 5, 37i, 372, 3 8o > 39°, 
410, 411, 413, 417, 424, 431. 

Ezekiel, 413. 

Ezra, iqo. 

F Street, Washington, 403. 

Fables, 300, 366. 

Faces, 13, 25, 43, 57, 69, 72, 85, 

132, 151, 167, 204, 232, 235, 

245, 266, 267, 290, 313, 338, 

356, 403, 405, 409. 
Facets, 357. 
Facsimile, 328. 
Factories, 16, 122, 410. 
Factory ville, N. Y., 143-147. 

, Pa., 144- 

Facts, vi, 124, 155, 162, 210, 225, 

241, 245, 266, 303, 325, 391, 

427, 43°- 
Faculty, 28, ^, 38, 50, 52, 53, 56, 
58, 82, 163, 193, 195, 198, 204- 
207, 209, 211, 219, 223, 234, 

3 l6 , 3 r 9, 337, 39 6 . 4". 
Fads, 158. 

Failure of the New Theologies, 289. 

Failures, 98, ior, 106, 111-113, 124, 

126, 127, 134, 137, 204, 208, 
222, 234, 235. 

Fainting, 134, 144. 

Fairall, H. H., 181, 387, 388. 

Fairbury, 111., 237. 

Fairies, 365. 

Fairness, 154, 238, 331, 349. 

Faith, 12, 20, 25, 34, 36, 47, 72, 82, 

91, 97-100, 104, 109, in, 122, 

127, 139, 143, 150, 155, 185, 
202, 207-21